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Introduction to Data

Communications and
Computer Networks
COSC 121 Data Communications
Mr. Rendel Edison O. Sinag

Data Communications

Concerns with the transmission of digital

messages to devices external to the
message source. "External" devices are
generally thought of as being independently
powered circuitry that exists beyond the
chassis of a computer or other digital
message source.

Data Communications

Data Communications is the transfer of

digital or analog data using digital and
analog signals. Once created, these analog
and digital signals then are transmitted over
conducted media or wireless media.

Data and Signals


These are information that has been

translated into a form that is more
conductive to storage, transmission and

Is a medium for transmitting data.

Both data and signal can be analog and

digital, allowing four possible combinations
of transmission:
Analog data transmitted by analog
Digital data transmitted by digital signals;
Digital data transmitted by analog
signals, e.g. modems and telephone
Analog data transmitted by digital
signals, e.g. digitizer or codec.

Communication Channels





Full-Duplex Channel

communications channel is a
pathway over which information can
be conveyed.


may be defined by a physical wire

that connects communicating
devices, or by a radio, laser, or other
radiated energy source that has no
obvious physical presence.

Information sent through a communication

channel has a source from which the
information originates, and a destination
to which the information is delivered.

Communication Model/Structure





Types of Communication
- if the communicating device are in
the same area.
- if the device are farther apart.

Fundamental Characteristics
of Data Communication
The effectiveness of a data communication system
depends on three characteristics.
- The system must deliver data to the correct
- The system must deliver data accurately.
- The system must deliver data in a timely


Is the transmission of multiple signals on

one medium. For a medium to transmit
signals simultaneously, the signals must be
altered so that they do not interfere with
one another.

Overview of Computer Networks

A computer network is an interconnection

of computers and computing equipment
using either wires or radio waves and can
share data and computing resources.

A network is any collection of independent

computers that communicate with one
another over a shared network medium.

The Big Picture of Computer


Components of a Network

Workstations, which are personal

computers/microcomputers (desktops,
laptops, netbooks, handhelds, etc.) where
users reside

Servers, which are the computers that

store network software and shared or
private user files

Components of a Network

Switches, which are the collection points

for the wires that interconnect the

Routers, which are the connecting devices

between local area networks and wide area

Some specialized network terms


Node any device connected to a network.

Client node requesting resources.
Server node providing resources.
Directory server specialized node that
manages resources.

Computer Network Types

Personal Area Network (PAN)
- smallest network which is very personal to a
- this may include Bluetooth enabled devices
or infra-red enabled devices with a connectivity
range up to 10 meters

Computer Network Types

Local Area Network (LAN)
- A computer network spanned inside a
building and operated under single
administrative system.

Computer Network Types

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
- Generally expands throughout a city such as
cable TV network.
- MAN can help an organization to connect all
of its offices in a City.

Computer Network Types

Wide Area Network (WAN)
- This network covers a wide area which may
span across provinces and even a whole country.
- WAN uses very expensive network equipment.

Computer Network Types

- A network of networks is called
or simply Internet. It is the
largest network
in existence on this planet.

- Internet enables its users to share and access

enormous amount of information worldwide.

Communication +
Microcomputer-to-local area network

Local area network-to-local area network
Personal area network-to-workstation
Local area network-to-metropolitan area
Local area network-to-wide area network
Wide area network-to-wide area network
Sensor-to-local area network
Satellite and microwave
Cell phones
Terminal/microcomputer-to-mainframe computer

Microcomputer to LAN

The microcomputer-to-local area network

layout is found in virtually every business
and academic environment and even in
many homes.

Microcomputer PC, desktop computer,

laptop, notebook, netbook or workstation.

Microcomputer to LAN

LAN is an excellent tool for providing a

gateway to other networks, software, and

Users can also internet, which was also

provided by LAN

If users wish to print documents on a

network printer, the LAN also contains
software to print to the printer.

Microcomputer to Internet

To communicate with the Internet using a dialup, DSL, or cable modem connection, a users
computer must connect to another computer
already communicating with the Internet.

The Internet talks only TCP/IP, so users must

use software that supports the TCP and IP
protocols. Once the users computer is talking
TCP/IP, a connection to the Internet can be

LAN to LAN layouts

For example, a company may want the local

area network that supports its research
department to share an expensive color
printer with its marketing departments
local area network.

Fortunately, it is possible to connect two

local area networks so that they can share
peripherals as well as software. The devices
that usually connect two or more LANs are
the switch and router.

PAN Workstation layouts

Using wireless transmissions with devices

such as personal digital assistants (PDAs),
laptop computers, and portable music
players, an individual can transfer voice,
data, and music from handheld devices to
other devices such as microcomputer

LAN MAN layouts

Metropolitan Area Network provides

interconnection uses only fiber-optic links at
extremely high speeds.

Metropolitan area networks are a cross

between local area networks and wide area
networks. They can transfer data at fast
LAN speeds but over larger geographic
regions than typically associated with a
local area network.

LAN WAN layouts

A device called a router is employed to

connect these two networks. A router
converts the local area network data into
wide area network data.

It also performs security functions and must

be properly programmed to accept or reject
certain types of incoming and outgoing data

WAN WAN layouts

Connecting a wide area network to a wide

area network requires special devices that
can route data traffic quickly and efficiently.
These devices are high-speed routers.

As the data packet travels across the

Internet, router after router makes a routing
decision, moving the data toward its final

Sensor LAN layouts

the action of a person or object triggers a

sensorfor example, a left-turn light at a
traffic intersectionthat is connected to a

Satellite and microwave


If the distance between two networks is

great and running a wire between them
would be difficult (if not impossible),
satellite and microwave transmission
systems can be an extremely effective way
to connect the two networks or computer

E.g. digital satellite TV, meteorology,

intelligence operations, mobile maritime
telephony, GPS navigation systems, wireless
e-mail, worldwide mobile telephone
systems, and video conferencing.

Cellular phone Layouts

The PDA has a modem installed, which

transmits the PDAs data across the cell
phone network to the cell phone switching

The switching center then transfers the

PDAs data over the public telephone
network or through a connection onto the

Workstation - Mainframe

During the 1960s and 1970s, the terminal-tomainframe layout was in virtually every office,
manufacturing, and academic environment.

These types of systems are still being used for

inquiry/response applications, interactive
applications, and data-entry applications, such
as you might find when applying for a new
drivers license at the Department of Motor

Factors that affect the

performance of a network
1. Number of users
2. Type of transmission medium
3. Capabilities of the connected
4. Efficiency of software.

1. Using a laptop computer with a wireless
connection to a companys local area
network, you download a Web page from
the Internet. List all the different network
layouts involved in this operation. Justify
your answers.

2. You are sitting at the local coffee shop,
enjoying your favorite latte. You pull out
your laptop and, using the wireless network
available at the coffee shop, access your
email. List all the different network layouts
involved in this operation.

3. With your new cell phone, you have just
taken a snapshot of your best friend. You
decide to send this snapshot to the e-mail
account of a mutual friend across the
country. List all the different network
layouts involved in this operation.

4. You are driving in a new city and have just
gotten lost. Using your cars built-in
navigational system, you submit a request
for driving directions from a nearby
intersection to your destination. List all the
different network layouts involved in this

5. You are sending and receiving text
(instant) messages (IMs) with a friend. Is
this IM session a logical connection or a
physical connection? Explain your answer.