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REFRIGERATION

DEFINITION:

IS THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING AND

MAINTAINING A TEMPERATURE OF A SPACE LOWER

THAN THAT OF SURROUNDING BY THE REMOVAL OF

HEAT.

High Temperature

Reservoir

Heat Rejected Work R Input
Heat
Rejected
Work
R
Input
REFRIGERATION DEFINITION: IS THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING A TEMPERATURE OF A SPACE LOWER THAN
 

Heat

Low Temperature Absorbed

Reservoir

COMPRESSOR

EVAPORATOR

EXPANSION VALVE

CONDENSER
CONDENSER

REFRIGERATION

REFRIGERATION Heat and Work Interactions in refrigeration systems

Heat and Work Interactions in refrigeration systems

B. Carnot Refrigerator Processes

  • 1 to 2 - Compression (S

C)

=

2

to 3

= C)

 

3

to

T

4

4

to

1

  • C) T

H

- Heat Rejection (T

- Expansion (S = C)

Q R 3 2 4 1 Q A
Q R
3
2
4
1
Q A

- Heat Addition (T =

T L

S

Brayton Refrigeration Cycle

The working fluids of vapor-compression

systems undergo liquid-to-vapor phase

change. In Brayton refrigeration

systems the working fluid remains a gas

The throughout. Brayton

refrigeration

cycle is the

reverse of the

Brayton power

cycle introduced

in Sec. 9.6 as

shown in the

Brayton Refrigeration Cycle • The working fluids of vapor-compression systems undergo liquid-to-vapor phase change. In Brayton

figure.

Brayton Refrigeration Cycle

The processes of this cycle are

Process 1-2: the refrigerant gas,

which may be air, enters the

compressor at state 1 and is

compressed to state 2.

Process 2-3: The gas is cooled by

heat transfer to the warm region

at temperature T H .

Process 3-4: The gas expands

through the turbine to state 4,

where the temperature, T 4 , is well

below T C .

Brayton Refrigeration Cycle ► The processes of this cycle are Process 1-2 : the refrigerant gas

passes Process cold from region 4-1: state is Refrigeration achieved 4 to state through 1, of completing the the cycle.

The work developed by the turbine assists in driving the

heat transfer from the cold region

compressor.

to the

as as it

Brayton Refrigeration Cycle

The coefficient of performance of the cycle

is

Brayton Refrigeration Cycle The coefficient of performance of the cycle is (Eq. 10.11)

(Eq. 10.11)

Brayton Refrigeration Cycle The coefficient of performance of the cycle is (Eq. 10.11)

INTRODUCTION

Why do we need air

conditioning ??

INTRODUCTION Why do we need air conditioning ?? 10000 Press .15 bar m Temp -50 C

10000

Press

.15 bar

m

 
 

Temp

-50 C

Ground

Press.

1 bar

level

 

At high altitudes

Conditions are not in conformity with the

physiological requirement of human being

As the atmospheric pressure drops, the quantity

of oxygen, CO 2 and water in each lungful of air

decreases proportionally

Reduction in pressure causes irregularities like

Bleeding through nose, ears, eyes etc

The TEMPERATURE goes up due to the following

reasons-

The TEMPERATURE goes up due to the following reasons- Occupants Solar radiation Air resistance Electric appliance

Occupants

Solar radiation

Air
Air

resistance

The TEMPERATURE goes up due to the following reasons- Occupants Solar radiation Air resistance Electric appliance

Electric

appliance

s

Rammi

ng

Cooling

loads

Air resistance

Cooling loads Air resistance  Heat liberated due to fast moving air relative to plane Ramming

Heat liberated due to fast moving air relative to

plane

Ramming

At a velocity = 300m/s and temp. = 10 C and

Press.= .3 bar

With ramming efficiency = 90 %

Electric Temp appliances rise is 40 C

Medium sized plane

Power consumed = 10 – 15 KW which

results in temp. rise of ~ 45 C

Solar Radiation  through the plane body  through the glass panels Occupants Variation of Temp.

Solar Radiation

through the plane body through the glass panels

Occupants

Variation of Temp. & press. With Altitude

person at rest liberates 300 kJ/hr

Actual conditioning in airplane

Cabin pressure = .8 Bar

reduction in energy requirement for compression

reduction in cooling load

Example

10 km

Press

Temp

.15

-50 C

bar

1 Bar

Work

Comp.

done

Temp

 

131

353 K

KJ/Kg

.8 Bar

Work

Comp.

done

Temp

CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM-

  • 1. Basic or Simple air-refrigeration system

    • a. Without evaporative cooling

    • b. With evaporative cooling

  • 2. Bootstrap air-refrigeration System

    • c. Without evaporative cooling

    • d. With evaporative cooling

  • 3. Regenerative air-refrigeration system

  • 4. Reduced ambient air-refrigeration system

  • BASIC AIR- REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    BASIC AIR- REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Fig#1 BASIC AIR-REFRIGERATION SYSTEM (WITHOUT EVAPORATIVE COOLING)

    Fig#1 BASIC AIR-REFRIGERATION SYSTEM (WITHOUT EVAPORATIVE COOLING)

    BASIC AIR- REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Fig#3

    BASIC AIR-REFRIGERATION SYSTEM (WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING)

    BOOTSTRAP AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    BOOTSTRAP AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Fig#5 BOOTSTRAP AIR-REFERIGERATION SYSTEM

    Fig#5 BOOTSTRAP AIR-REFERIGERATION SYSTEM

    BOOTSTRAP AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    BOOTSTRAP AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Fig#7 BOOTSTRAP AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING

    Fig#7

    BOOTSTRAP AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING

    Air-refrigeration Cycle With Refrigeration

    Fig#8 Air-refrigeration Cycle With Refrigeration

    Reduced Ambient Air-Refrigeration Cycle

    Reduced Ambient Air-Refrigeration Cycle

    REFRIGERATION

    REFRIGERATION

    REFRIGERATION

    P-H diagram for VCR systems
    P-H diagram for VCR
    systems

    Schematic

    Diagram

    Schematic Diagram Q (Heat Rejected) 2 Condenser Compressor 3 Expansion Valve 1 4 W (Work) Evaporator

    Q R (Heat

    Rejected) 2 Condenser
    Rejected)
    2
    Condenser

    Compressor

    3

    Schematic Diagram Q (Heat Rejected) 2 Condenser Compressor 3 Expansion Valve 1 4 W (Work) Evaporator

    Expansion

    Valve

    1
    1
    Schematic Diagram Q (Heat Rejected) 2 Condenser Compressor 3 Expansion Valve 1 4 W (Work) Evaporator
    4
    4
    Schematic Diagram Q (Heat Rejected) 2 Condenser Compressor 3 Expansion Valve 1 4 W (Work) Evaporator

    W (Work)

    Evaporator
    Evaporator

    Q A (Heat

    Added)

    Ph and TS Diagram

    T P 3 2 S = C 4 1 h
    T
    P
    3
    2
    S = C
    4
    1
    h
    2 3 h = C 4 1 S
    2
    3
    h = C
    4
    1
    S

    Cascade

    System

    A. Closed cascade

    condenser

    Condenser

    Cascade System A. Closed cascade condenser Condenser Cascade Condenser Evaporator HP Compressor LP Compressor
    Cascade System A. Closed cascade condenser Condenser Cascade Condenser Evaporator HP Compressor LP Compressor
    Cascade System A. Closed cascade condenser Condenser Cascade Condenser Evaporator HP Compressor LP Compressor
    Cascade Condenser Evaporator
    Cascade
    Condenser
    Evaporator

    HP Compressor

    LP Compressor

    B. Direct Contact type cascade

    condenser

    Condenser

    B. Direct Contact type cascade condenser Condenser HP Compressor Cascade Condenser Evaporator LP Compressor
    B. Direct Contact type cascade condenser Condenser HP Compressor Cascade Condenser Evaporator LP Compressor
    B. Direct Contact type cascade condenser Condenser HP Compressor Cascade Condenser Evaporator LP Compressor

    HP Compressor

    B. Direct Contact type cascade condenser Condenser HP Compressor Cascade Condenser Evaporator LP Compressor

    Cascade

    Condenser Evaporator
    Condenser
    Evaporator
    B. Direct Contact type cascade condenser Condenser HP Compressor Cascade Condenser Evaporator LP Compressor

    LP Compressor

    Vapour absorption Refrigeration System:

    It

    is

    a

    heat

    operated

    unit

    which

    uses

    a

    refrigerant

    that

    is

    alternatively absorbed and liberated from the absorbent.

    In this system, the compressor is replaced by an absorber generator and a pump involving the less mechanical work.

    Vapour absorption Refrigeration System: It is a heat operated unit which uses a refrigerant that is

    Aqua – Ammonia Refrigeration Systems:

    This is most commonly used cycle. Ammonia – is used as Refrigerant Water – as Absorbent. The following components are used in this refrigeration system.

    Analyzer:

    It removes the water vapour partially by passing strong solution into it, otherwise it will lead freezing at the throttle valve.

    Rectifier:

    Rectifier removes the remaining water vapour by providing water cooling.

    Absorber:

    When ammonia dissolves in water, heat is released which reduces the absorption capacity. So, Water is circulated around the absorber by spraying the cooled weak NH3, solution. This external cooling increases

    the absorption capacity of the weak NH3 Solution.

    Lithium Bromide – Water systems:

    Refrigerant – Water

    ;

    Absorbent – Lithium Bromide

    Lithium bromide has strong affinity for water vapour due

    its low vapour pressure.

    It absorbs the water vapour as fast as it is released in the

    evaporator.

    Advantages of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems:

    1. Less noise

    • 2. Low maintenance cost due to very little wear.

    • 3. System does not depend upon electric power.

    • 4. Suitable for above 1000 TR.

    Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems

    • 1. Moving part is pump only. Hence less wear and operation is quiet.

    • 2. More equipments like Absorber, rectifier, analyzer, pump, generator, evaporator, condenser, heat exchanger are required.

    • 3. It doesn’t depend on electricity. It can be operated using solar system also.

    • 4. Maintenance cost is low.

    • 5. The liquid traces from the evaporator constitute no danger.

    • 6. Automatic operation for controlling the capacity is easy.

    Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems

    • 1. Moving parts are in compressor makes more noise, wear and tear.

    • 2. Less components like Compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator are required.

    The

    • 3. compressor

    consumes more

    power.

    • 4. Maintenance cost is high.

    • 5. The liquid traces

    from

    the

    evaporator to the compressor may

    damage the compressor.

    • 6. operation

    Automatic

    for

    controlling

    the

    capacity

    is

    difficult.

    • 7. More space is required.

    • 8. The system has poor performance at partial load.

    • 9. Suitable for only small capacities only.

    TYPE OF AIR-CONDITIONING

    1) Window air-conditioning system 2) Split air-conditioning system 3) Centralised air-conditioning system 4) Package air-conditioning system

    1) Windows Air-conditioning System

    Window air conditioners are one of the most

    commonly used and cheapest type of air

    conditioners.

    To install one of these units, you need the space

    to make a slot in the wall, and there should also

    be some open space behind the wall.

    Window air-conditioner units are reliable and

    simple-to-install solution to keep a room cool

    while avoiding the costly construction of a central

    air system.

    Better yet, when the summer heat dies down,

    these units can be easily removed for storage,

    and you can use the window sill for other purpose

    2) Split Air-Conditioning System

    The split air conditioner comprises of two parts:

    the outdoor unit and the indoor unit.

    The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve.

    The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you don’t have to make any slot in the wall of the room.

    Further, the present day split units have aesthetic looks and add to the beauty of the room. The split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms

    3) Centralised Air-Conditioning System

    The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used when large buildings, hotels, theaters, airports, shopping malls etc. are to be air conditioned completely.

    The window and split air conditioners are used for single rooms or small office spaces.

    If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically viable to put window or split air conditioner in each and every room.

    Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc.

    4) Packaged Air-Conditioning System

    The window and split air conditioners are usually used for the small air conditioning capacities up to 5 tons.

    The central air conditioning systems are used for where the cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.

    The packaged air conditioners are used for the cooling capacities in between these two extremes.

    The packaged air conditioners are available in the fixed rated capacities of 3,5, 7, 10 and 15 tons.

    These units are used commonly in places like restaurants, telephone exchanges, homes, small halls, etc.