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What is IEEE?

The IEEE is a non-profit, technical professional

association of more than 360,000 individual members in
approximately 175 countries.
The full name is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Inc.
Through its members, the IEEE is a leading authority in
technical areas ranging from computer engineering,
biomedical technology and telecommunications, to
electric power, aerospace and consumer electronics,
among others.
It holds annually more than 300 major conferences and
has nearly 900 active standards with 700 under

IEEE Standards

IEEE 802.1 Higher layer LAN protocols

IEEE 802.2 Logical link control
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet
IEEE 802.4 Token bus
IEEE 802.5 Token Ring
IEEE 802.6 Metropolitan Area Networks
IEEE 802.7 Broadband LAN using Coaxial Cable
IEEE 802.8 Fiber Optic TAG
IEEE 802.9 Integrated Services LAN
IEEE 802.10 Interoperable LAN Security
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi certification)
IEEE 802.12 demand priority
IEEE 802.13 (not used)

IEEE 802.14 Cable modems

IEEE 802.15 Wireless PAN
IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth certification)
IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee certification)
IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (WiMAX
IEEE 802.16e (Mobile) Broadband Wireless Access
IEEE 802.17 Resilient packet ring
IEEE 802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG
IEEE 802.19 Coexistence TAG
IEEE 802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access
IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handoff
IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Network

A local-area network (LAN) protocol developed by Xerox
Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976.
Ethernet uses a bus or star topology and supports data
transfer rates of 10/100/1000 Mbps
The Ethernet specification served as the basis for the IEEE
802.3 standard.
Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD access method to handle
simultaneous demands.
Ethernet defines the lower two layers of the OSI Reference

Technological Overview
A lot of standards exist for different Ethernet versions:
1Base5 (Starlan), 10Base5 (Ethernet), 10Base2
10BaseT, 10BaseF, 10Broad36
100BaseTX, 100BaseFX, 100BaseT2, 100BaseT4
1000Base-LX, 1000Base-SX, 1000Base-CX, 1000Base-T
10GBase-SR, 10GBase-SW,, 10GBase-LX4
100BaseVG, 100VG-AnyLAN

First number identifies transfer rate (1=1MBit/s,10=10MBit/s)

Base = baseband transmission, Broad = broadband
Last digit, number, or character identifies characteristics of the
transmission medium:
T = twisted pair, FX/LX/SX = fiber optics, CX = shielded
balanced copper, T4 = 4 pair twisted pair, T2 = 2 pair twisted
length of a segment - 2=185m, 5=500m

Short for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision
Detection, a set of rules determining how network devices
respond when two devices attempt to use a data channel
If two stations attempt to transmit simultaneously, this
causes a collision, which is detected by all participating
After a random time interval, the stations that collided
attempt to transmit again. If another collision occurs, the
time intervals from which the random waiting time is
selected are increased step by step.
Networks using the CSMA/CD procedure are simple to

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance
A transmission technology that attempts to avoid collisions
rather than detect them as in CSMA/CD.
Used in wireless Ethernet (802.11) and Apple's LocalTalk.
When a device needs to transmit, it listens to the network
(senses the carrier) and waits for it to be free.
If the channel is sensed busy before transmission then the
transmission is deferred for a "random" interval. This
reduces the probability of collisions on the channel.


Uses Thinnet coaxial cable. .

Uses a BNC connector and bus topology requiring a

terminator at each end of the cable.

Uses the 5-4-3 rule

The maximum length of one segment is 185 meters. .

Minimum length between nodes is 0.5 meters.

Uses Thicknet coaxial cable which requires a transceiver
with a vampire tap to connect each computer.
This type of Ethernet is subject to the 5-4-3 rule meaning
there can be 5 network segments with 4 repeaters, and
three of the segments can be connected to computers.
It uses bus topology.
Maximum segment length is 500 Meters with the
maximum overall length at 2500 meters.
Minimum length between nodes is 2.5 meters. Maximum
nodes per segment is 100.

Also known as fast Ethernet.
Uses RJ-45 connectors.
Topology is star.
100BaseTX - Requires category 5 two pair cable.
Maximum distance is 100 meters.
100BaseT4 - Requires category 3 cable with 4 pair.
Maximum distance is 100 meters.
100BaseFX - Can use fiber optic to transmit up to
2000 meters. Requires two strands of fiber optic

Uses Fiber Optic cable.
Can have up to 1024 network nodes.
Maximum segment length is 2000 meters.
Uses specialized connectors for fiber optic.
Includes three categories:
10BaseFL - Used to link computers in a LAN
environment, which is not commonly done due to high
10BaseFP - Used to link computers with hubs.
10BaseFB - Used as a backbone between hubs.














Media Type

10BASE-T 10Mbps


Category 3,
4, or 5 UTP
or STP

10BASE-FL 10Mbps

Up to 2km




SC or ST

Used to boost the signal
between two cable segments
or wireless access points.
Can not connect different
network architecture.
Does not simply amplify the
signal, it regenerates the
packets and retimes them.
Resides on Layer 1 of the
OSI model.

An unintelligent network
device that sends one
signal to all of the
stations connected to it.
Traditionally, hubs are
used for star topology
Resides on Layer 1 of
the OSI model

Connects two LANs and
forwards or filters data
packets between them.
Creates an extended
network in which any two
workstations on the
linked LANs can share
Forward data depending
on the Hardware (MAC)
address, not the Network
address (IP).
Resides on Layer 2 of
the OSI model.