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SOIL MECHANICS

Lecture 4: Derived Equations

1. Moist Unit Weight

(1 )
t
Gs w
(1 e)

Relationship between S, e, Gs
and w

Gs eS
(Gs Se)
t
w
(1 e)

Dry Unit Weight

dry

Gs w

1 e

dry

Saturated Unit Weight

sat

Gs e

w
1 e

Submerged Unit Weight

sub sat w

sub

Gs 1

w
1 e

Critical Hydraulic Gradient

Gs 1
icr
1 e

Relative Density
Indicate the in-situ denseness or
looseness of granular soil.

emax e
Dr
(100%)
emax emin

d min d
Dr
1
1

d min d max

Qualitative Description of
Granular Soil Particles
Relative Density(%)

Description of Soil Deposits

0-15

Very Loose

15-35

Loose

35-65

Medium

65-85

Dense

85-100

Very Dense

ASTM Test Designations D-4253 and D4254(2010) provide a procedure for


determining the maximum and minimum
dry unit weights of granular soil so that
they can be used in our equation to
measure the relative density of
compaction in the field.
For a determination of the minimum dry
unit weight, sand is poured loosely into
the mold from a funnel 12.7 mm
diameter spout. The average height of
the fall of sand into the mold is
maintained at about 25.4 mm. The value
of minimum dry unit weight is then
calculated by Weight of solids over
Volume.

The maximum dry unit weight is determined


by vibrating sand in the mold for 8 minutes.
A surcharge of 14 kN/sq.meter is added to
the top of the sand in the mold. The mold is
placed on a table that vibrates at a
frequency of 3600 cycles/min and that has
an amplitude of vibration of 0.635 mm. The
value of maximum dry unit weight can be
determined at the end of the vibrating
period with knowledge of the weight and
volume of the sand. The magnitude of
acceleration, the surcharge load and the
geometry of acceleration, one can obtain a
larger value of dry unit weight than
obtained on the method discussed earlier.

Sample Problem 1
The weight of moist soil is 56.7 lb. The
volume of the soil measured before drying is
0.5 cu.ft. After being dried out in an oven, the
weight of the dry soil is 48.7 lb. If the Sp.Gr.
Of the solids is 2.69 compute the following:
(a)Porosity
(b)Degree of Saturation
(c)Bulk Unit Weight
(d)Dry Unit Weight
(e)Saturated Unit Weight
(f)Bouyant Unit Weight

Sample Problem 2
A sample of uniform sand has a porosity
of 43 %. From the lab test, the value of
the void ratio in loosest condition is
0.85 and void ratio of 0.35 in the
densest condition. If water content is 12
% and Gs=2.7. Determine the following;
(a)Density Index
(b)Degree of Saturation
(c)Moist unit weight.

Sample Problem 3
A loose, uncompacted sand fill 1.8 meter
depth has a relative density of 40 %
Laboratory Test indicated that the minimum
and maximum void ratios of the sand are
0.46 and 0.90 respectively. Specific gravity
of the solids of the sand is 2.65.
(a)Determine the void ratio of the sand having
a relative density of 40 %.
(b)What is the dry unit weight of the sand?
(c)If the sand is compacted to a relative
density of 75 %, what is the decrease in the
thickness of the 1.8 meter fill?

Sample Problem 4
A sample of soft saturated clay has a
volume of 100 cu.cm. and weighs
175 grams. If the oven dried weight
is 120 grams.
(a)Compute the water content of clay.
(b)Compute the void ratio of the clay.
(c)Compute the specific gravity of the
clay.

Sample Problem 5
The weight of the moist soil as excavated from
a hole is 895 grams with a volume of 426
cu.cm. After drying its weigth was only 779
grams. Of the dried soil only 400 grams was
poured into a vessel in a very loose state, and
its volume was subsequently determined to be
276 cu.cm. That same 400 gram dried soil was
then vibrated and tamped to a volume of 212
cu.cm.
(a)Compute the minimum dry unit weight.
(b)Compute the maximum dry unit weight.
(c)Compute the relative density of the soil
sample.