Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

CROSS SECTIONAL RESEARCH

LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH,
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
By Emily Petrus

NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

Classified into three types of research


Cross

sectional
Longitudinal
retrospective

It is important to have understanding of the


time dimension for two reasons:
Researchers

want to know how variables change

over time.
When studying cause and effect, researchers
must establish the proper time order.

CROSS SECTIONAL RESEARCH

Data is collected at one


point in time on several
variables such as gender,
income, and education.
Example: a study might
include data collected from
males and females, different
socioeconomic classes,
multiple age groups, and
from people with different
abilities and
accomplishments.

CROSS SECTIONAL RESEARCH

Advantages:

Major Advantage: data


can be collected on
many different kinds of
people in a relatively
short period of time.

Disadvantages:
Difficult to establish time
order.
Study of developmental
trends can be
misleading..

Ratnaningsih, Tri, and Indah Lestari. "Correlation between Food Schemes


and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age."International Journal of
Evaluation and Research in Education5 (2016): 55-59. Web. 14 June 2016.

CORRELATION BETWEEN FOOD


SCHEMES AND CHILDREN NUTRIENT
STATUS AT THE TODDLER AGE.

LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH

Data is collected in a forward direction over


time on one or more variables such as
gender, IQ, discipline problems in middle
school, high school GPA, ad dropout status.
Minimum of two distinct time periods.
Two major variations: trend studies and
panel studies.

LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH

Panel Studies:
Same individuals are
studied at successive
points over time.
Differential attrition
Establish causal
condition because you
study people over time.

Trend Studies:

Independent samples are


taken from a population
over time, and the same
questions are asked.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Provides accurate description or picture of


the status or characteristics of a situation or
phenomenon.
Learn about attitudes, opinions, beliefs,
behaviors, and demographics.
Follow 3 steps:
Randomly

select a sample from a defined


population.
Determine the sample characteristics
Infer the characteristics of the population based
on the sample.

JOURNAL ARTICLE ON DESCRIPTIVE


RESEARCH
Oladele, Adetoun Olubanke. "Depression and Suicidal Ideation among College Students with and without Learning Disabilities in
Nigeria."EJSBS The European Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences16.2 (2016): 2084-100. Web. 14 June 2016.

This study investigated depression and suicidal ideation in


students with and without learning disabilities in two Colleges of
Education in Nigeria. The students in this study were between
18 and 24 years old, numbering 391 in total. The number of
male students was 165, while female students were 226. Five
valid and reliable instruments were used to carry out the study.
The study adopted a descriptive research design, and purposive
sampling technique was used to select the population. Data was
analyzed using mean, standard deviation and Pearson product
moment correlation. In this study, students with learning
disabilities experienced more depression and were more prone
to suicidal ideation when compared to their mates without
learning disabilities. One of the recommendations in the study is
that mental health experts need to address mental health issues
and suicidality affecting students in tertiary institutions.

THE END!