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SAMPLING

TECHNIQUES
LAUREN SMALLEY

SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING


Simple Random Sampling
Most basic form
Drawn by a procedure in which every member of the population has an equal
chance of being selected
Equal probability of selection method

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D R AW I N G A
SIMPLE RANDOM
SAMPLE

Table of Random Numbersa list of numbers that fall in


a random order

(Enu, Amoah, Wortawe 2015)

Random Number Generatora computer program that


produces random numbers
used in random assignment
and random selection

SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
Sampling interval- the population size divided by the desired sample size
k- the size of the sampling interval
Starting point- a randomly selected number between 1 and k

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PERIODICITY

The presence of a cyclical


pattern in the sampling
frame

(Mothibi 2015)

STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING


Technique in which a population is divided into mutually exclusive groups
and then a simple random sample or systematic sample is selected from
each group
Proportional Stratified Sampling
Example If the stratification variable is gender, then the proportions of males
and females in the same sample are made to be the same as the proportions of
males and females in the population

Disproportional Stratified Sampling


Type of stratified sampling in which the sample proportions are made to be
different from the population proportions on the stratification variable

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H I G H T O LOW
I N C O M E R E L AT E D
TO GRADES

Stratified into two groups:


High income and low
income

(Ahmed, Hanif 2016)

CLUSTER RANDOM SAMPLING


Form of sampling in which a collective type of unit includes multiple
elements rather than single unit elements are randomly selected
One-Stage Cluster Sampling- a set of clusters is randomly selected from
the larger set of all clusters in the population
Two-Stage Cluster Sampling- sampling is done at two stages rather at one

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C H E AT I N G
C O R R E L AT I O N
BETWEEN ENGLISH
SPEAKS AND ELL

Clustered into two groups:


English speakers and
English language learners

(Rahimi, Goli 2016)

NONRANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUES


Convenience sampling- people who are available, volunteer, or can be
easily recruited in the sample
Quota sampling- the researcher determines the appropriate sample sizes or
quotas for the groups identified as important and takes convenience
samples from those groups
Purposive sampling- the researcher specifies the characteristics of the
population of interest and locates individuals with those characteristics
Snowball sampling- each research participant is asked to identify other
potential research participants

SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
Comprehensive sampling- including all cases in the research study
Maximum variation sampling- purposively selecting a wide range of cases
Homogeneous sample selection- selecting a small and homogeneous case
or set of cases is selected for intensive study
Extreme-case sampling- Identifying the extremes or poles of some
characteristic and then selecting cases representing these extremes for
examination

SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH CONT
Typical-case sampling- selecting what are believed to be average cases
Critical-case sampling- selecting what are believed to be particularly
important cases
Negative-case sampling- selecting cases that are expected to disconfirm
the researchers expectations and generalizations
Opportunistic sampling- Selecting cases when the opportunity occurs
Mixed purposeful sampling- the mixing of more than one sampling strategy

SAMPLING IN MIXED RESEARCH


Time orientation criterion- refers to whether the samples are taken
concurrently or sequentially
Sample relationship criterion- refers to whether the samples, taken in
combination, are, identical, parallel, nested, or multilevel
Mixed sampling designs- the eight sampling designs that result from
crossing the time orientation criterion and the sample relationship criterion

REFERENCES
A H M E D , T. , & H A N I
ASSESSMENT OF HI
THROUGH "ONLINE
TEST" OF PRIMARY
RETRIEVED 2016.

F, M . ( 2 0 1 6 ) . P E R F O R M A N C E
G H A N D L O W I N C O M E FA M I L I E S
R AW A C HI E V E M E N T B AT T E RY
GRADE STUDENTS. 7(4), 48-58.

E N U , J . , A M O A H , P. , & A W O R T W E , P. K . ( 2 0 1 5 ) .
EFFECTS OF GROUP SIZE ON STUDENTS
M AT H E M AT IC S A C HI E V E M E N T I N S M A L L G R O UP
S E T T I N G S . J O U R N A L O F E D U C AT I O N A N D P R AC T I C E ,
6(1), 119-122.
M O T H I B I , G . ( 2 0 1 5 ) . A M E T A - A N A LY S I S O F T H E
R E L AT I O N S H IP B E T W EE N E -L E A R N I N G A N D
STUDENTS' ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN HIGHER
E D U C AT I O N . J O U R N A L O F E D U C AT I O N A N D
PRACTICE, 6(9), 6-9.
RAHIMI, M., & GOLI, A. (2016). ENGLISH LEARNING
ACHIEVE MENT AND EFL LEARNERS CHEATING
AT T I T UD E S AN D C H E AT IN G B E H AV IO R S.
I N T E R N AT I O N A L E D U C AT I O N S T U D I E S , 9 ( 2 ) , 8 1 - 8 8 .