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TECHNOLOGY

Welding Inspection
Mechanical Testing
Course Reference WIS 5
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TECHNOLOGY

Mechanical Testing
Destructive testing of welded joints are
usually carried out to:
Approve welding procedures
Approve welders
Production quality control

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Definition of Mechanical Testing


The ultimate means by which the mechanical
strength and toughness of a prepared test object
can be determined by subjecting it to mechanical
forces beyond the limits of its own mechanical
resistance

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Properties of steel
Mechanical properties :
Hardness

a measure of the resistance to penetration


Tensile strength a metals ability to withstand stress
in tension
Compresive strength-a metals ability to withstand a
pressing or squeezing together
Shear strength - a metals ability to resist a sliding
past type of action
Fatigue strength ability to take repeated loading
Toughness ability to resist shock
Ductility ability of a metals to stretches before it
breaks
Brittleness metal does not stretches before it
fractures
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Mechanical Tests
The following mechanical tests have units and are
termed quantitative tests

Tensile tests
Toughness testing (Charpy, Izod)
Hardness tests

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Mechanical Tests
The following mechanical tests have no units and
are termed qualitative tests

Macro testing
Bend testing

Fillet weld fracture testing


Butt weld nick-break testing

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Mechanical Tests Specimens


CTOD Specimen

Charpy Specimen

Tensile Specimen

Bend Test Specimen

Fracture Fillet Specimen


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Hardness Testing
Hardness tests
Measurements made by indenting the metal with
a penetrator under a known load
Determined by
Load applied
How load is applied
Configuration of
penetrator
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Hardness Testing
Various Methods
Brinell
Rockwell
Vicker
Knoop
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Brinell Hardness Testing


Hardened steel ball of given diameter is
subjected for a given time to a given load
Load divided by area of indentation gives
Brinell hardness in kg/mm2
More suitable for on site hardness testing

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Rockwell Hardness Testing


Measure the hardness by the depth on indentation made by
a constant load impressed upon the indentor
Most common indentor is a diamond, ground to 120 degree
cone with spherical apex that has 0.2 mm radius. (hard
materials)
For soft steel and non ferrous, a hardened steel ball is used
with sizes of 1.6 mm,3.2 mm,5.0 mm and 12.5 mm.

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Rockwell Hardness Testing

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Vickers Hardness Testing


Square based pyramid
Indenter pressed into specimen with a load of between
1 and 100kg for 15 seconds
Length of diagonals measured using adjustable
shutters and a built in microscope

Diamond
indentor

Adjustable
shutters
Indentation

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Vickers Hardness Testing

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Knoop Microhardness Testing

This test is similar principal to brinell and vickers.


Utilised low load that less than 1 kg.
Indentor is rhombic shape of base pyramid diamond
The hardness is determine by measuring the size of
indentation with a microscope and then it dimension
in formula or conversion table.

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Knoop Microhardness Testing

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Charpy Impact Test

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Charpy Impact Test


Object of Test
To determine the amount of energy absorbed in
fracturing a standardised test piece
1.
Specimens are usually taken in groups of
three to allow for scatter results
2.

Test temperature should be specified

3.

Test results are give in joules

4.

Tough specimens absorb more energy than


brittle specimens

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Charpy Impact Test


10
10
55
45o

Root radius
0.25mm
2mm

Direction of striker
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Charpy Impact Test

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Izod Impact Test

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Direction of impact

Test specimen

Vice type fixture

28mm
2mm
10mm
75mm
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22 I/2o

2 mm

10 mm

8 mm

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Charpy Impact Test


100% Brittle
Machined
notch
Fracture surface
100% bright
crystalline brittle
fracture

100% Ductile
Machined
notch
Large reduction
in area, shear
lips
Randomly torn,
dull gray fracture
surface
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Ductile/Brittle Transition Curve


Energy

Transition Temperature range

Joule

Ductile fracture

200
150
100
50

Brittle fracture
- 40

- 20

20

40

Temperature

Degrees Centigrade

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Comparison of Charpy Test Results


Impact Energy Joules
Room Temperature

-20oC Temperature

1.

197

1.

49

2.

191

2.

53

3.

186

3.

51

Average = 191

Average = 51

The test results show the specimens carried out at room temperature
absorb more energy than than the specimens carried out at -20 oC
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Charpy Impact Test


Reporting results
Location and orientation of notch
Testing temperature and soaking time
Energy absorbed in joules
Description of fracture (brittle or ductile)
Lateral expansion
Dimensions of specimen
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Crack Tip Open Displacement


To determine the fracture toughness or resistance towards crack
extension.
CTOD test depends on
Temperature
Microstructure
Loading rate
Thickness

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Crack Tip Open Displacement

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Crack Tip Open Displacement

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Tensile Test

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Tensile Tests
Different tensile tests include:
Transverse tensile.
All-weld metal tensile test
Cruciform tensile test
Short tensile test

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Tensile Tests
Transverse Tensile
Specimen

All-Weld Metal Tensile


Specimen
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Transverse Tensile Tests


Object of test:
To measure the transverse tensile strength of a
butt joint under a static load
Weld metal area

Reduced section specimen

Radius reduced specimen

None reduced section specimen


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Transverse Tensile Tests


Maximum load applied = 220 kN.
Least cross sectional area = 25 mm X 12 mm
U.t.s. = Maximum load applied
Least c.s.a.
U.t.s =

220000 N
25mm X 12mm
U.t.s = 733.33 N/mm2

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Transverse Tensile Tests


Reporting results
Type of specimen e.g. reduced section
Whether weld reinforcement is removed
Dimensions of test specimen
The ultimate tensile strength in N/mm 2, p.s.i or
Mpa
Location of fracture.

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All-Weld Metal Tensile


Gauge length

Object of test
Ultimate tensile
strength
Yield strength
Elongation %
(ductility)

Increased gauge length


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All-Weld Metal Tensile Tests


Original gauge length = 50mm
Increased gauge length = 64
Elongation % = Increase of gauge length X 100
Original gauge length
Elongation % = 14 X 100
50
Elongation = 28%
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All-Weld Metal Tensile Tests


Reporting results
Type of specimen e.g. reduced section
Dimensions of test specimen
The u.t.s, yield strength in N/mm2, p.s.i or Mpa
Elongation %

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Short Tensile Tests


A test for a materials susceptibility to lamellar tearing
Friction Welded Caps
Short Tensile Specimen
Sample of Parent Material
Through
Thickness
Ductility

The results are given as a STRA value


Short Transverse Reduction in Area
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Macro / Micro
Object
Macro/microscopic examinations are used to give
a visual evaluation of a cross-section of a welded
joint
Carried out on full thickness specimens
The width of the specimen should include HAZ,
weld and parent plate
They maybe cut from a stop/start area on a
welders approval test
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Macro / Micro
Will Reveal
Weld soundness
Distribution of inclusions
Number of weld passes
Metallurgical structure of weld, fusion zone
and HAZ
Location and depth of penetration of weld

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Macro
Visual examination for
defects
Cut transversely from
the weld
Ground and polished
P400 grit paper
Etched using 2 - 5%
nitric acid solution
Wash and dry
Visual inspection under
10 X magnification

Micro
Visual examination for
defects & grain structure
Cut transversely from
the weld
Ground and polished
P1200 grit paper
Etched using 2-5%
nitric acid solution
Wash and dry
Visual inspection under
100X-1000X magnification
Report on results

Report on results
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Macro Report
Sample Number MSR-1189
1
3
4
2

DEFECT TYPE
1. Lack of sidewall fusion + slag
2. Slag inclusion
3. Lack of sidewall fusion
4. Cap undercut
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DEFECT SIZE
4mm
3.5mm
5.8mm depth
0.6mm

ACCEPT/REJECT
Reject
Reject
Reject
Accept
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Bend Tests
Object of test
To determine the soundness of the weld zone.
Bend testing can also be used to give an
assessment of weld zone ductility.
There are three ways to perform a bend test
1. Face bend
2. Root bend
3. Side bend (Generally for materials above
12mm thickness)
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Plunger Type Bending Jig

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Wrap Around Bending Jig

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Bend Tests

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Former (4t)

Weld dressed flush Support

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Bend Tests
Face bend
Side bend
Root bend

Defect indication
Generally this specimen
would be unacceptable

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Minor ruptures on
tension surface
Acceptance depends
upon code
requirements
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Bend Tests
Reporting results
Thickness and dimensions of specimen
Direction of bend (root, face or side)
Angle of bend (90o, 120o, 180o)
Diameter of former. (typical 4T)
Appearance of joint after bending e.g. type
and location of any flaws.
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Fillet Weld Fracture Test


Object of test
To break open the joint through the weld to permit
examination of the fracture surfaces
1.

Specimens are cut to the required length

2.

A saw cut approximately 2mm in depth is


applied along the fillet welds length

3.

Fracture is usually made by striking the


specimen with a single hammer blow

4.

Visual inspection for defects

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Fillet Weld Fracture Test


Hammer

Hammer

2mm
Notch

2mm
Notch

Fracture should break saw cut


to root

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Fillet Weld Fracture Test

This fracture has occurred


saw cut to root
This fracture indicates lack
of fusion
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Fillet Weld Fracture Test


Reporting results
Thickness of parent material
Throat thickness and leg lengths
Location of fracture
Appearance of joint after fracture
Depth of penetration
Defects present on fracture surfaces
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Nick Break Test


Object of test
To permit evaluation of any weld defects across
the fracture surface of a butt weld.
1.

Specimens are cut transverse to the weld

2.

A saw cut approximately 2mm in depth is


applied along the welds root and cap

3.
Fracture is usually made by striking the
specimen with a single hammer blow
4.

Visual inspection for defects

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Nick Break Test

Former
Excess weld
metal left
intact

Saw cuts

Support

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Nick Break Test


Reporting results

Thickness of parent material

Width of specimen

Appearance of joint after fracture

Depth of penetration

Defects present on fracture surfaces

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Any
Any Questions?
Questions?

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Questions
QU 1. What mechanical properties can be measured in the allweld metal tensile test
QU 2. What is the purpose of a charpy V-notch test and what
units are the test results give in.
QU 3. Give a brief description of the following tests
a. Bend test
b. Nick-break test
c. Macro.
QU 4. From a transverse tensile test the following information is
known, calculate the ultimate tensile strength
Maximum load applied 235 Kilo Newtons
Least cross sectional area 25.20mm x 17.52mm
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