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The Magnificent 7

The seven tools of Quality Control


Check Sheet
Stratification
Pareto analysis
Cause & Effect Diagram
Histogram
Graphs and control charts
Scatter diagram
The are also known as Problem Solving Tools

The Magnificent 7
SEVEN QC TOOLS
Dr. Karou Ishikawa, father of Japanese
Quality Movement, mentions that the simple
tools of data collection and analysis which he
called THE 7 QC TOOLS are sufficient for
solving a majority of the quality problems while
sophisticated and advanced techniques may be
necessary only for a small percentage

Stratification
Data
collection
based
on
segregated elements to avoid
confusion and to reach to the root
cause of the problem faster.
Tool to differentiate results &
causes and help planning data
collection.
Data
collection
on
results and causes are so planned
so that results can be classified

Stratification
Data collection based on segregated elements
to avoid confusion and to reach to the root
cause of the problem faster.
It minimises the heterogeneity by grouping
the data into homogeneous components.
Supplier wise, batch wise, m/c wise, mould
wise, product wise, bushing wise, operator
wise etc.

Example
Identify stratification criteria for collecting
Data on house keeping defects:
Result:

# Of defects per audit

Stratification criteria:
Type of defects
Location
Date & time
Audited by
People in the location
Infrastructures available

Stratification Criteria
Identity:
Mechanical:
Operational:
Technical:
Environmental
Measurement:
Behavioral/skill related
Time related:
Role, responsibility & authority related:

Application of stratification

Review adequacy of presently used data


Introducing new data collection mode
Collection of data for any specific purpose
Before developing check sheets

CHECK SHEET

A simple data collection format


Scientifically designed
Task performer / Operator
friendly
Easy to summarize

CHECK SHEET
A format that makes the data collection easy
and which is designed to suit the given purpose
of data collection
Purpose of checksheet
To ensure that all the required data are
collected
To make data collection easy
To arrange data as when it is collected
To facilitate quick analysis
To minimize handling of data

CHECK SHEET
A designed format for collecting data efficiently.
There cannot be a standardized check
sheet that is useful every where, it has to
be designed taking into account the 5W
and 1H of data collection.
Aims of check sheet
Make data gathering easy
To arrange data automatically so that
they can be used easily later
To grasp the past and present situation
To grasp the change through time

Types of Check Sheet


Classification (Defective item / cause)
Location
Frequency (Characteristic Distribution)
Check list, etc.,

Process distribution check sheet

Defect cause check sheet

Defect location check sheet

Defective item check sheet

Inspection check sheet

Defect cause check sheet


When inquiring into the causes of a defect or
fault defect cause check sheet is used.
Equip.

M/c 1

M/c 2

Worker

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

Am

Pm

Am

Pm

Am

Pm

Am

Pm

Am

Pm

Am

Pm

112
3

12

111

122

111
222
3

111
122
2

111
123
3

122

111
1

11

223

122
3

111
221

111
111
22

111
22

111
111
223

111
111
23

111
112

111
233

112
23

111
11

112

111
322
1

112

12

11

111
11

111
111
2

11

13

114

115

114

15

112

12

11

111
3

111
134

111
112

131

114

114
45

133

511
2

223

1 : Surface scratch 2 : Colour


3 : Defect finishing 4 : Improper shape
5 : Others

CHECK SHEET
75 Defectives in a batch of 2000 springs
Defect

Tally

Frequency

Pin Holes

llll llll ll

12

Cracks

llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll lll

Dimensions

llll ll

Scratches

llll llll llll llll lll

Others

llll

48

7
24

Total95

CRACKS IS THE MOST


IMPORTANT PROBLEM

CHECK SHEET
484 Customer Complaints/Calls in one year
Complaint Type
Den. Variation
Wet / Damage
Lumps
Fiber Pattern
Soft Mat
Loose
Wetting Prob.
Packing
Total

IIII
IIII
IIII
IIII
IIII

Tally
IIII
IIII
IIII
IIII
IIII

484

(*) - Typical Data

Frequency

IIII IIII .
IIII IIII .
IIII IIII .
IIII IIII .
IIII IIII .
IIII IIII IIII IIII .
IIII IIII IIII IIII .
IIII IIII IIII IIII .

60
34
55
84
24
37
42
48

CHECK SHEET
Inspection check sheet
Measurement
-0.07
-0.06
-0.05
-0.04
-0.03
-0.02
-0.01
0.00
+0.01
+0.02
+0.03
+0.04
+0.05
+0.06
+0.07

Check

Total

////

//// //

//// //// ////

15

//// //// //// //// //// //// //// //

37

//// //// //// //// //// //// //// //// ////

45

//// //// //// //// //// //// //// //// //// ////

49

//// //// //// //// //// //// /

31

//// //// /

11

CHECK SHEET

//// ////

10

//// //// //// //// //

22

//// //// //// //// //// ////

29

//// /

///

//// //// //// ///


//// ///

18
8
96

CHECK SHEET
Defect Location
//// //// ////
//// //// ////
///

33

//

//

///

/
//
/

Machine

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thur

UU

LLL

UU

UU

LLLL

LL

L
U

Fri

Sat

UUU

UUUU

UU

UUU

LLL

LL

C
LLLL

L : Below LSL

LL

U: Above USL

Pareto Analysis
A technique to isolate
important factors
from the unimportant ones,
to enable prioritize actions
Data used can be occurrences of events
or consequences of events

Pareto Analysis
Paretos principle

vital few & trivial many


In any real life situation a phenomena
is largely described by
a few vital components
and
remaining all play a trivial role.

Pareto Analysis
The Pareto Principal is generally used to
prioritize quality improvement projects to
get most returns for the resources invested.
It is one of the most powerful tools and is
widely used as means of attacking bulk of
the problems with the optimal utilization of
resources.
The basic principle of Pareto is 80% of
any effect are due to 20% of causes & vice
versa

Pareto chart by effect


To find out what the major problem is Viz.
Quality :
Defects, Faults , Failures,
Complaints, Repairs,
Returned items etc.
Cost
:
Amount of loss, Expenses
Delivery:
Stock, Shortages, Delay in
delivery, Default in payment.
Safety :
Accidents, Breakdowns,
mistakes.

Pareto chart by Cause


To find out what the major problem is Viz.
Operator :
Shift, Group, Experience,
Skill.
Machine :
Machines, Equipment,
Tools
Raw material :
Manufacturer, lot
Operational
:
Conditions, Order,
Method

Pareto Analysis(Steps)
Stratify problem points according to purpose and

represent them numerically


(By Causes, by Phenomena, by Equipment etc.,)
Preferably the data should be expressed in monetary
values rather than Quantity, Count or Percentage
Select a data period appropriate for the purpose
Arrange the stratified items in descending order of value
and draw a Bar chart
Draw a line showing cumulative percentage
(Total = 100%) above the Bar chart starting from the
greatest value

Uses of Pareto diagram

Find out the most important item/defect.

Ratio of each item to the whole.

Degree of improvement after remedial


action in some limited area.

Improvement in each item/defect


compared before and after correction.

Pareto Diagram
100

90
80

Count

60

60

50
40

40

30
20

20

10
0

Defect
Count
Percent
Cum %

48
50.5
50.5

24
25.3
75.8

12
12.6
88.4

7
7.4
95.8

4
4.2
100.0

Percent

80

70

Pareto Analysis of
Passenger Complaints at an Airport

Pareto Analysis of
Customer Complaints

Pareto Analysis of Complaints at a Laundry

Pareto Analysis for inspection results

Pareto Analysis of Pulp Defects

Pareto Diagram for Production Stoppage

M/C quality change


Intermediate conveyor
Power failure
Hopper/duct line jamming
Dryer drum coupling pin
B P full press problem
Dryer preventive
Nip roller
Rotary comb tripped
Comber jamming
Al conveyor idle roller
Fire
Accumulation
Drum seal changing
Fan tripping
Chain problem
Fiber jamming
Zone gear box
Zone conveyor

Cause & Effect Diagram


Ishikawa Diagram or Fish Bone Diagram
For any effect there ought to be one or more
related causes
The diagram is drawn through a series of
Brainstorming sessions and it is essentially a
team activity
All possible causes , suspected to affect the
result are presented in a fish bone diagram

Cause & Effect Diagram


To generate in a structured manner,
maximum number of ideas
regarding possible causes for a
problem by using brainstorming
technique.

Cause & Effect Diagram


Uses of Cause and effect diagram
To investigate and list down the cause and
effect relationship of problem under
investigation.
Analyze the problem to trace the real root
cause.
To help stratification for collection of
further data to confirm relationship.
To help evolve counter-measure.

Methodology
How to prepare
Cause and Effect Diagram

Clarify the problem


Gather members for discussion
Conduct Brainstorming session
Group the causes into 4Ms
Man, Material, Machine, Method

Draw the cause and effect chart


Check for missing information
Determine importance of significance of causes

Cause & Effect Diagram


The causes that are enumerated should be
subjected to sieves of subjectivity and objectivity
to identify the likely and subsequently the root
causes
Sieve of subjectivity :
Technical knowledge, intuition, opinions,
experience etc.,
Sieve of objectivity :
Establishment of cause effect relationship through
data analysis

BRAIN STORMING

What is Brainstorming ?

Brainstorming is a simple but


effective technique for generating
many ideas of a group of people
within a short span of time to
solve a given problem

What is Brainstorming ?
While brainstorming it is important to remember
the following :

No criticism
Fantasize freely
Generate quantity
One at a time

Treat idea generation and idea evaluation as


two separate phases. Dont mix them.

Brainstorming
Basic Rules for Brainstorming

Defer evaluation
Fantasize freely
Generate quantity
Build on ideas

Defer Evaluation
Put critical faculties in cold storageeven constructive criticism. This is to
ensure a proper climate of acceptance
of all sorts of ideas. No idea should be
treated as stupid.

Fantasize Freely
Dont operate with your brakes on.
The participants are encouraged,
urged to let themselves go and
generate ideas, no matter how fanciful
these ideas are.

Generate Quantity

Generate as many ideas as possible.


A pearl diver will be more successful in
finding pearls, perhaps the pearl, when
he brings up 200 oysters than when he
surfaces only 15-20 oysters.

Build on ideas

Idea of one participant is more


effectively built up by another
participant.

Principles of Brainstorming
Deferment of evaluation develops the appropriate
psychologically safe climate for ideation
The uniqueness of each participants knowledge is
tapped to develop new insights
Ideas of one participant tend to trigger off ideas in
the brains of other group members
Free association encourages fruitful ideation
The pressure of time bound sessions in a nonthreatening atmosphere is conductive to a high
productivity of ideas

Steps to Brainstorming
Choose the topic
Each member, in rotation, is asked for
ideas
Each member offers only one idea per
turn, regardless of how many he or she
has in mind
This continues until all the ideas have
been exhausted
Ideas are to be recorded and displayed on
transparent sheets

Ways to effective Brainstorming

Give everyone a chance to speak


Do not criticise ideas
Record all ideas
Ideas are expanded and used to come up
with more ideas
Free expression in any language that the
person giving the idea is most comfortable
with

When to use the


To find a solution to a specific problem
To suggest counter-measures when the
target has not been achieved
To select a theme/topic
To find causes of a specific problem

Key Points
Acquaint the participants with the technique of
Brainstorming. A warm-up session of the nature
developed later helps.
Obtain the commitment of the management to
encourage the development and implementation of
worthwhile ideas.
Set up appropriate criteria to evaluate the several
ideas considered worthwhile.
Screen all the ideas generated.
Keep participants advised of the final choice of the
ideas and the actions initiated.

Benefits of Brainstorming
Individual is limited in generating ideas and that
group produces more ideas
Ideas are improved upon by members
Presence of others increases creativity
Pooling of ideas and resources is made possible
by coming together as a group

Cause and Effect Diagram

Structure
Men

Machine

Problem

Material

Method

Each of the main branches has many


potential sub branches that further
subdivide the potential causes

High petrol
consumption
Procedure

Driver

Impatience
Craze

Poor
anticipation

Always
late
Lack of
awareness
Riding on
clutch

Restrictions
One way

No turn

Circuitous
Road

Road

Vehicle

Bad
attitude
Poor
skill

Wrong
gears

Spark plugs
Contacts
Life

Heavy
Body
Shape

Inexperience High H.P

Wrong
culture

Technical
details
Fuel mix
Carburetor

Engine
Cylinders

Crossings
Traffic

Spares

Spurious

High Petrol

Consumption
Impurities
Incorrect
Octane no.

Tyres Inferior
Frequent
Petrol
Faulty
stops Negligence
pressure
Speed Breakers
Additives
Ignorance
Potholes
Irregular
Incorrect viscosity
Low pressure
servicing
Poor
Clogged
Oil
condition
filters
False
Steep
Not changed
economy
Low level

Maintenance

Materials

Cause & Effect Diagram


CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM
Men

Materials
Variation in Solids

Variation in
Solids
LOI inspection
Size Chem. Batch var
Roller Cond.
Size Return Temp.
Knowled
cleaning of tray cov
Size
Sze Mixing Procedure
cleaning of Sec. tank
temp
Cleaning of
Size Storage tank Temp
roller
Variation
Foaming Size
New product start up
Solids sam pling
Tex - LOI relation
Repaetability of solids check
Spray water
mix up

Methods

Sampling

Comb
spray

Upper comb
distance

Fibre
Forming

low. comb distance


Roller
Roller felt conditio
LOI testing
dia
Applicator cover pos
Roller
weight
Fil. spray capacity
Roller
Applicator cover cleaning
offset

Machines

at

Histogram
An excellent data summarization tool for
process / product characteristics which are
measurable.

It is a pictorial depiction of a frequency


distribution with the help of a bar diagram.

Histogram
It describes the
location,
dispersion and
shape of the distribution of
any quality characteristics.

Histogram is a graph that


displays the distribution of data

RAW DATA
Moisture Percentage of 100 samples of a
chemical compound

How to make a Histogram

Select a sample of size N.


Record the measurements.
Determine the range.
Decide the number of classes.
Determine the boundary or class limits.
Prepare frequency distribution.
Construct histogram.

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
METHODOLOGY
1. Collect at least 100 (N) observations (data points) Xi
2. Compute the range

Range ( R ) = Xmax. - Xmin.

3. Decide the No. of classes (approximately) using k = 1+ 3.322 * log10(N)


4. Decide the width of each class using C = (R+w)/k
where w = least count of the measuring instrument.
5.

Compute the lower limit of the starting class by L 1 = Xmin w/2

6.

First class interval is {X min w/2} to {(Xmin w/2) + C} or L1 to U1

7.

Compute the Midpoint (Mi) as (Ui + Li ) / 2

8.

Distribute the observations to the classes using tally bars.

9.

Finally count the tally bars in each class and find the frequency.

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
Moisture Example
N = 100, Xmin = 3.28 units, Xmax = 3.72 units,
R = 3.72 3.28 = 0.44 units.
k = 1+3.322 (2) = 7.644 ~ 8 or 9
C = (0.44 + 0.01)/9 = 0.05
L1 = 3.28 0.01/2 = 3.275
First Class Interval - 3.275 to 3.275 + 0.05
3.275 to 3.325
M1 = (3.325 + 3.275) / 2 = 3.30

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
Moisture Percentage of 100 samples of a chemical compound
3.56 , 3.46, 3.48, 3.50, 3.42, 3.43, 3.52, 3.49, 3.44, 3.50
3.48, 3.56, 3.50, 3.52, 3.47, 3.48, 3.46, 3.50, 3.56, 3.38

Class
No.
Point

Class
Interval

Mid

3.41, 3.37, 3.47, 3.49, 3.45, 3.44, 3.50, 3.49, 3.46, 3.46
1

3.275 - 3.325

3.30

3.325 - 3.375

3.35

3.375 - 3.425

3.40

3.425 - 3.475

3.45

3.475 - 3.525

3.50

3.48, 3.50, 3.56, 3.50, 3.52, 3.46, 3.48, 3.46, 3.52, 3.56

3.525 - 3.575

3.55

3.52, 3.48, 3.46, 3.45, 3.46 , 3.54, 3.54, 3.48, 3.49, 3.41

3.575 - 3.625

3.60

3.625 - 3.675

3.65

3.675 - 3.725

3.70

3.55, 3.52, 3.44, 3.50, 3.45, 3.44, 3.48, 3.46, 3.52, 3.46
3.48, 3.48, 3.32, 3.40, 3.52, 3.34, 3.46, 3.43, 3.28, 3.46
3.59, 3.63, 3.59, 3.47, 3.38, 3.52, 3.45, 3.48, 3.31, 3.46
3.40, 3.54, 3.46, 3.51, 3.48, 3.50, 3.72, 3.60, 3.46, 3.52

3.41, 3.45, 3.34, 3.44, 3.47, 3.47, 3.41, 3.48, 3.54, 3.47

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
Class
No.
Point

Class
Interval

Mid

Tally Bars

Frequency

3.275 - 3.325

3.30

///

3.325 - 3.375

3.35

///

3.375 - 3.425

3.40

//// ////

3.425 - 3.475

3.45

//// //// //// //// //// //// //

32

3.475 - 3.525

3.50

//// //// //// //// //// //// //// ///

38

3.525 - 3.575

3.55

//// ////

10

3.575 - 3.625

3.60

///

3.625 - 3.675

3.65

3.675 - 3.725

3.70

//// ////
///
/
/

///
///
//// ////
//// //// //// //// //// //// //
////
/ //// //// //// //// //// //// /

Frequency

Histogram

Class Interval

Frequency

Histogram

Histogram
Final Yield %

Frequency

30

20

10

0
92.5 93.0 93.5 94.0 94.5 95.0 95.5 96.0 96.5 97.0 97.5

Yield %

Histogram
Final Yield %
40

Frequency

30

20

10

0
96.0

96.5

97.0

97.5

98.0

Spg Yield %

98.5

99.0

99.5

Histogram
Final Yield %

Frequency

20

10

0
95

96

97

DM_Yield

98

99

Histogram
Spg. Yield%

MD Yield%

Final Yield %

40

F re q u e n c y

30

20

10

10

0
96.0

96.5

97.0

97.5

98.0

98.5

99.0

99.5

95

Spg Yield %

96

97

DM_Yield

Final Yield%
30

F re que nc y

F re que nc y

20

20

10

0
92.5 93.0 93.5 94.0 94.5 95.0 95.5 96.0 96.5 97.0 97.5

Yield %

98

99

Histogram
Histogram is characterised by
three constituents
A centre ( mean)
A width (spread)
An over all shape

Histogram
Applications of Histograms

Shape and Smoothness


Comparison to Specification limits
Comparison to Sources of Variability
Outlier Detection
Before and After Comparison

Types of Histograms
Bell shaped
Symmetrical
shape with a peak
in middle
representing a
normal
histogram

Histograms

Types of Histograms

Double peaked
Two normal
distributions with
two peaks in
middle indicating
more than one
distribution at
work

Types of Histograms
Plateau
More than one
distribution at work
A flat top with no
distinctive peak. Likely
result of many different
bell shaped distributions
with centres spread evenly.
No well defined process or
training.

Types of Histograms

Comb
Alternative
peaks showing
possible errors
in measurement
or the data is
grouped to
construct the
Histogram

Types of Histograms
Skewed
An asymmetrical
shape - positively
or negatively
skewed - usually
reflecting limits in
the specification
on one side

Types of Histograms

Truncated
Usually being a
part of a normal
distribution
with part of it
having been
removed.

Types of Histograms

Isolated peak
Two normal
distributions
suggesting two
processes taking
place at the
same time.

Types of Histograms
Edged peaked
40

30

Frequency

A normal
distribution
curve with a
large peak at
one end
indicating errors
in data
recording.

20

10

0
96.0

96.5

97.0

97.5

98.0

Spg Yield %

98.5

99.0

99.5

//// ////
///
/
/

///
///
//// ////
//// //// //// //// //// //// //
////
/ //// //// //// //// //// //// /

Frequency

Distribution

Class Interval

//// ////
///
/
/

///
///
//// ////
//// //// //// //// //// //// //
////
/ //// //// //// //// //// //// /

Distribution

Central tendency (Mean)

Dispersion ( variance)

Graphs, Charts & Plots


A picture is worth thousand words
Graphs, Charts & Plots are pictorial
presentation of data for fast and easy
comprehension of any situation by any level
of personnel
Means of discovering regularity and guide to
further analysis
Bar Diagram, Pie Diagram, Dot Plot,
Gantt Chart etc.

Graphs, Charts & Plots


Commonly used Charts (Diagrams):
Line Chart : Emphasis is on trend over time
Bar Chart : Comparison of one or more series of
data on the same variable
- Single bar
- Multiple bar
- Divided / Stacked bar
Pie Chart

: For snap shot. For understanding the


proportion or percentage of different
categories / components of the total

RUN CHART / LINE CHART


When to use ?
To highlight variations of a characteristic
over a period of time
and seek explanation
for
changes.
To highlight a growing or declining trend of
production, sales, inventory etc.
To highlight significant improvements in
performance after implementing counter measures.

Example

Minitab Output
Run Chart for Yield % during April 2001
97

Yield %

96

95

10
April 2001

15

20

Bar Diagram
When to use ?
When Quantity of some characteristic
is to be compared.
When some characteristic is to be
compared for a number of categories or
groups.
When in shortest time maximum clarity
of communication is to be achieved.

Bar Diagram

Bar Diagram
Caustic Consumption for DM #1

PIE CHART
TO IDENTIFY THE VITAL FEW FROM
TRIVIAL MANY
A snap sort view
When to use ?
When the largest shares and their
magnitudes have to be highlighted in
relation to total quantities.

PIE CHART
Caustic Consumption (September 2000 to September 2001)

DM1 ( 691, 27.0%)


DM2 ( 664, 25.9%)

DM3 (1206, 47.1%)

Box Plot
IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS BOX WHISKER PLOT.
A USEFUL DEVICE FOR PICTORIALLY
COMMUNICATING THE INFORMATION CONTAINED
IN A DATA SET.
IT SPEAKS ABOUT THE SPREAD, LOCATION OF
CONCENTRATION AND SYMMETRY OF DATA
RELATED TO A CHARACTERISTIC OF IMPORTANCE

Box Plot
Boxplots, also called box-and-whisker plots,
are particularly useful for showing the
distributional characteristics of data.
Maximum
2550

Q3 quartile
(75th percentile)
Q2 quartile
(50th percetile)
MEDIAN

2450

Q1 quartile
(25th percentile)

2350

Minimum

Box Plot
Yield Vs Catalyst

Yield %

90

80

70
1

Catalyst

MULTI-VARI CHART
Multi-vari charts are a way of presenting analysis of
variance data in a graphical form providing a visual
alternative to analysis of variance. These charts may also
be used in the preliminary stages of data analysis to get a
look at the data. The chart displays the means at each factor
level for every factor.
MultiVari Chart is constructed to display the variance
(Variability in a characteristic of importance) within units,
between units, between samples, and between lots etc.,

MULTI-VARI CHART
Multi-Vari Chart for Yield % By Batch - Replication
Catalyst

Batch
95

1
2
3

90

4
5

Yield %

85

6
7
8

80

75

70
1

Replication