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Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Topic 8: External Selection II

Learning Outcomes
1. Discuss Substantive Assessment
Method
2. Contingent Assessment Methods
3. Develop Selection Plan based on
the SAM & DAM

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

The Logic of Prediction

Substantive Assessment
Method
First stage-determining who
among the people that meet
the minimum requirement for
the job has the prospect of
becoming high performers
SAM is developed using the
logic of predictors whereby the
predictors normally used are;

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Predictors

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Measures of Validity & Reliability

Reliability is the degree to which an


assessment tool produces stable and
consistent results.
Types of Reliability
Test-retest reliability is a measure of
reliability obtained by administering the same
test twice over a period of time to a group of
individuals. The scores from Time 1 and Time
2 can then be correlated in order to evaluate
the test for stability over time
Example: A test designed to assess student
learning in psychology could be given to a
group of students twice, with the second
administration perhaps coming a week after
the first. The obtained correlation coefficient
would indicate the stability of the scores.

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Measures of Validity & Reliability

Types of Reliability
Inter-rater reliability is a measure of
reliability used to assess the degree to which
different judges or raters agree in their
assessment decisions. Inter-rater reliability is
useful because human observers will not
necessarily interpret answers the same way;
raters may disagree as to how well certain
responses or material demonstrate knowledge
of the construct or skill being assessed

Example: Inter-rater reliability might be


employed when different judges are
evaluating the degree to which art portfolios
meet certain standards. Inter-rater reliability
is especially useful when judgments can be
considered relatively subjective. Thus, the use
of this type of reliability would probably be
more likely when evaluating artwork as
opposed to math problems

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Measures of Validity & Reliability

Types of Reliability
Internal consistency reliability is a
measure of reliability used to evaluate the
degree to which different test items that probe
the same construct produce similar results

Example: 2 set of questionnaires that probes


stress at work. Both produces similar results.

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Measures of Validity & Reliability

Validity refers to how well a test measures


what it is purported to measure.

Types of Validity
Face Validity ascertains that the measure
appears to be assessing the intended
construct under study. (Obesity should be
assess by the kilograms per height implied on
a patience not how he looks or how he feels)
Construct Validity is used to ensure that the
measure is actually measure what it is
intended to measure (i.e. the construct), and
not other variables (should be verified by a
panel of experts)

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Overview of Personality Tests

Current role of personality tests e.g., role of


Big Five
Describe behavioral, not emotional or
cognitive traits
May capture up to 75% of an individuals
personality
Big Five factors (Personality Characteristics
Inventory etc.)
Emotional stability-calm, optimistic, and
well adjusted
Extraversion-sociable, assertive, active,
upbeat, and talkative
Openness to experience-imaginative,
attentive to inner feelings, have
intellectual curiosity and independence
of judgment
Agreeableness-altruistic, trusting,
sympathetic, and cooperative
Conscientiousness-purposeful,
determined, dependable, and attentive

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Measures of Personality Tests

Surveys
Personal Characteristics Inventory
(PCI)
NEO Personality Inventory
Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI)

Administration options
Paper-and-pencil
Phone Interviews
Online forms

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Sample Items from the Personal Characteristics Inventory

Conscientiousness
I can always be counted on to
get the job done.
I am a very persistent worker.
I almost always plan things in
advance of work.
Extraversion
Meeting new people is
enjoyable to me.
I like to stir up excitement if
things get boring.
I am a take-charge type of
person.

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Sample Items from the Personal Characteristics Inventory

Agreeableness
I like to help others who are down on their
luck.
I usually see the good side of people.
I forgive others easily.
Emotional Stability
I can become annoyed at people quite
easily (reverse-scored).
At times I dont care about much of
anything (reverse-scored).
My feelings tend to be easily hurt (reversescored).
Openness to Experience
I like to work with difficult concepts and
ideas.
I enjoy trying new and different things.
I tend to enjoy art, music, or literature.

HUMB 313: Recruitment & Selection


Criticisms of Personality Tests

Trivial validities
Correlations for any individual trait with
job performance are typically low (around
r=.23)
However, when all traits are used
simultaneously, correlations are higher
Faking
Individuals answer in a dishonest way
However, tests still have some validity,
and it may be that being able to act
conscientiously may be related to real job
performance
Negative applicant reactions
Applicants, in general, believe
personality tests are less valid predictors
of job performance

9-12

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Overview of Ability Tests


Definition -- Measures that assess an individuals capacity to function in a
certain way.
15 to 20% of organizations use ability tests in selection

Four classes of ability tests


1. Cognitive: perception, memory,
reasoning, verbal, math, expression
2. Psychomotor: thought/body
movement coordination
3. Physical: strength, endurance,
movement quality
4. Sensory/perceptual: detection &
recognition of stimuli

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Evaluation of Cognitive Ability Tests

Validity approaches .50


Research findings
Among the most valid methods of
selection
Often generalizes across organizations,
job types, and types of applicants
Can produce large economic gains for
organizations and provide major
competitive advantage
Validity is particularly high for jobs of
medium and high complexity but also
exists for simple jobs
A simple explanation for validity: those
with higher cognitive ability acquire and
use greater knowledge

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Other Types of Ability Tests

Psychomotor ability tests


Reaction time, arm-hand
steadiness, control precision, and
manual and digit dexterity
Physical abilities tests
Muscular strength, cardiovascular
endurance, and movement quality
Sensory/perceptual abilities tests
Ability to detect and recognize
environmental stimuli
http://www.deeannef.com/apstats/e
sp/esp.htm

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Emotional Intelligence

The ability to monitor ones own and others


feelings, to discriminate among them, and to use
this information to guide ones thinking and action
A review of 59 studies indicated that, overall, EI
correlated moderately with job performance
Some critics argue that because EI is so closely
related to intelligence and personality, once you
control for these factors, EI has nothing unique
to offer
Still not clear whether these tests are useful

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Job Knowledge Tests

Two types
Assess knowledge of duties
involved in a particular job (i.e.,
test the knowledge level)
Level of experience with, and
knowledge about, critical job tasks
and tools necessary to perform a
job (i.e., test the amount of
experience with the knowledge
areas)
Evaluation
Validity can be as much as .45
Higher validities found for complex
jobs

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Performance Tests and Work Samples

Definition -- Assess actual


performance (e.g., fix a car, teach a
class, type a document)
Types of tests (should focus on
relevant KSAOs)
Performance test vs. work sample
(all or some)
Motor vs. verbal work samples
(action or thought)
High- vs. low-fidelity tests (level
of realism)
Computer interaction
performance tests vs. paper-andpencil tests including simulations
(e.g., The Managers Workshop)
All the above can have good validity
(.50+) & acceptance

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Situational Judgment Tests

Place applicants in hypothetical, jobrelated situations.


Applicants are then asked to choose a
course of action from several
alternatives
Capture the validity of work samples
and cognitive ability tests in a way
that is cheaper than work samples
and that has less adverse impact than
cognitive ability tests

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Example of Situational Judgment Test Item

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313

Integrity Tests

Integrity is an important quality in


applicants
Integrity tests are designed to tap this
important attribute
Integrity test can be applied through
pen & pencil method or computerized
method or even situational methods
Validity can be useful
Clear purpose as high as .55 predicting
bad behaviors
General purpose as high as .32
predicting bad behaviors
Can predict performance as well (as
high as .30)

Example:
Do you think most people would
cheat if they thought they could
get away with it?
Do you believe a person has a right
to steal from an employer if he or
she is unfairly treated?

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Unstructured Interviews

Relatively unplanned and quick


and dirty
Questions based on interviewer
hunches or pet questions to
assess applicants
Casual, open-ended, or subjective
questions
Often contains obtuse questions
Often contains highly speculative
questions
Interviewer often unprepared
More potential for discrimination
and bias
Validity typically r=.20

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Structured Interviews

Questions based on job analysis


Same questions asked of each
candidate
Response to each question
numerically evaluated
Detailed anchored rating scales
used to score each response
Detailed notes taken, focusing on
interviewees behaviors
Validity may be r=.30 or better
Surprisingly uncommon in
organizations

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Constructing a Structured Interview

Consult job requirements


matrix(Identifying KSAOs)
Develop structured interview plan
Exh. 9.11: Structured Interview
Questions, Benchmark Responses,
Rating Scale, and Question
Weights
Select and train interviewers
Evaluate effectiveness (results of the
people that were hired using the
structured interview)

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Discretionary Assessment Methods

Used to separate people who


receive job offers from list of
finalists (assumes each finalist is
considered fully qualified for
position)

Often very subjective, relying


heavily on intuition of decision
maker

Factors other than KSAOs are


evaluated
Assess person/organization
match
Assess motivation level
Assess people on relevant
organizational
citizenship behaviors

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Discretionary Assessment Methods

Contingent Assessment Methods

We offer you this job contingent


upon .
Contingent methods not always
used
Depends on nature of job and
legal mandates
Might involve confirmation of
Drug test results
Medical exam results

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Discretionary Assessment Methods

Drug Testing

The average drug user


was 3.6 times more likely to be
involved in an accident
received 3 times the average
level of sick benefits
was 5 times more likely to file a
workers compensation claim
missed 10 times as many work
days as nonusers
31% of all fatal truck accidents
were due to alcohol or drugs
Drug testing has decreased in recent
years because so few people test
positive

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Discretionary Assessment Methods

Medical Exams

Identify potential health risks in


job candidates
Must ensure medical exams are
required only when a compelling
reason exists
Ensures people with disabilities
unrelated to job performance
are not screened out
Usually lack validity as procedures
vary by doctor
Not always job related
Often emphasize short- rather
than long-term health

Recruitment & Selection: HUMB 313


Discretionary Assessment Methods

Class Activity

Refer to page 469: Evaluation of SAM.


Discuss the most appropriate test for these
positions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Sales Executives
Human Resource Executives
Fireman
Ambassadors
CEO
Car Wash Attendant
Accounts Manager

Do justify your answers according to the


information given in the table