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System Analysis

and Development
Honey Sepala Japos
BSIT -3
Chapter 1

THE IMPACT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
- IT is driving a new digital economy, where
advances in hardware, software and connectivity can
provide enormous benefits to businesses and individuals.
Although economic trends affect IT spending levels, most
firms give IT budget high priority, in good times or bad.

THE IMPACT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
THE FUTURE

Changes In the
World
Changes in
Technology
Changes in Client
Demand

THE IMPACT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

- Business information

systems are developed


by people who are
technically
qualified,
business-oriented and
highly
motivated.
Successful developers
also must be good
communicators
with
strong analytical and
critical thinking skills.

THE IMPACT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
System Analysis and Design is a step-by-step
process for developing high-quality information
systems.
o Information System combines information
technology, people and data to support
business requirements.
o System Analysts, who plan, develop and
maintain information systems.

THE IMPACT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Information
System

THE IMPACT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Who Develops Information Systems?
o In-house Applications Developed its own
information system.
o Software Packages - Purchased Systems from
outside vendors.

INFORMATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
System is a set of related components
that produces specific results.
Mission-Critical System is one that is vital to a
companys operations.
Data consists of basic facts that are the
systems raw material.
Information is data that has been transformed
into output that is valuable to users.

INFORMATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
Information System 5 Key Component
1. Hardware consist of everything in the
physical layer of the information system.

2. Software refers to the programs that control


the hardware and produce the desired
information or results.

INFORMATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
System Software manages the hardware
components, which can include a single workstation
or a global network with many thousand of clients.
Application Software consist of programs that
support day to day business functions and provide
users with the information they require.

INFORMATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS

Application
Software

INFORMATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
Application Software
Enterprise Application : Examples of company wide
application
Horizontal System : is a system such as an inventory or
payroll application that can be adapted for use in many
different types of companies.
Vertical System : is design to meet the unique
requirements of a specific business or industry such as
Web-based retailer, a medical practice or a video chain.
Legacy Systems : how the system will interface with
older systems.

INFORMATION SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
3. Data is the raw material that an information
system transforms into useful information
4. Processes describe the task and business
functions that users, managers, and IT staff
members perform to achieve specific result.
Processes are the building blocks of an
information system.
5. People
Stakeholders are the people who have an interest in an information systems

UNDERSTAND THE
BUSINESS
Business Process Modeling is a system
analyst use to represent company
operations and information needs.
Business Profile is an overview of a companys
mission, functions, organization, products,
services, customers, suppliers, competitors,
constraints and future direction.

UNDERSTAND THE
BUSINESS

Example of business process modeling of a process with a


normal flow with the Business Process Modeling Notation

UNDERSTAND THE BUSINESS


Business Process is a specific set of
transactions, events and results that can
be describe and documented.
Product Oriented
Service Oriented
Internet dependent (dot.com)
Brick and Mortar (Traditional Firms)

UNDERSTAND THE
BUSINESS

Business Process

IMPACT OF THE INTERNET


Internet-based commerce is called Ecommerce (Electronic Commerce) or Icommerce (Internet Commerce)
Two main sectors of E-commerce
B2C (Business-to-Consumer)
B2B (Business-to-Business)

EDI : Electronic Data Interchange


XML : Extensive Markup Language
SCM : Supply Chain Management
SRM : Supplier Relationship Management

IMPACT OF THE INTERNET

IMPACT OF THE INTERNET

BUSINESS INFORMATION
SYSTEM
Enterprise Computing refers to information
systems that support company wide
operations and data management
requirements.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is an
application system provide cost-effective
support for users and managers throughout
the company.

BUSINESS INFORMATION
SYSTEM
Transaction Processing (TP) systems
process data generated by day-to-day
business operations.
Business Support systems provide jobrelated information support to users at all
levels of a company.
Management Information System (MIS) is a
new system that could produce valuable
information.

BUSINESS INFORMATION
SYSTEM

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is the


newest development in data acquisition.

Knowledge Management Systems are


called Expert System.
Knowledge Base consist of a large
database that allows users to find
information by entering keywords or
questions in normal English phrases.

BUSINESS INFORMATION
SYSTEM
Inference Rules are logical rules that identify
data patterns and relationships.
Fuzzy Logic is a technique that allows
inferences to be drawn from imprecise
relationship.

User Productivity System include e-mail,


voice mail, fax, video and etc.
Groupware programs run on a company
intranet and enable users to share data,
collaborate on projects and work in teams.

WHAT INFORMATION DO
USERS NEED?
Top Managers
Strategic Plans define the companys overall
mission and goals.

Middle Managers & Knowledge Workers


Middle Managers provide direction, necessary
resources and performance feedback to
supervisors and team leaders.

WHAT INFORMATION DO
USERS NEED?
Knowledge Workers include professional staff members such as
system analysts, programmers, accountants, researchers,
trainers and human resource specialists.

Supervisors and Team Leaders oversee operational


employees and carry out day-to-day functions.
Operational Employees includes users who rely on TP
systems to enter and receive data they need to perform
their jobs.
Empowerment, gives employees more responsibility and
accountability.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
TOOLS
Modeling produces a graphical
representation of a concept or process
that systems can analyze, test, and
modify.
Business Model or Requirements Model
describe the information that a system must
provide.
Data Model describes data structures and
design.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
TOOLS

Modeling

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
TOOLS
Network Model describe the design and protocols
of telecommunication links.
Process Model describes the logic that
programmers use to write code modules.

Prototyping test system concepts and


provides an opportunity to examine input,
output and user interfaces before final
decision are made.
Prototype is an early working version of an
information system.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
TOOLS

Prototype

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
TOOLS
Computer-Aided Systems Engineering
(CASE) also called Computer-Aided
Software Engineering is a technique that
uses powerful software called CASE tools.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
TOOLS

CASE

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD

Structured Analysis
Object-Oriented Analysis
Agile Method/Adaptive Methods
Project Management is the process of
planning, scheduling, monitoring,
controlling and reporting upon the
development of an information system.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
Structured Analysis is traditional systems
development techniques that is time-tested and
easy to understand.
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a
series of phases.
Structure Analysis is based on an overall plan,
similar to a blueprint for constructing a building so it
is called Predictive Approach.
Process-Centered Technique focuses on processes
that transform data into useful information.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
Input data is transformed by business
rules that generate the output.
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) uses various
symbols and shapes to represent data
flow, processing and storage.
In waterfall model, the result of each
phase is called a deliverable or end
product which flows into the next phase.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
Systems Planning Phase usually begins
with a formal request to the IT department
called a system request which describe
problems or changes in an information
system or a business process.
Preliminary Investigation is a critical step
because the outcome will affect the entire
development process.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
A key part of the preliminary investigation
is a feasibility study that reviews
anticipated costs and benefits and
recommends a course of action base on
operational, technical, economic, and time
factors.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
System Analysis
is to built a logical model of the new system. The
first step is requirements modeling, where you
investigate business processes and document
what the new system satisfy the user.

System Design
Is to create a physical model that will satisfy all
documented requirements for the system.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
System Design Specification is the
deliverable for this phase which is
presented to management and users for
review and approval.
System Implementation
Systems Evaluation is to determine whether
the system operates properly and if costs and
benefits are within expectations.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
System Support and Security
Object-Oriented Analysis
Objects is the combined data and
processes that act on the data into things.
Class is a collection of similar objects.
Properties is an objects that possess
characteristics.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
Agile Methods in contrast attempt to
develop a system incrementally by
building a series of prototypes and
constantly adjusting them to user
requirements.
Spiral Model which represents a series of
iterations or revisions based on user
feedback.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHOD
Other Development Methods
Joint Application Development (JAD)
Rapid Application Development (RAD)

SYTEM DEVELOPMENT
GUIDELINES
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES
Develop a Plan

Prepare an overall project plan


and stick to it. Complete the
tasks in a logical sequence.
Develop a clear set of ground
rules and be sure that everyone
on the team understands them
clearly.

Involve users and listen carefully Ensure that users are involved
to them
in the development process,
especially when identifying and
modeling system requirements.
When you interact with users,
listen closely to what they are
saying.

THE INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
IT DEPARTMENT
Director
Information Technology

Application
Development

System Support
and Security

User Support

Database
Administration

Network
Administration

Web Support

Quality
Assura
nce

THE INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
Application Development
The IT Application Development group typically
provides leadership and overall guidance, but the
systems themselves are developed by teams
consisting of users, managers, and IT staff members.

System Support and Security provides vital


protection and maintenance services for system
hardware and software.
Deployment Teams who installs and configures the
workstation.

THE INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
User Support provides users with
technical information, training and
productivity support.
Help desk or Information Center are the users
support function usually.

Database Administration involves data


design, management, security, backup
and access.

THE INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
Network Administration includes hardware
and software maintenance, support and
security.
Web Support is a vital technical support
function.
Quality Assurance (QA) reviews and tests
all applications and system changes to
verify specifications and software quality
standards.

SYSTEM ANALYST
A system analyst investigates, analyzes,
design, develops, installs, evaluates and
maintains a companys information
systems.
Responsibilities
Knowledge, Skills and Education
Technical knowledge
Communication Skills

SYSTEM ANALYST

Business Skills
Critical thinking Skills
Education
Certification
Career Opportunities
Job Titles
Company Organization
Company Size

SYSTEM ANALYST
Corporate Culture
Salary, Location, and future growth