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Lecture 6:

Atmospheric Physics Basics

envp.rempillo@gmail.com

Composition of the Atmosphere

Composition of the Atmosphere <a href=http://climate.ncsu.edu/edu/k12/. AtmComposition " id="pdf-obj-1-4" src="pdf-obj-1-4.jpg">

Composition of the Atmosphere

Composition of the Atmosphere Oxygen (O ) – we need for breathing Carbon Dioxide (CO )

Oxygen (O 2 )

– we need for breathing Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) –

photosynthesis, also a greenhouse gas

All other trace gases interact in complex photochemical reactions and cycles (Really it’s complicated)

Trace gases are important

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Seinfeld and Pand

Oth

t

f

Expressing the amount of substance in the atmosphere

Concentrations

mol/m 3 Depends on atmospheric temperature and pressure

Mixing ratios: the ratio of the amount (or mass) of substance in a given volume divided the total amount (or mass) of all substance in the given volume

ppm (parts per million) 1/1,000,000 ppb (parts per billion) 1/1,000,000,000 ppt (parts per trillion) 1/1,000,000,000,000

Molar ratio (ppm), mass ratio (ppmm), volume ratio (ppmv)

Structure of the Atmosphere

Decreasing and increasing temperature trends

Troposphere is where weather occurs (10-15 km), 80% of the atmosphere’s mass

Stratosphere has the ozone layer (45-55 km), UV absorption of O 3

causes heating

Mesosphere – coldest point in the atmosphere (80 – 90 km)

Thermosphere – lower part has the ionosphere where ions are produced by photoionization. Upper

Structure of the Atmosphere • Decreasing and increasing temperature trends • Troposphere is where weather occurs

Checkpoint

Recall the ideal gas law, and lessons on thermal energy and temperature. Why do you think temperature decreases with height?

As air rises into areas of lower pressure it expands because there are less molecules around it to compress it. The molecules in the air use some of their energy to move apart from each other, causing the air temperature to decrease

Solar Radiation

The sun is the earth’s main source of energy

Some fun sun facts:

Solar Radiation • The sun is the earth’s main source of energy • Some fun sunhttp://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/eas100/ ATMSnotes.pd " id="pdf-obj-6-10" src="pdf-obj-6-10.jpg">

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum <a href=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum " id="pdf-obj-7-4" src="pdf-obj-7-4.jpg">

The atmosphere is our window

The atmosphere is our window <a href=http://climate.ncsu.edu/edu/k12/.LWSW " id="pdf-obj-8-4" src="pdf-obj-8-4.jpg">

Seasons

Tilt in earth’s axis produces seasons (not the distance from the sun, we are closest to the sun in january)

Also causes different length of days during season

Animation

Seasons • Tilt in earth’s axis produces seasons (not the distance from the sun, we arehttp ://www.mathsisfun.com/earth- Northern Hemisphere Summer orbit.html Southern Hemisphere Summer " id="pdf-obj-9-24" src="pdf-obj-9-24.jpg">
Seasons • Tilt in earth’s axis produces seasons (not the distance from the sun, we arehttp ://www.mathsisfun.com/earth- Northern Hemisphere Summer orbit.html Southern Hemisphere Summer " id="pdf-obj-9-31" src="pdf-obj-9-31.jpg">
Seasons • Tilt in earth’s axis produces seasons (not the distance from the sun, we arehttp ://www.mathsisfun.com/earth- Northern Hemisphere Summer orbit.html Southern Hemisphere Summer " id="pdf-obj-9-33" src="pdf-obj-9-33.jpg">

Southern Hemisphere Summer

Global Atmospheric Circulation

• Heating at the equator and cooling at the poles (convection) • Coriolis Effect – causes
• Heating at the
equator and
cooling at the
poles (convection)
• Coriolis Effect –
causes deflection
• Animation:
https
://www.youtube.com/watc
h?v=
mcPs_OdQOYU

Incoming

= 342 W/m 2

Reflected

= 107 W/m 2

Outgoing Longwave

= 235 W/m 2

Energy is balance In = Out

Energy balance

• Incoming = 342 W/m 2 • Reflected = 107 W/m 2 • Outgoing Longwave =https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_d ata/ar4/wg1/en/fig/faq-1-1-figure-1- l.png " id="pdf-obj-11-25" src="pdf-obj-11-25.jpg">

Quiz

1. Name 3 most abundant components of the earth’s atmosphere

2. What is the lowest layer of the earth’s atmosphere where weather occurs

3. True or False, seasons are caused by earth’s distance to the sun

4. ______

effect causes deflection of air

circulation due to the earth’s rotation

Final Project and Presentation

Final paper due on August 15 (Monday class), Aug 17 (Wed class), Aug 18 (Thurs class) Presentation dates:

Monday class (Aug 8 and 15) Wed class (Aug 10 and 17) Thurs class (Aug 11 and 18)

Presentations will be maximum 15 minutes long for each group

All groups must be ready on the first day of presentation, the order of presentation will be drawn randomly