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Examples of black bodies:

A star
Molten lava

Hot iron

- Excellent
black body
emitter

The emissivity e is a
dimensionless number
between zero and one

It is the ratio of what an


object radiates to what the
object would radiate if it
were a pecfect emitter.

Q = e T4 At

StefanBoltzmann
constant

P = e T4 A
Q = e T4 A t
t

= 5.67 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4

Solution :

The tungsten filament in a 100 W light bulb has


an area of about 0.26 cm2 and reaches a
temperature of about 3430 oC. Assuming that
all 100 W goes into radiant energy, find the
emissivity of the tungsten filament.

P = 100 W,
A = 0.26 cm2 = 0.26 x 104 m2.
T = 3430 oC = 3700 K (dont forgettemperatures in
Kelvin!). find the emissivity of the filament.
The equation for the total intensity emitted by a
radiating object is given by

since the power is defined to be the energy per unit time (1 watt
= 1 joule per second; ! W = 1 J/s). We thus get that

The energy of molecules in the


atmosphere is in there forms :

Translational
kinetic energy
Movement of
air molecules
through
space

Rotational
kinetic
energy
Spinning of
air molecules

Vibrational
energy
Vibrations of
atoms in
molecules

The collisions between molecules due to heat agitation are


called thermal collisions
Thermal collisions allow heat energy to be distributed among
the air molecules
The temperature of a gas is proportional to the mean
translational kinetic energy of the molecules

Some solar
radiation is
reflected by the
Earth and the
atmosphere

Solar radiation
passes through
the clear
atmosphere
Most radiation is absorbed
by the earths surface and
warms it

Some of the infrared


radiation passes through the
atmosphere, and some is
absorbed and re-emitted in
all directions by greenhouse
gas molecules. The effect of
this is to warm the earths
surface and the lower
atmosphere

Infrared radiation is emitted


from the earths surface

Selected Greenhouse Gases


Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Source: Fossil fuel burning, deforestation

Anthropogenic increase: 30%

Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years

Methane (CH4)
Source: Rice cultivation, cattle & sheep ranching, decay
from landfills, mining

Anthropogenic increase: 145%

Average atmospheric residence time: 7-10 years

Nitrous oxide (N2O)


Source: Industry and agriculture (fertilizers)

Anthropogenic increase: 15%

Average atmospheric residence time: 140-190 years

Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming


The greenhouse effect & global
warming are not the same thing.
Global warming refers to a rise in the
temperature of the surface of the earth

An increase in the concentration of


greenhouse gases leads to an
increase in the the magnitude of the
greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced
greenhouse effect)
This results in global warming

The figure belows shows ways to


reduce global warming

1. A good example of a blackbody is


a. a shiny black car
b. a mirror.
c. a deep red Christmas ball.
d. a closet with the door slightly ajar.
e. the deep blue sky.
Next question

To answer :

2. An object in thermal equilibrium with its


surroundings must
a.have a black color.
b. emit as much radiation as it absorbs.
c. be at 300 K.
d. reflect the same color as its surroundings.
e. refract light from its surroundings.
Next question

To answer :

3. The higher the temperature of a


blackbody, the
a.more radiation it emits.
b. smaller it must be.
c. more black it appears.
d. larger the radius of curvature.
e. more it conducts energy.
Next question

To answer :

4. Tomorrow we will have


a. another of our extremely simple-minded
quizzes which do nothing but insult our
intelligence.
b. a HUGE activity.
c. birthday cake.
d. the same as (a).
e. our second test, for which weve been
studying religiously.

To answer :

1. A good example of a blackbody is


a. a shiny black car
b. a mirror.
c. a deep red Christmas ball.
d. a closet with the door slightly ajar.
e. the deep blue sky.
back

2. An object in thermal equilibrium with its


surroundings must
a.have a black color.
b. emit as much radiation as it absorbs.
c. be at 300 K.
d. reflect the same color as its surroundings.
e. refract light from its surroundings.
back

3. The higher the temperature of a


blackbody, the
a.more radiation it emits.
b. smaller it must be.
c. more black it appears.
d. larger the radius of curvature.
e. more it conducts energy.
back

4. Tomorrow we will have


a. another of our extremely simple-minded
quizzes which do nothing but insult our
intelligence.
b. a HUGE activity.
c. birthday cake.
d. the same as (a).
e. our second test, for which weve been
studying religiously.
back