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# Examples of black bodies:

A star
Molten lava

Hot iron

- Excellent
black body
emitter

The emissivity e is a
dimensionless number
between zero and one

## It is the ratio of what an

were a pecfect emitter.

Q = e T4 At

StefanBoltzmann
constant

P = e T4 A
Q = e T4 A t
t

Solution :

## The tungsten filament in a 100 W light bulb has

an area of about 0.26 cm2 and reaches a
temperature of about 3430 oC. Assuming that
all 100 W goes into radiant energy, find the
emissivity of the tungsten filament.

P = 100 W,
A = 0.26 cm2 = 0.26 x 104 m2.
T = 3430 oC = 3700 K (dont forgettemperatures in
Kelvin!). find the emissivity of the filament.
The equation for the total intensity emitted by a

since the power is defined to be the energy per unit time (1 watt
= 1 joule per second; ! W = 1 J/s). We thus get that

## The energy of molecules in the

atmosphere is in there forms :

Translational
kinetic energy
Movement of
air molecules
through
space

Rotational
kinetic
energy
Spinning of
air molecules

Vibrational
energy
Vibrations of
atoms in
molecules

## The collisions between molecules due to heat agitation are

called thermal collisions
Thermal collisions allow heat energy to be distributed among
the air molecules
The temperature of a gas is proportional to the mean
translational kinetic energy of the molecules

Some solar
reflected by the
Earth and the
atmosphere

passes through
the clear
atmosphere
by the earths surface and
warms it

## Some of the infrared

atmosphere, and some is
absorbed and re-emitted in
all directions by greenhouse
gas molecules. The effect of
this is to warm the earths
surface and the lower
atmosphere

from the earths surface

## Selected Greenhouse Gases

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Source: Fossil fuel burning, deforestation

## Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years

Methane (CH4)
Source: Rice cultivation, cattle & sheep ranching, decay
from landfills, mining

## Nitrous oxide (N2O)

Source: Industry and agriculture (fertilizers)

## Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming

The greenhouse effect & global
warming are not the same thing.
Global warming refers to a rise in the
temperature of the surface of the earth

## An increase in the concentration of

increase in the the magnitude of the
greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced
greenhouse effect)
This results in global warming

## The figure belows shows ways to

reduce global warming

## 1. A good example of a blackbody is

a. a shiny black car
b. a mirror.
c. a deep red Christmas ball.
d. a closet with the door slightly ajar.
e. the deep blue sky.
Next question

## 2. An object in thermal equilibrium with its

surroundings must
a.have a black color.
b. emit as much radiation as it absorbs.
c. be at 300 K.
d. reflect the same color as its surroundings.
e. refract light from its surroundings.
Next question

## 3. The higher the temperature of a

blackbody, the
b. smaller it must be.
c. more black it appears.
d. larger the radius of curvature.
e. more it conducts energy.
Next question

## 4. Tomorrow we will have

a. another of our extremely simple-minded
quizzes which do nothing but insult our
intelligence.
b. a HUGE activity.
c. birthday cake.
d. the same as (a).
e. our second test, for which weve been
studying religiously.

## 1. A good example of a blackbody is

a. a shiny black car
b. a mirror.
c. a deep red Christmas ball.
d. a closet with the door slightly ajar.
e. the deep blue sky.
back

## 2. An object in thermal equilibrium with its

surroundings must
a.have a black color.
b. emit as much radiation as it absorbs.
c. be at 300 K.
d. reflect the same color as its surroundings.
e. refract light from its surroundings.
back

## 3. The higher the temperature of a

blackbody, the
b. smaller it must be.
c. more black it appears.
d. larger the radius of curvature.
e. more it conducts energy.
back

## 4. Tomorrow we will have

a. another of our extremely simple-minded
quizzes which do nothing but insult our
intelligence.
b. a HUGE activity.
c. birthday cake.
d. the same as (a).
e. our second test, for which weve been
studying religiously.
back