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THE STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCTION

SYSTEM OF TONGKONAN IN SOUTH


SULAWESI, INDONESIA

NUR RATIH R | ALB-UB |


146060500111003

LOCATION

Toraja is located in the South Sulawesi Province.


300 km northwards of the province capital, Makassar.

LEGEND
The legend in Toraja said that Toraja people arrived from north by
sea. There were a storm and their boats were so damaged. It can
not be used anymore., so they used them as roofs for their homes.

Tongkonan always face towards north because in Torajan


culture, north is the place of God

ORNAMENT
S
The buildinga are carved with ornaments in
various shapes.
The colors are black, yellow, red and white

The meaning of the colors are :


Black : death and dakness
Yellow : Gods blessing and power
Red
: the clor of blood,
symbolizes
human life
White : the color of bone, means
purity

THE MATERIALS OF TONGKONAN


Tongkonan was built with natural materials like bamboo, timber,
rattan, and wooden tree.
Toraja people usually gained these materials from the forest and the
nature surrounds them.
They used simple and traditional carpenter tools to build their house

THE LAY OUT PLAN OF TONGKONAN


In Toraja villages, the houses stand in a row facing the
rice granaries called Alang
Parampa is the yard that lies between Tongkonan and
Alang.

The Tongkonan (right) and the rice granaries (left) in Tikala


district

There are at least three rooms inside Tongkonan


1. Tangdo : located in the north. Tangdo is the sleeping
quarter of unmarried girls.
2. Sali
: the familys main living area
3. Sumbung: located in the south. It is functioned as place
for the master of the house and his wife sleep. Here are
stored valuable things in large baskets/ trunks called
batutu.

THE STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCTION


OF THE TORAJA TRADITIONAL HOUSE
Tongkonan vertical structure and its structural system consist of 3 main
parts :
1. Feet of the building/ sub structure (Sullu Banua)
2. Body of the building/ middle structure (Kale Banua)
3. Roof of the building/ the upper structure (Ratiang Banua)

The Sub Structure


The sub structures are made from wood.
The posts are located on stones without any ties within.
There are four or many sided posts that set on the base stones are
connected by cross beams which pass through holes chiseled in
the posts.

There are three cross beams in longitudinal and transversal


section that tie the posts and create vertical and lateral stability.

The Middle Structure


Middle part of the building is functioned as a place for daily
activities. The height of this part is about two meters.
The floors consist of thick transverse boards
The walls consist of flat rectangular framework which
passing through the horizontal beam. The walls framework
stand on the beams of the floor frames and in the upper
ends support the top beam.
The frames are filled with thin boards, usually over 40 cm
wide

The Upper Structure


The distinctive structure of the Tingkonan house is a curved roof.

Toraja house roof has two ridges, the upper ridge called
pekadang panuring is supported by two free standing posts
called tulak somba. Tulak somba posts are placed outside the
house, at the north and south side.

The lower ridge called pekadang para has smaller


dimension than the upper one. Rafters are placed
between upper and lower ridge which means that the
ridges clamp the rafters

To produce the curve line of the roof, other ridges are added,
placed on the straight ridge and slope upward in slanting
position. The slanted ridges and slanted beams called longa are
hold together by a short beam with a plank shaped like a dagger
called busu-busu. Another slanted ridges and busu-busu can be
added to make a longer and higher cantilever.

CONCLUSION
Toraja house were built according to the culture
and belief of Toraja people.
It used natural materials like bamboo, timber,
rattan, and wooden tree.
There are three main parts of this house, the sub
structure, middle structure and upper structure.
Each part has specific composition that support
the building itself.

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