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Part II AUTOMATION AND

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
Chapters:
4. Introduction to Automation
5. Industrial Control Systems
6. Hardware Components for Automation and Process
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7. Numerical
Control
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8. Industrial Robotics
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Discrete
Control
Using in
Programmable
Logic
Controllers
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and Personal
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Ch 4 Introduction to Automation
Sections:
1. Basic Elements of an Automated System
2. Advanced Automation Functions
3. Levels of Automation
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Automation and Control Technologies


in the Production System
Fig. 4-1

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Automation Defined
Automation is the technology by which a process or
procedure is accomplished without human
assistance.
Basic elements of an automated system:
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and NJ.
operate
reserved. the
Thisautomated
material is protected
system under all copyright laws as
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2. Program
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
3. Control
to in
actuate
instructions
any means,
withoutsystem
permission
writingthe
from
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Elements of an Automated System


Fig. 4-2

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Electricity The Principal Power Source


Widely available at moderate cost
Can be readily converted to alternative forms, e.g.,
mechanical, thermal, light, etc.
Low level power can be used for signal transmission, data
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and communication
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Can beThis
stored
in long-life
batteries
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Power to Accomplish the


Automated Process
Power for the process
To drive the process itself
To load and unload the work unit
Transport between operations
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Power for automation
reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as
Controller
unit
theycurrently
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Power
control
signals in any form or by
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materialthe
may
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Data without
acquisition
and information
processing
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Program of Instructions
Set of commands that specify the sequence of steps in the
work cycle and the details of each step
Example: CNC part program
During each step, there are one or more activities
involving
changes
in one
moreSaddle
process
parameters
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Examples:
reserved.
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Temperature
setting of a furnace
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positioning
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Motor on or off
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Decision-Making in a
Programmed Work Cycle
The following are examples of automated work cycles in
which decision making is required:
Operator interaction
Automated teller machine
Different
part or product
stylesSaddle
processed
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Robot
welding cycle for two-door vs. four door car
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models
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Variations
in permission
the startinginwork
units
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Additional
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pass
for oversized sand
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Features of a Work Cycle Program


Number of steps in the work cycle
Manual participation in the work cycle (e.g., loading
and unloading workparts)
Process parameters - how many must be controlled?
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data?is protected under all copyright laws as
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Variations in part or product styles
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Variations
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sometheadjustments
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any means,
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publisher. For
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parameters
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for differences
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Control System Two Types


1. Closed-loop (feedback) control system a system in
which the output variable is compared with an input
parameter, and any difference between the two is used
to drive the output into agreement with the input
2. Open-loop
control system
operates
without
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Simpler
and less expensive
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Risk
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intended
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effect
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(a) Feedback Control System and


(b) Open-Loop Control System

(a)

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Positioning System Using


Feedback Control
A one-axis position control system consisting of a
leadscrew driven by a dc servomotor and using an optical
encoder as the feedback sensor
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When to Use an
Open-Loop Control System
Actions performed by the control system are simple
Actuating function is very reliable
Any reaction forces opposing the actuation are small
enough as to have no effect on the actuation
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If these
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do not
a closed-loop
control
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systemThis
should
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Advanced Automation Functions


1. Safety monitoring
2. Maintenance and repair diagnostics
3. Error detection and recovery
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Safety Monitoring
Use of sensors to track the system's operation and
identify conditions that are unsafe or potentially unsafe
Reasons for safety monitoring
To protect workers and equipment
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hazards:
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Complete
stoppage
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system
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Sounding an alarm
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Reducing
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Automation,
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Maintenance and Repair Diagnostics


Status monitoring
Monitors and records status of key sensors and
parameters during system operation
Failure diagnostics
Invoked
when a malfunction
occursRiver, NJ. All rights
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analyze
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Recommendation
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crew
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Error Detection and Recovery


1. Error detection functions:
Use the systems available sensors to determine
when a deviation or malfunction has occurred
Correctly interpret the sensor signal
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2. Error
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Make
adjustments at end of work cycle
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Make
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Automation,
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Stop
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Levels of Automation
1. Device level actuators, sensors, and other hardware
components to form individual control loops for the next
level
2. Machine level CNC machine tools and similar
production
equipment,
robots,
material
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Cell or system
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Plant of
level
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any
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corporate
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Levels of Automation
Fig. 4.6

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