You are on page 1of 20

LIMATE RESPONSIVE DESIGN

FUNDAMENTALS

Submitted byMohak verma 12/ar/001


Azam firoz 12/ar/002
Shah zain12/ar/008
Aayush 12/ar/015

MICRO CLIMATE (Introduction)


In the built environment we are generally concerned with local
climatic systems in particular:
1.

Micro-climatethe variations in localised climate around a building

The macro and micro climate has a very important effect on


both the energy performance and environmental performance
of buildings, both in the heating season and in summer.

Factors Influencing Micro


Climate
1. Solar Access
Minimising solar overheating in summer while maximising solar access
during the winter.
Buildings with a heating requirement should be orientated north south with
maximum glazing on the south face.
Trees offer an excellent means of site shading
The colour of surrounding surfaces will have an effect on the solar
radiation available to the building.
Grass planted outside a building will reduce the ground reflected solar.
Use of courtyards and water can also moderate the effects of high
temperatures on summer.

Factors Influencing Micro


Climate
2. Wind Control

Avoidance of funnel-like gaps between buildings


Avoidance of flat roofed buildings and cubical forms
Avoid abrupt changes in building heights
Orientate long axis of the building parallel to the direction of the wind.
Groups of buildings can be arranged inirregular patterns to avoid wind
tunneling.
Trees and fencing and other landscape features (mounds of earth and
hedges) - reduce the impact of wind and driving rain on the building
structure.

Climatic Characteristics And


Microclimatic control

Before discussing the tools of passive cooling techniques used by Mughals, it would be
pertinent to have some idea of the climate prevailing in North India.
Composite climate occurs in most of the areas ruled by Mughals in North India which is
characterized by dominated hot and dry conditions two third of the year and, a somewhat
cold and a warm humid season occur in the remaining one third of the year.
Mughals also used this tool not only as a symbol but to improve the quality of the immediate
surrounding environment of their buildings that is microclimate. The environment outside the
building is important to control the inside temperature of the building.

Climatic Characteristics And Microclimatic


control
Canal of paradise
(water channel
passing through
indoor space)

Water body at fatehpur sikri


Vegetation around
Agra Fort

Fountain improves air


quality

Universal business school, Karjat,


Mumbai

Integrated Indoor-Outdoor Living

Red fort is entirely


surrounded by
garden

Universal business school,


Karjat, Mumbai

Birkha bawari, Jodhpur

Not all the spaces in past buildings were maintained naturally comfortable at all times.

With minor inconvenience, the users were suggested to shift from less comfortable spaces to
more comfortable spaces depending upon the seasonal changes.

Verandah act as
buffer between
indoor and
outdoor spaces.

Step wells are the


source of summer as
well as the shelter for
summers.

Thermal Mass
Thick walls
provides thermal
insulation.

JDT Islam campus,


Calicut
Part of domical roof is
always shaded.

Vaults at nalanda international


school, vadodara

When the outer temperature is lowered at night, the high emissive


property of the walls allows cooling down the wall surfaces rapidly.
Flat roofs get more radiations while vaulted and domed roofs prevent the

Arched ceiling helps


to cool internal space
of the roof.

absorption of heat of the summers vertical sun.

Courtyard
In Red Fort, Delhi Emperors throne is
surrounded by two sets of opening
Courtyard as a
moderator of internal
climate

Courtyard with vegetation and


water body enhances humidity.

Universal Business School,


Karjat, Mumbai

Courtyard provide shade.

The natural cooling may be achieved by cutting off the


suns radiations.
The sunshades not only protect from suns radiations
through the windows but walls too.

Horizontal (deciduous vine) and vertical shading

Shading
Devices

Deep carving causes


mutual shading.

Deep inclinations
protect walls and
openings from
sun.

Evaporative
Cooling
Water channel outside
building

1. Ground cover
2. Water sprinkler
3. Insulated roof
4. Shading trees
5. Water trough

a typical section showing passive solar


features of WALMI building, Bhopal

Evaporative cooling is a passive cooling technique in which outdoor


air is cooled by evaporating water before it is introduced in the
building.
Its physical principle lies in the fact that the heat of air is used to
evaporate water, thus cooling the air, which in turn cools the living
space in the building.
To enhance the process of evaporation, fountains were used which
mixed the moisture to the air and increased the humidity.

Natural
Ventilation

Natural ventilation is the result of differential wind

Domed canopy and


wide entrance space
for air to get cooler.

Vent near
dome allow hot
air to escape.

forces on various building surfaces and temperature difference between outside and inside air.
There are several factors which affects the air flow within the buildings such as microclimate, size and
proportion of windows, orientation with respect to wind direction etc.
When the air with a greater velocity enters into a wider space, sudden expansion results in lowering down of
the temperature of inside spaces of the buildings.

Lattice Screen
(Jaali)

S C Techno School, Bangalore


Jaali ensures privacy and
provide diffuse light and
view.

Jaali work featured in ITM


business school, Gwalior

It controls the airflow and lower down the temperature of internal spaces on the other.
When there is sunshine outside in the day, the internal spaces are not clearly visible from outside.
however, the diffused light is spread throughout the interiors.
To get a clear outside view, a cutout is provided at eye level for the viewer sitting on the floor.
Jaali in Mughal buildings mostly have a low sill or sometimes without sill so that the air could move
near the floor.

ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPEPLANTS
ENVIRONMENTAL ROLE
POLLUTION CONTROL
NOISE CONTROL
CLIMATE CONTROL

Embankments., deciduous and


evergreen plantings and masonry walls
are used together for effective sound
control.

Use of windbreaks to
control winter winds

Use of deciduous
plants to direct
summer breezes

Microclimate created.
Moisture level maintained.
Wetland, marshes, swampy areas are
conserved.
Maintaining vegetation into wetlands.
Site aesthetics are enhanced

Typical meteorological year


Atypical meteorological year(TMY)
isacollationofselectedweatherdata
foraspecificlocation,generatedfrom
adatabankmuchlongerthanayearin
duration.Itisspeciallyselectedsothat
itpresentstherangeofweatherforthe
location.
TMYdataisfrequentlyusedin
buildingsimilution,inordertoassess
theexpectedheatingandcoolingcosts
forthedesignofthebuilding.
Itisalsousedbydesignersofsolar
energysystemsincludingsolar
domestichotwatersystemsandlarge
scalesolarthermalpowerplants.

OPICAL AND SUB TROPICAL CLIMA


Characteristics of Tropical
Climates

choice of material
thermal mass of material

lightweight material: timber, wood,


Temperature average mean
galvanised iron
temperature 20 30 deg.C
Humidity Level 50% to 100% durability
concrete, brick
Relative Humidity
Wind Conditions Slow wind good insulator of heat
design strategies
thatch, terra cotta, build double walls
flow
Sun shading devices
Building orientation
Maximum ventilation
Choice of material

sun shading devices


reduce amount of radiation *
by reflection and absorption

improve distribution of light *


building orientation

minimize solar gain,


maximize natural ventilation
avoid facing east & west

maximum sun exposure

main windows & longer sides face

north or south

to catch

prevailing breeze

ventilation

to better indoor air quality & achieve thermal comfort


natural & mechanical

two principles:
Cross ventilation
Stack ventilation

Climatic
elements
Solar radiation and cloud cover

Temperature
Wind and storms
Humidity and fog
Precipitation

Solar radiation and cloud cover


Theclimateofaregionisultimately
determinedbytheradiationenergyof
thesun,anditsdistributionand
temporalheatgain.

Temperature

Temperatureishowhotorcoldthe
atmosphereis,howmanydegreesitis
aboveorbelowfreezing.Temperatureis
averyimportantfactorindetermining
theweather,becauseitcontrolsother
elementsoftheweather,suchas
precipitation,humidity,cloudsand
atmosphericpressure.

Humidity and fog


Humidityistheamountofwatervaporin
theatmosphere.
Precipitationistheproductofarapid
condensationprocessItmayinclude
snow,hail,sleet,drizzle,fog,mistand
rain.

Thank you