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Vitamins and Minerals

The Nature of Vitamins


Vitamins

are organic (carbon) compounds


needed for normal function, growth and
maintenance.
Vitamins are cofactors, they dont do
anything by themselves.
They are not a source of calories.

The Nature of Vitamins


Organic

cofactors what is a cofactor?


Prevents disease unlike supplements
which may promote some thing or have
general metabolic effect
(ex. Omega 3s, fibers)
Natural = Synthetic (except Vitamin E)

The Nature of Vitamins

Nutritional Value lost by:


Light
Heat
Oxidation
Bacteria
Enzymes
Insects

Effect of packaging on
nutrient loss in milk.

The Nature of Vitamins

Food processing can


preserve nutrients.

Vitamin Requirements

Daily Values (DV): standard nutrient intake values


developed by FDA
Includes DRIs (Daily Recommended Intakes for
Individuals) and (DRVs) Daily Recommended
Values (Proteins, etc.)
Disease prevention
Best met through a consumption of a wide
variety of foods

Vitamin Requirements
Dietary

Reference Intakes (DRI):


recommendation for individuals (more
accurate, but would be impossible to label)
Age
Gender
Pregnancy
Lactation

Vitamin Requirements
Daily

Reference Values (DRV): standards


established for protein and other dietary
components lacking a RDA or nutrient
standard
Constitute part of the Daily Values (DV)
used on food labels

Fat Soluble Vitamins

A orange, carotenoids, vision, antioxidant- used as


color and antioxidant

D we make it with sunlight, deficiency causes


rickets, in milk, regulates Ca:P ratios

E tocopherols, antioxidants, role in preventing


stroke, cancer, heart disease- used as antioxidant

K contributes to blood clotting factor

Vitamin A

Lots of double bonds, good anti-oxidant

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Vitamin A

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Carrotinoids Used in food industry as a


colorant (orange) (label friendly)
Antioxidant (label friendly)
Stored in liver
Important for sight
Deficiency causes ~500,000 cases
of night blindness worldwide
Genetically engineered rice with high
Vitamin A can prevent night blindness
Carrotenosis

Vitamin D

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Also known as calciferol due to its role in calcium


absorption

Main role is to maintain calcium and potassium


levels

It is the only fat soluble vitamin that we can makein the presence of sunlight

Can be made from cholesterol

Vitamin D

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Can be stored in fat tissues (as can all fat soluble


vitamins)
Elderly are at risk- not enough sunlight
We get vitamin D form fortified milk and cereal
Toxicity is very dangerous
Occurs only from excess supplementation
Can lead to calcium deposits in kidneys, heart
and blood vessels

Vitamin D

Rickets can be caused by lack of


sunlight, but also from insufficient
calcium. Vitamin D linked to
calcium absorption.
(Rickets reported in NYC.)

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Vitamin E

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A family of eight naturally occurring compounds


Used as an anti-oxidant in foods
Since aging is considered an oxidation reaction,
many anti-oxidants are used as dietary
supplements
Deficiencies are not well understood
Role is stroke, cancer, heart, and immune
response

Vitamin K

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Contributes to synthesis of seven blood


clotting factors

Can be reactivated to continue biological action

Works as a cofactor for an enzyme that makes two


bone proteins

Water Soluble Vitamins


Relatively

cheap to
add to food
Only Vitamin C is
used for its
functionality

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Water Soluble Vitamins

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B1, thiamine
B2, riboflavin
B6, pyridoxamine
B12
Biotin
Panothenic acid
Niacin
Folacin
Vitamin C

Water Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin B1
Thiamine
Involved in carbohydrate metabolism
Helps body metabolize glucose, affects central
nervous system
Deficiency causes Beri beri
(Singlese, I cant, I cant)

B2- riboflavin
Energy metabolism

Water Soluble Vitamins


B6

- Pyridoxamine
Neurotransmitter, co-enzyme in over 100
reactions

B12

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Development of red blood cells


Lack of it makes one anemic
Hard for vegans to get

Water Soluble Vitamins


Biotin

Involved in fatty acid synthesis


Deficiency causes skin disease and hair loss

Panthothenic

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acid

Found in many foods


Essential for metabolism of carbohydrates,
protein, alcohol and fat

Water Soluble Vitamins

Choline

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A major component of cell


membranes
Folacin = Folate = Folic
acid
Deficiency causes neural
tube defects in utero
Took Rutgers Professor 20
years to for FDA approval
as enrichment Why?

Vitamin C
Ascorbic

acid
Very inexpensive to add to food, marketing
tool. Antioxidant
Deficiency leads to bleeding gums,
hemorrhages
High in citrus fruits, limes, (Limeys)

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Vitamin C - Scurvy

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Niacin (B3)
Energy

metabolism
Disease pellagra The Four Ds

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Dermatitis
Diarrhea
Dementia
Death

Minerals

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Issues
Absorption
Bioavailability

Minerals

Percent of Body weight

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Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sulfur
Sodium
Chloride
Magnesium
Iron

2%
1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.05%
0.04%

Minerals

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Calcium
99% is structural
~25% absorption
Vitamin D aids absorption
75% is obtained from
dairy products
Many products are
fortified with it
Built in youth, lost in
maturity

Very hard for vegans to get


enough calcium

Calcium

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Osteoporosis a pediatric
disease with geriatric
consequences
1.5 million fractures each
year- major cause of
subsequent mortality (25%
within one year)
14 billion in direct health cost
25 million women at risk
DRI women 600 800 mg/day
National Osteoporosis
Foundation www.nof.org

Calcium

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Risk FactorsYour gender.


Age.
Race.
Frame size.
Eating disorders.
Low calcium intake.
Excess soda consumption (Ca:P ratio).
The link between osteoporosis and caffeinated sodas isn't clear, but
caffeine may interfere with calcium absorption and its diuretic effect
may increase mineral loss. In addition, the phosphoric acid in soda
may contribute to bone loss.

Bone density can be improved at any time.

Soda is the devils drink


Extra

calories
Poor nutrient
density
Interferes with
calcification
Replaces more
nutritious drinks
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Minerals

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Phosphorus
Easily absorbed by the body
Enhanced by Vitamin D
Deficiency are rare
Soda, phosphoric acid

Potassium
A primary electrolyte in blood
Associated with lower blood pressure
Athletes

Minerals

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Sodium and Chloride


Added during processing
Enhances flavor
Excess Sodium can lead to hypertension
High blood pressure
Salt sensitivity genetics and race

Salt Uses in Food


Enhances
Salty

other flavors, cuts cost

taste
Increases consumer acceptance
Raises boiling point of liquids (pasta)
Masks bitter tastes
Food safety
Water binding
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Minerals

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Sulfur
Necessary for collagen formation

Magnesium
Abundant in plants

Minerals
Iron

Most common and easily preventable deficiency


Needed for oxygen absorption, immune function,
developmental performance
Poor absorption from plant sources
Low iron causes anemia, especially in menstruating women
Toxicity
6 12 vitamins with 100% iron content will kill a small
child
(The dose makes the poison.)

Fortification vs Enrichment
Fortification

- restores lost
nutrients due to processing

Enrichment

adds nutritional value to


meet a specific standard
Old London
Restaurant Style Croutons. Seasoned
Sourdough.

Enriched Bread,
[Enriched Flour
(Flour,
Niacin,
Ferrous Sulfate,
Thiamin Mononitrate,
Riboflavin,
Folic Acid),
Water,
Yeast,
Sugar,
Salt,
Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil ,
Vinegar,
Ascorbic Acid]
Bean Oil with BHT added as a Dextrin

ZINC

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Zinc : Its role in human body

3rd most abundant trace element in body


There are no zinc stores in the body to mobilize from,
and in 16 hours an animal can be deficient with rapid
effects.
Functions:
Metabolism (functions in over 200 enzymatic
reactions)
Antioxidant function
Immunity and Wound healing
Fetal Growth and Development
Production of brain neurotransmitters

Zinc and its effect


When pregnant mice were fed a diet
moderately deficient in zinc, their offspring
exhibited a malfunctioning immune system
for the first six months of life. More
alarming, the second and third generations
also showed signs of poor immunity - even
though they were fed a zinc-plentiful diet.
Jean Carper, writing in Jean Carper's Total Nutrition Guide, in reference to zinc studies done at U.C. Davis

Problem
Large

sections of populations in Africa and Asia


are at risk of dietary zinc deficiency and
resulting high rates of stunting.

International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). Assessment of the


risk of zinc deficiency in populations. Food Nutr Bull 2004;25:S130-62

30- 50% of children residing in low income setting have


low serum or plasma zinc
Overall poor dietary intake
Low intake of animal source of food
High consumption of phytates
Increased fecal losses during diarrheal illnesses