Sie sind auf Seite 1von 75

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

OCCURING ON THE EARTH

Structural Geology
Rocks below the earth's surface are hot and tend to flow, whereas rocks at
the surface are relatively cool and tend to be more brittle. Thus, rocks at
the surface (or near-surface) fracture while rocks deep inside the earth
flow.
Deformation: when rocks are subjected to stresses (forces) greater than
their own internal strength. Caused by stress and resulting in strain

Stress -- force acting upon an object to create deformation


Strain -- resultant of the stress applied; end product
There are several types of stresses that can be applied to a rock unit:
1. Extension or tension (pulling apart)
2. Compression (pushing together)
3. Shearing or twisting (one portion in one direction, the other portion in
another direction)

Deformation of
Rocks

Folding and faulting are the most


common forms of deformation in
the sedimentary, igneous and
metamorphic rocks that compose
the Earths crust
Structural Geology is the study of
the deformation of rocks and its
effects.

Dynamic forces within the Earth cause deformation.


Deformation is a general term that in geology
applies to any change in the shape or volume of
rock layers, such as when they are folded or
fractured.
Deformation occurs in building large mountain
ranges at convergent boundaries thru:
Emplacement of plutons
Volcanism
Metamorphism
Continental accretion

Rock Deformation - How Does it


Occur?
Applied stresses can deform or strain rocks
until they become contorted or fracture.
Stresses are categorized as compressional,
tensional or shear.
Stress is a force applied per area
Strain is the change in shape
that results from the stress
being applied.
Deformation and strain
are the
same thing.

Rock Deformation-How Does it


Occur?
Stress and Strain
How can you explain stress and strain by
using an example of an ice-covered pond?
When subjected to stress (force), ice on a
pond may bend (elastic deformation), or if
the stress is great enough, it will fracture,
that is, the ice strained or deformed in
response to stress.

There can be two (2) resulting responses to stress:


1. Ductile deformation -- usually occurring deeper and with higher
temperatures; flow
2. Brittle deformation -- usually occurring shallower and with cooler
temperatures
Ductile deformation produces folds:
1. Anticline -- upwarping of rocks to produce an "A-like" structure
2. Syncline -- downwarping of rocks to produce "spoon-like" structure
3. Dome -- three-dimensional anticline resembling inverted cereal bowl
4. Basin -- three-dimensional syncline resembling upright cereal bowl

*When brittle deformation occurs and rocks fracture, they can simply crack
producing a fracture with no offset, called a joint.

When brittle deformation occurs and rocks fracture, they can


also crack producing a fracture with offset, called a fault.

Rock Deformation-How Does it


Occur?
Types of Strain
Compression

In compression the rocks are squeezed towards


one another along the same line.
Rock layers in compression are shortened the
rocks by folding or faulting

Fig. 10.3a, p. 24

Compressio
n

Action of oppositely directed forces acting


towards each other at the same time

Rock Deformation-How Does it


Occur?
Types of Strain
Tension

In tension the forces along the same


line act in opposite directions.
Tension lengthens the rocks or pulls
them apart.

Fig. 10.3b, p. 24

Tension
Action of coinciding and oppositely directed
forces acting away from each other

Rock Deformation-How Does it


Occur?
Types of Strain
Shear

In shear the forces act parallel to one


another, but in opposite directions
Deformation occurs along closely spaced
planes like the slip between cards in a deck.

Fig. 10.3c, p. 24

Shea
r
Action of coinciding and oppositely directed
forces acting parallel to each other across a
surface

Rock Deformation-How Does it


Occur?
Types of Strain
Rocks will deform elastically until they reach the
elastic limit unless the force is applied quickly.
Elastic strain occurs if rocks return to
their original shape when the stress
is released.
Plastic strain occurs when rocks fold
or fracture when stress is applied and
do not recover their original shape.

Fig. 10.4, p. 248

Rock Deformation-How Does it


Occur?
Types of Strain

What determines whether a rock will bend


elastically, plastically or fracture?

Type of stress applied


Pressure and
temperature
Rock type
Length of time

Rock Deformation-How Does it


Occur?

Types of Strain

Rocks will deform elastically until they


reach the elastic limit unless the force is
applied quickly.
Ductile rocks show a great
amount of plastic strain (they
bend) before they fracture.
Brittle rocks fracture after
only a small amount of plastic
strain.

Fig. 10.4, p. 248

Behavior of Rocks to Stress and


Strain
elastic strain: strain in which a deformed body
recovers its original shape after the stress is
released (ex: rubber band)
elastic limit: the maximum amount of stress that
can be applied to a body before it deforms in a
permanent way by bending or breaking
ductile: capable of being molded and bent under
stress
brittle strain: cracking or rupturing of a body under
stress

Strike and Dip on a


Rooftop

Strike and Dip-The Orientation of Deformed


Rock Layers
Strike and dip are measurements used to
ais rock the
body's orientation with
describe
Strike
respect
to the horizontal.
intersection
of
a
horizontal plane with
an inclined plane.
Dip is the maximum
angle of an inclined
plane.

Fracture
Joint
Fault
Fold

4
3
2
1

Type of rock deformation

Deformation and Geologic


Structures

Folded Rock Layers


Folds are layers of rock that were once planar
that are bent or crumpled.
Folds form during compression and undergo
plastic strain.
This occurs deep in the crust where the rocks
behave ductilely.
Produced by tectonic forces
Very common form of deformation that is viable
in layered rock
Scale can be from centimeters to hundreds of
kilometers

Fold
Terminology
Axial plane: the plane of mirror
symmetry dividing the fold into two
limbs
Axis: the line formed by the
intersection of the axial plane and a
bedding plane
Horizontal fold: fold where the axis is
horizontal
Plunging fold: fold where the axis is
not horizontal

More Fold
Terminology
Syncline: a sequence of folded rocks
with the youngest rocks on the inside
of the fold
Anticline: a sequence of folded rocks
with the oldest rocks on the inside of
the fold

Some More Fold Terminology


Symmetrical folds: have beds dipping
symmetrically on each side of axial plane
Asymmetrical folds: have the bed on one
side of fold dipping more steeply than other
A fold with a plunging axis is called a
plunging fold. If you were to walk along
the axis of a plunging fold, you would be
traveling uphill or downhill along the axis.
Overturned folds: one or both sides of fold
dipping beyond vertical

Asymmetrical folds

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Folded Rock Layers
Plunging folds

Fold axis is not


horizontal
Axial plane may be
vertical or inclined

Fig. 10.12a-b, p. 25

Plunging
Anticline

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Folded Rock Layers
Inclined and Overturned folds
In these folds the axial plane is inclined.
Usually form under compression at
convergent boundaries.
Overturned folds have both limbs dipping
in the same direction

Fig. 10.11b, p. 255

Overturned folds

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Folded Rock Layers
Recumbent folds
In these folds the axial plane is horizontal
or nearly horizontal.
Usually form under compression at
convergent boundaries.

Fig. 10.11c, p. 255

And Even More Fold


Terminology
Dome: a sequence of folded rocks in
which all the beds dip away from a
central point
Basin: a sequence of folded rocks in
which all the beds dip towards a
central point

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Joints

Joints are fractures along which no


movement has taken place.
Joints occur in almost all surface
rocks.
Form in response to compression,
tension, and shearing.

Brittle Strain Joints


When shallow crust is
strained rocks tend to
exhibit brittle strain

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Faults are
fractures along which the
opposite sides have moved relative to
one another and parallel to the fracture
surface.

Types of Faults
Dip-slip faults

Normal
Reverse
Strike-slip faults

Right-lateral
Left-lateral
Oblique-slip faults

Faults
Hanging Wall: Term used by
miners. They could hang their
light on this side of the fault
because it was above them.
Footwall: Also from the miners,
this side of the wall upon which
they could stand below the
hanging wall.

1. A fault in which the hanging wall has moved down


relative to the footwall is called a normal fault.
2. The horizontal distance between points on
opposite sides of the fault, such as A and A
greater after normal faulting occurs.
3. Hence, a normal fault forms where tectonic
tension stretches the Earths crust,pulling it apart.

1. A reverse fault is structure that accommodates


shortening.
2. In a reverse fault, the hanging wall has moved up
relative to the footwall.
3. The distance between points A and A is shortened
by the faulting.

A thrust fault is a special type of


reverse fault that is nearly horizontal. In
some thrust faults, the rocks of the
hanging wall have moved many kilometers
over the footwall.

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Faults

Dip-slip Faults
All movement is in the direction of dip along
dip-slip faults.
Dip-slip faults are categorized as normal or
reverse.

Deformation and Geologic


Structures

Faults

Dip-slip Faults
Normal faults form in response to
tensional forces.

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Faults

Normal faults

Geo-inSight 1., 2., , p.

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Faults

Normal faults

Fig. 10.18a-b, p. 26

Deformation and Geologic


Structures

Faults
Dip-slip faults
Reverse faults form in response to
compressional forces.

Thrust faults are a type of


reverse fault that dips at
less than 45 degrees, often
as low as 5 degrees!

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Faults

Reverse Faults

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Faults
Strike-slip faults
Faults in which all
movement is in the
direction of the strike of
the fault plane are
known
as
strike-slip
faults.
Strike-slip
faults
are
classified as right-lateral
or left-lateral depending
on
the
apparent
direction of the offset
between blocks.

Fig. 10.16 d, p. 26

Left-lateral

Deformation and Geologic


Structures
Faults

Oblique-slip faults
Oblique-slip faults have both strikeslip and dip-slip components of
movement.

Fig. 10.16e, p. 260

Deformation and the Origin of


Mountains
A mountain is an area of land that stands at least 300
meters above the surrounding country and has a
restricted summit area.
A mountain range is a group of linear peaks and ridges
that formed together.
A mountain system is a complex group of linear peaks
and ridges that is composed of several mountain
ranges. Mountain systems are the result of plate
movements and interactions along plate boundaries.

Stri
ke

Dip

THE PARTS OF A BRUNTON COMPASS

1.Place the bottom EDGE of the


compass flat against the plane
of interest.
2.Adjust the compass orientation,
making sure the bottom edge is
always flat
3.against the plane, until the air
bubble in the "Bull's eye level" is
centered.

STRIKE
AFTER you determine strike, rotate the
compass 90.
Place the SIDE of the compass flat
against the plane.
Adjust the lever on the back of the
compass until the air bubble in the
"Clinometer level" is centered.
Read the dip directly from the scale in
the compass.