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ADVANCED R C DESIGN

JAYARAM DEVARAJ
CECE 4244

09/07/16

CECE 4242 Advanced RC design 3


Credit Hours
Prerequisites: CECE 3241
Goal To equip the student with an understanding
of advanced concepts of
structural concrete design to enable him/her to
present the complete
Final design of building structures.
Objectives Outcomes
The course should enable the student to:
1. Understand behavior and design aspects
of more complex reinforced concrete structures
2. Understand basic concept of prestressed
concrete members under normal and unusual
loads such as wind and earthquake

The students should be able to:


1. Design complex concrete members such
as:
2. Short and slender columns
3. One and Two-way slabs
4. Concrete shear walls
5. Bridge and multistory buildings
6. Braced and unbraced frames
7. Reinforced concrete foundations
8. Specify design considerations for
accidental damage, wind and earthquake
9. Present the complete final design of
structures
10. Analyze and design pre-stressed
concrete

Quizzes
A minimum number of four quizzes need to be
conducted.
More than 4 quizzes can also be conducted.
Course lecturer can decide the no. of quizzes
depending on the course.
Average of best two quizzes mark will be considered
for Quiz marks weightage.
The last quiz is announced except that all other
quizzes are unannounced.
No complementary quiz is given to absent
student even for any valid excuse.

Assignments/ Mini Project


No. of assignments and evaluation
procedures and assessment depends
on the nature of the course.
20% of assignment scored mark
will be reduced for each day of late
submission
Midterm and Final Exams
All topics covered in the given
materials will be included in the
exams.
Valid college ID card is a must
to attend Midterm and Final
examination.

If the absence reaches 30%, the student will be


debarred from the final exam and will get ZERO in
the final exam.
A student will be considered as LATE when s/he
arrives after 10minutes of the class start time. Being
LATE for THREE times in a class will be considered
as ONE class absence.
The full course delivery plan must be covered. If
studentsare absent without a valid reason, it will be
considered as if the topic/s is already covered and
will be included in exams.
If a student is absent for two continuous weeks
within the semester in all courses, s/he will be
DISMISSED from the College.

In case of an accusation of cheating


during an Quiz examination is proven,
the following will be imposed:
Disciplinary Action for Cheating Case/s:
First Offense (Zero Mark)
Second Offense (Study Suspensionfor one
semester)
Third Offense (Dismissal from the
College)
10 minutes late consider as absent

Introduction to column
Columns act as vertical supports to beams
and slabs, and to transmit the loads to the
foundations.
Columns are primarily compression members,
although they may also have to resist bending
moment transmitted by beams.
Columns may be classified as short or slender,
braced or unbraced depending on various
dimensional and structural factors.

Column sections
Common column cross sections are: (a)
square, (b) circular and (c) rectangular section.
COLUMN
The greatest dimension should not exceed four
times its smaller dimension. (h4b).
WALL
For h>4b, the member should be regarded as a
wall for design purpose.

Failure modes of columns


Columns may fail in one of three mechanisms:
1.Compression failure of the concrete or steel
reinforcement;
2.Buckling
3.Combination of buckling and compression
failure.
Compression failure is likely to occur with
columns which are short and stocky.
Buckling is probable with columns which are
long and slender.

Failure modes of columns


1.Compression failure
2.Buckling

Short and slender columns (Clause 3.8.1.3,


BS 8110)
A braced column is classified as being
short if :

Braced and unbraced columns (clause


3.8.1.5, BS 8110)
A column may be considered braced in a
given plane if lateral stability to the
structure as a whole is provided by wall or
bracing or buttressing designed to resist
all lateral forces in that plane. It should
otherwise be considered as unbraced.

Short column design


The short column are divided into three
categories:
1.Columns resisting axial load only,
2.Columns supporting an approximately
symmetrical arrangement of beams,
3.Columns resisting axial loads and
uniaxial or biaxial bending

AXIAL LOADED COLUMN

SHORT COLUMN DESIGN


Pu = 0.4fck Ac + 0.67fy Asc
where
Pu = factored axial load on the member,
fck = characteristic compressive strength of
the concrete,
Ac = area of concrete,
fy = characteristic strength of the
compression reinforcement, and
Asc = area of longitudinal reinforcement for
columns.

2.Columns supporting an approximately


symmetrical arrangement of beams

Column resisting an axial load and uniaxial


bending
Design charts are derived based on yield
stress of 460 N/mm2 for reinforcement steel.
They are applicable for reinforcement with
yield stress of 500 N/mm2, but the area of
reinforcement obtained will be approximately
10% greater than required.
Design charts are available for concrete
grades 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50.
The d/h ratios are in the range of 0.75 to
0.95 in 0.05 increment.

Column resisting an axial load and biaxial


bending
The columns are subjected to an axial and
bending moment in both x and y directions.
The columns with biaxial moments are
simplified into the columns with uniaxial
moment by increasing the moment about one
of the axes then design the reinforcement
according the increased moment.

Design of column
Design 1: A square column 500mm X 500mm carries an axial
load of 1500 KN . Design the column. Use M20 and Fe 415
steel.
Design of Column:
Load on the column W = 1500 KN
Factored load Pu = 1.5 x 1500 = 2250 KN
Over all area of the column section Ag= 500 x 500
= 250000 mm2
Area of the steel = Asc
Area of the concrete = Ac = Ag- Asc
= 250000-Asc

Ultimate load Pu=0.4 fck Ac + 0.67 fy Asc


2250000 = 0.4 X 20 X ( 250000 Asc) + 0.67 X 415 x Asc
Asc= 925.75 mm2
Assume 29 mm dia bars
Provide 4 bars of 20 mm dia
Lateral ties :
diameter of the longitudinal bar
5mm
From the above two take the greater one so provide the
diameter of 6 mm dia bar.
Pitch of lateral ties:
(i)Least lateral dimension of the column = 500mm
(ii)16 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars
=16 X 20 = 320 mm

(iii)48 times the diameter of the ties = 48 X6


Provide 6 mm dia ties at 250 mm c/c.

Design 2: A circular column 600 mm diameter carries an axial


load of 2000 KN . Design the column. Use M20 and Fe 500
steel.

Columns resisting an axial load and bending


moment
Design the longitudinal and shear
reinforcement for a 275 mm square, short
braced column which supports either
(a)An ultimate axial load of 1280 kN and a
moment of 62.5 kNm about the x-x axis
(b)An ultimate axial load of 1280 kN and
bending moment of 35 kNm about the x-x axis
and 25 kNm about the y-y axis

Design chart for column resisting an axial load and uniaxial bending moment, (Part 3,
BS 8110)

CHAPTER : 3
DESIGN OF FOOTINGS

ISOLATED FOOTING AND


COMBINED FOOTING DESIGN

FOUNDATION
The foundation of a structure is the
part of the structure which transfers
the load to the soil on which it rests.
The ground surface in contact with the
lower surface of the foundation is
called the base of the foundation
The ground on which the foundation
rest is called the subgrade or
foundation soil.

Types of Foundations
Shallow Foundations
If the depth of the foundation is equal
to or less than its width the foundation
is classified as shallow foundation
(i) Wall Footing
(ii)Column or Isolated Footing
(iii)Combined Footing
(iv)Mat Footing

Deep foundation
If the depth of the foundation is greater than its
width it is called as deep foundation.
(i)Well foundation
(ii)Pile foundation
Bearing Capacity of soil:
Ability of the soil to resists the load with out
failure.
Causes of failure of foundations:
(i)Unequal settlement of subsoil
(ii)Shinkage of soil below the foundation due to
withdrawal of moisture

Safe Bearing capacity of the different


soils
Types of Soil

Safe Bearing
Capacity of soil
( KN/m2)

1.Hard Dry Clay


2.Sand and clay
mixed
3.Firm clay
4.Fine confined wet
sand
5.Fine dry sand
6.Coarse sand
7.Soft rock
8.Hard rock (mixture

350
200
200
200
350
450
650
900
1100
2750

Formula for finding the


depth of the foundation:
2

D- depth of the foundation in m


p- Safe bearing capacity of the soil
r-Specific weight of the soil
0-Angle of repose

Design 1 Find the area and the depth of


foundation required for a column carrying an
axial load of 1250 KN . The safe bearing
capacity of the soil is 120 KN/m2 . The
density of the soil is 18 KN/m3 and has an
angle of repose of 30 degree.
Solution:
Load on the column = 1250 KN
Approximate weight of foundation = 125 KN
( take 10 % of total weight)
Total load = load on the column +
approximate weight of the column.
= 1250 + 125 = 1375 KN

Area of the foundation = total load / safe


bearing
capacity of soil
= 1375/120
= 11.46 m2
Provide a foundation area of 12 m2
Determination of depth of the
foundation:

Minimum depth of
2
the foundation = (p/r){(1-sin0)/(1+sin0)}
= (120/18) {(1-sin30)/(1+sin30)}2
= 0.75 m.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
STRUCTURES

Chapter 5

CONTENTS:

Introduction to prestressing
Concrete
Steel
Comparsion of RC and PC
Applications of prestressing
Stages of loading
Losses in prestress
Types of Prestressing
Materials and hardwares
Advantages and limitations

Introduction to prestressing:
Definition:
Pre-stressing is the application of an initial load on the structure so
as to enable the structure to counteract the stresses arising during
its service period

History:
The application of pre-stressing in concrete structures is not the onl
There were some earlier attempts made.Two of the instances are pr

1) Force-fitting of metal bands on wooden barrels:


The metal bands around the barrel induce a state of initial hoop c
counteract the hoop tension caused by filling of liquid in the barre

Fig1:wooden barrels wounded with steel bands

2)

Pre-tensioning of spokes in a bicycle wheel


The pre-tension is applied in the spoke to such an extent that
always be a residual tension in the spoke

Fig: spokes of a bicycle wheel in pretension

The concept of prestressed concrete is also not new. In 1886, a p


granted for tightening steel tie rods in concrete blocks. This is ana
modern day segmental constructions.
Early attempts were not very successful due to low strength of
that time.Since we cannot prestress at high stress level, the prestr
due to creep and shrinkage of concrete quickly reduce the effectiv
of prestressing.

Concrete

Introduction:
concrete itself is a composite material . The basic ingredients of t
are water , portland cement and aggregates(rock and sand).

Mechanical properties of concrete that are relevant to the prestres


design:
Compressive Strength
Modulus of Elasticity
Modulus of Rupture

The properties of concrete which one should be familiar with before a


to make use Prestressed concrete design are:
a)Compressive strength
b)Character of the Stress-strain relationship
c)Modulus of elasticity
d)Creep and shrinkage
e)Tensile strength

Compressive strength:
The compressive strength of concrete is given in terms of the charact
Compressive strength of 150 mm size cubes tested at 28 days . The c
strength is defined as the strength of the concrete below which not m
than 5% of the test results are expected to fall. This concept assumes
distribution of the strengths of the samples of concrete.

Points to recall about reinforced concrete:


Concrete is strong in compression but weak in
tension
Steel is strong in tension (as well as compression)
Reinforced concrete uses concrete to resist compression and to
bars in place, and uses steel to resist all of the tension
Tensile strength of concrete is neglected (i.e. zero)
RC beam always crack under service load

Defects in concrete:

Shrinkage
associated with the loss of moisture from gel particles of
Creep
Time dependent increase in deformation due to sustained
occur in all types of loading-compression , tension and tors
earlier the age at which loading is applied larger the creep
higher in wet conditions than in dry conditions.

Steel:

The terms commonly used in prestressed concrete are explained. Th


placed in groups as per usage.

Forms of Prestressing Steel


Wires
Prestressing wire is a single unit made of steel.

Strands
Two, three or seven wires are wound to form
a prestressing strand.

Tendon
A group of strands or wires are wound to
form a prestressing tendon.

Cable
A group of tendons form a prestressing cable.

Bars
A tendon can be made up of a single steel bar. The diameter of a ba
larger than that of a wire.

Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concreteisconcretein which reinforcement bars ,
reinforcement grids,platesorfibershave been incorporated
to strengthen the concrete intension.

Rebars ofSagrada Familias roof in construction


(2009)
The term Ferro Concrete refers only to concrete that is
reinforced with iron or steel.
Concrete is strong incompression, but weak in tension.

The failure strain of concrete in tension is so low that the


reinforcement has to hold the cracked sections together.
For a strong, ductile and durable construction the
reinforcement shall have the following properties.
High strength
High tensile strain
Good bond to the concrete
Thermal compatibility
Durability in the concrete environment

Common failures modes of steel reinforced


concrete

Reinforced concrete can fail due to inadequate strength,


leading to mechanical failure.
reduction in its durability
Corrosion and freeze/thaw cycles may damage poorly
designed or constructed reinforced concrete.

Prestressed concrete
Prestressed concrete is a technique that greatly increases
loadbearing strengh of concrete beams.

Stressed ribbon pedestrian bridge,Grants Pass, Oregon, USA


Pre-tensioned concrete:
Pre-tensioned concrete is cast around already tensioned
tendons.
This method produces a good bond between the tendon and
concrete, which both protects the tendon from corrosion
and allows for direct transfer of tension.

Advantages of PC over RC:


Take full advantages of high strength concrete and high
strength steel
Need less materials
Smaller and lighter structure
No cracks
Use the entire section to resist the load
Better corrosion resistance
Good for water tanks and nuclear plant
Very effective for deflection control
Better shear resistance

Applications of prestressed concrete:


Bridges
Slabs in buildings
Water Tank
Concrete Pile
Thin Shell Structures
Offshore Platform
Nuclear Power Plant
Repair and Rehabilitations

Classification and types

Pretensioning v.s. posttensioning


external v.s. internal
Linear v.s. circular
End-anchored v.s. non end-anchored
Bonded v.s. unbonded tendon
Precast v.s. cast in-place v.s. composite
Partial v.s. full prestressing
Pretensioning v.s. posttensioning
In pretension , the tendons are tensioned against some
abutments before the concrete is placed.
After the concrete hardened , the tension force is realeased.
The tendon tries to shrink back to the intial length but the
concrete resist it through the bond between them , thus
compression force is induced in concrete.

Pretensioning v.s. posttensioning


In posttension , the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has
hardened.
Metal or plastic ducts are placed inside the concrete before casting.
After the concrete hardened and had enough strength , the tendon
was placed inside the duct stressed and anchored against concrete.
Linear v.s. circular prestressing
Linear prestressing :Prestressing can be done in straight structure
such as beams
Circular prestressing : prestressing around a circular structure , such
as tank .
External vs. internal
Prestressing may be done inside or outside.
Bonded vs. unbonded tendon.
The tendon may be bonded to concrete ( prettensioning or
posttensioning with grouting)
Bonding prevent corosion of the tendon
The tendon may be unbounded to concrete ( posttensioning without
grouting).

Bonded vs. unbonded


Unbonding allows readjustment of prestressing force at later
times.
End-anchored vs. non-end-anchored
non-end anchored :In pretensioning , tendons transfer the
bond action along the tendon .
End-anchored: in posttensioning , tendons are anchored at
their ends using mechanical devices to transfer the prestress
to concrete.
Partial vs. full prestressing
Prestressing tendon may be used in combination with regular
reinforcing steel.
thus , it is something between full prestressed concrete (PC)
and reinforced concrete (RC).
The goal is to allow some tension and cracking under full
service load while ensuring sufficient ultimate strength.
We use partial prestressed concrete (PPC) to control camber
and deflection , increase ductility and save costs.

RC vs. PPC vs. PC

Materials and Hardwares for prestressing:


Prestressing tendons:
Prestressing tendon may be in the form of stands , wires ,
round bar , or threaded rods

Prestressing steel
Materials
High strength steel
Fiber-reinforced composite ( glass or carbon fibers )

Common shapes of prestressing tendons.

Tendons

Among these 7-wire strand is most popular

Advanages of Prestressing

The use of prestressed concrete offers distinct advantages over or


reinforced listed as follows:

General advantages:

Prestressing minimises the effect of cracks in concrete elements by


holding the concrete in compression.
Prestressing allows reduced beam depths to be achieved for equiva
design strengths.
Prestressed concrete is resilient and will recover from the effects of
a greater degree of overload than any other structural material.
If the member is subject to overload, cracks, which may develop, w
close up on removal of the overload.
Prestressing enables both entire structural elements and structures
be formed from a number of precast units,
e.g. Segmented and Modular Construction.
Lighter elements permit the use of longer spanning members with
strength to weight characteristic.

The ability to control deflections in prestressed beams and slabs permits lon
spans to be achieved.
Prestressing permits a more efficient usage of steel and enables the econ
of high tensile steels and high strength concrete.

Cost advantages of Prestressing

Prestressed concrete can provide significant cost advantages over structu


steel sections or ordinary reinforced concrete.

Limitations of Prestressing

Although prestressing has advantages, some aspects need to be


carefully addressed.
Prestressing needs skilled technology. Hence, it is not as common
reinforced concrete.
The use of high strength materials is costly.
There is additional cost in auxiliary equipments.
There is need for quality control and inspection.

Conclusions

Prestressed concrete design and construction is precise. The high


stresses
imposed by prestressing really do occur. The following points
should be
carefully considered:
Because the construction system is designed to utilise the
optimum stress
capability of both the concrete and steel, it is necessary to ensure
that these
materials meet the design requirements. This requires control and
responsibility
from everyone involved in prestressed concrete work - from the
designer right
through to the workmen on the site.
The result on the analysis carried out on both the prestressedand
reinforced concrete indicated very significant benefits for
theprestressedconcrete, even amidst the threats of
environmentalfactors. Therefore, we could conclude that the

CHAPTER : 4
SHEAR WALL DESIGN
RETAINING WALL DESIGN

DESIGN AND DETAILING


OF RETAINING WALLS
Learning Outcomes:

After this class students will be able to do the


complete design of retaining walls.

68

RETAINING WALL
Retaining walls are usually
built to hold back soil mass.
However, retaining walls can
also be constructed for
aesthetic
landscaping
purposes.

GL2

BACK
SOIL
GL1

Gravity retaining wall

69

Cantilever Retaining wall


with shear key

Batter
Drainage Hole
Toe

70

Photos of Retaining
walls

71

Classification of
Retaining walls
Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain
concrete
Cantilever retaining wall-RCC
(Inverted T and L)
Counterfort retaining wall-RCC
Buttress wall-RCC

72

Classification of Retaining
walls
Backfill

Tile
drain

Gravity RW

T-Shaped RW

Backfill

L-Shaped RW

Backfill
Counterfort

Counterfort RW

Buttress

Weep
hole

Buttress RW
73

Earth Pressure (P)


Earth pressure is the pressure
exerted by the retaining material
on the retaining wall. This pressure
tends to deflect the wall outward.
Types of earth pressure :
Active earth pressure or earth
pressure (Pa) and
Passive earth pressure (Pp).
Active earth pressure tends to
deflect the wall away from the
backfill.

GL

Pa

Variation of Earth pressure

74

Factors affecting earth


pressure

Earth pressure depends on type of


backfill, the height of wall and the
soil conditions
Soil conditions: The different soil
conditions are

Dry leveled back fill


Moist leveled backfill
Submerged leveled backfill
Leveled backfill with uniform
surcharge
Backfill with sloping surface

75

Stability requirements of RW

It should not overturn


It should not slide
It should not subside, i.e Max.
pressure at the toe should not
exceed the safe bearing capacity of
the soil under working condition

76

Depth of foundation
Rankines formula:
Df =

Df

77

Preliminary Proportioning

(T
shaped
wall)
Stem: Top width 200 mm to

400 mm
Base slab width b= 0.4H to
0.6H, 0.6H to 0.75H for
surcharged wall
Base slab thickness= H/10 to
H/14
Toe projection= (1/3-1/4)
Base width

200

tp= (1/3-1/4)b

H/10
H/14

b= 0.4H to 0.6H

78

Design of Heel and Toe


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Heel slab and toe slab should also be designed


as cantilever. For this stability analysis should
be performed as explained and determine the
maximum bending moments at the junction.
Determine the reinforcement.
Also check for shear at the junction.
Provide enough development length.
Provide the distribution steel

79

Cantilever RW design
Design a cantilever retaining wall (T type) to retain earth for a
height of 4m. The backfill is horizontal. The density of soil is
18kN/m3. Safe bearing capacity of soil is 200 kN/m 2. Take the
co-efficient of friction between concrete and soil as 0.6. The
angle of repose is 30. Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.

Solution
Data: h' = 4m, SBC= 200 kN/m 2, = 18 kN/m3, =0.6, =30
80

Depth of foundation
To fix the height of retaining
wall [H]
H= h' +Df
Depth of foundation

Df =

200

h1

Df
b

= 1.23m say 1.2m ,


Therefore H= 5.2m

81

Proportioning of
Thicknesswall
of base slab=(1/10

200

to1/14)H
0.52m to 0.43m, say 450 mm
Width of base slab=b = (0.5 to
0.6) H
2.6m to 3.12m say 3m
Toe projection= pj= (1/3 to )H
1m to 0.75m say 0.75m
Provide 450 mm thickness for
the stem at the base and 200

H=5200 mm

tp= 750 mm
450
b= 3000 mm

82

Design of stem
Ph= x 1/3 x 18 x 4.752=67.68 kN
M = Ph h/3 = 0.333 x 18 x 4.753/6

= 107.1 kN-m
Mu= 1.5 x M = 160.6 kN-m
h
P
Taking 1m length of wall,
Mu/bd2= 1.004 < 2.76, URS
M
(Here d=450- eff. Cover=450-50=400
D
mm)
k h
To find steel
Pt=0.295% <0.96%
3
Or
M
=
[k
H
]/6
2
u
a
Ast= 0.295x1000x400/100 = 1180 mm
#12 @ 90 < 300 mm and 3d ok
83
a

Curtailment of bars-Stem
Curtail 50% steel from
top
(h1/h2)2 = 50%/100%=
(h1/4.75)2 = , h1 =
3.36m
Actual point of cutoff
= 3.36-Ld=3.36-47 bar
= 3.36-0.564 = 2.74m
from top.
Spacing of bars = 180
mm c/c < 300 mm and

Dist.
from
top

h1
Ast/2

Every
alternate
bar cut

h2
h1c

Ldt
Ast

h2
Ast/2
Ast

Ast
Provide
d

84

Design of stem-Contd.,
Development length (Stem
steel)
Ld=47 bar =47 x 12 = 564
mm

200

H=5200 mm

Secondary steel for stem at


front
0.12% GA
= 0.12x450 x 1000/100 =
540 mm2
#10 @ 140 < 450 mm and
5d ok
Distribution steel

tp= 750 mm
450
b= 3000 mm

85

Drawing and detailing


#12 @ 180

#10 @ 140

#12 @ 90
#16 @ 190

#10 @ 140

C/S OF WALL

L/S ELEVATION OF WALL

Definition and Types of


Bridge

What is a bridge?
Bridge is a structure built to span a
valley, road, river, body of water, or
any other physical obstacle.
Designs of bridges will vary
depending on the function of the
bridge and the nature of the area
where the bridge is to be constructed.

Types of Bridges
There are six main types of
bridges:
1. beam bridges,
2. cantilever bridges,
3. arch bridges,
4. suspension bridges,
5. cable-stayed bridges and
6. truss bridges

Beam Bridge
The beam is one of
the simplest forms
of bridge.

East India Beam footbridge

Cantilever Bridge
A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using
cantilevers: structures that project
horizontally into space, supported on only
one end.

Forth Bridge, Edinburg

ARCH Bridge
Arches are used in bridges in
different ways, depending on
whether they are made of steel,
brick or stone. The arch takes
(transmits) the load from the
deck of the bridge to the land on
both sides.

Garabit Bridge, Massif Central, France

Garabit Viaduct, Massif Central, France

Ancient Roman aqueduct


Segovia, Spain

Eyeglasses bridge , Japan

"Japan Bridge" Pedestrian Overcrossing, La Dfense, Paris (1994)

Suspension Bridge
A suspension bridge works by
hanging (suspending) the deck
of the bridge from flexible chains
or ropes.

Clifton Bridge. Bristol

Runcorn Bridge, England

Cable Stayed Bridge


The cable stayed bridge is newer
than the other types of bridge. Large
upright steel supports are used to
transmit the load into the ground.

The Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge, USA

Docklands footbridge - South Quay.

Deskywy Bridge

TheRio-Antirio
bridge , Greece
The Tatara Bridge has
the largest span
among cable-stayed
bridges

Coalbrookdale cable stayed bridge.

Normandie Bridge

Truss Bridge
A truss bridge is a bridge composed
of connected elements (typically
straight) which may be stressed from
tension, compression, or sometimes
both in response to dynamic loads.
Truss bridges are one of the oldest
types of modern bridges.

Truss arch bridge

A Russian truss bridge by Lavr Proskuryakov

Various Examples from


different types of Bridges

NEMO bridge -Amsterdam

Mertyl Edwards Park, Seattle

First Futuristic ARCH Bridge- Dubai

The proposed Bridge of Reeds, intended to be built near Cambridge


The design for the 175ft high bridge was today officially announced as the winner of
a competition to find a new landmark for the east of England, beating more than
230 other entries by architects from around the world

3d Chain Bridge

The lakes at Rudan , walk through this futuristic looking spiral

MODEL
Norwegian bridge by Leonardo Da Vinci
This bridge was designed for Halic by DA
Vinci for the Galata in 18th century but it
never constructed.

prize-winning bridge design


A futuristic bridge proposal for Brooklyn

President Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge


in Brazil

KULTUR ARENA- BERLIN

Whittle Arch and Glass Bridge, Coventry


Millennium Place

Millenium Place - The slender glass bridge over Millennium Place in Coventry,
with the Whittle Arches in the background

Tensegrity Tube Bridge

"Skywalk"--shown in an illustration extend over the edge


of the Grand Canyon, 4,000 feet (1,200 meters) above
the Colorado River.

Ladevesa by Calatrava

made of steel and aluminum

It's a machine, it's a bridge,


it's an electrical generator: it's the Wind
Tunnel Footbridge;
made of steel and aluminum
Michael Jantzen

Wind Turbine Observation Tower, "an observation tower that people can
walk through to view the surrounding landscape, while the five wind
activated segments of the structure rotate around them in different
directions. While these segments rotate, they also produce electricity
which is used to light the structure at night -Michael Jantzen

By Zaha Hadid

sheik-zayed-bridge by Zaha Hadid , Dubai

shell

Living Bridge design for


Hamburg (Competition)

Habitable bridge
by Hadid

Glasgow Tower

Living bridge

Amgen Helix
Pedestrian Bridge

bridge forms a pedestrian access !!

Pedestrian Bridge

Caf under the pedestrian bridge

Art bridge" over Stanley street

Living bridge

Limericks Living Bridge

bridge in Paris, over the Seine

Hassell Bridge

2005 Istanbul Design WeekGALATA KOPRUSU

Design of theatre and office units


over a bridge

The second floor plan

The third floor plan

A working model, made from found objects, starts to define the space

A second model showing a more definite arrangment

Program spaces start to take form

A detail model showing how the spaces and structure relate to the bridge.

The final model showing how the project occupies the bridge

Spaghetti Bridge Student


Work Competition

Advanced RC Design
Foundation Design
Learning Outcomes:
After this students will be able design and detail

combined footings through drawing and bar bending


schedule.

Footings
The function of a footing or a foundation is to
transmit the load form the structure to the
underlying soil.
The choice of suitable type of footing depends on
the depth at which the bearing strata lies, the soil
condition and the type of superstructure.

Combined footing
Whenever two or more columns in a straight line are carried on
a single spread footing, it is called a combined footing. Isolated
footings for each column are generally the economical.
Combined footings are provided only when it is absolutely
necessary, as
1.When two columns are close together, causing overlap of
adjacent isolated footings
2.Where soil bearing capacity is low, causing overlap of
adjacent isolated footings
3.Proximity of building line or existing building or sewer,
adjacent to a building column.

P2

P1

a1

a2
+

L/2

L/2
R
x
Combined footing with
loads

Property line
Types of combined
footings

Types of combined footing

1. Slab type

2. Slab and beam type

3. Strap type

The combined footing may be rectangular,

trapezoidal or Tee-shaped in plan.


The geometric proportions and shape are so fixed that the
centeroid of the footing area coincides with the resultant of the
column loads. This results in uniform pressure below the entire
area of footing.
Trapezoidal footing is provided when one column load is much
more than the other. As a result, the both projections of footing
beyond the faces of the columns will be restricted.
Rectangular footing is provided when one of the projections of the
footing is restricted or the width of the footing is restricted.

Rectangular
combined footing
Longitudinally, the footing acts as an upward loaded beam
spanning between columns and cantilevering beyond. Using
statics, the shear force and bending moment diagrams in
the longitudinal direction are drawn. Moment is checked at
the faces of the column. Shear force is critical at distance d
from the faces of columns or at the point of contra flexure.
Two-way shear is checked under the heavier column.
The footing is also subjected to transverse bending and this
bending is spread over a transverse strip near the column.

Pa

Pb

Longitudinal Bending

pj

T
Transverse Bending

SLAB TYPE COMBINED FOOTING

d/2

Section 1-1, 2-2, 5-5, and 6-6 are sections for critical moments
Section 3-3, 4-4 are sections for critical shear (one way)
Section for critical two way shear is abcd
CRITICAL SECTIONS FOR MOMENTS AND SHEAR

P1

P2

b
1m

L/2 x

L/2

TRANSVERSE BEAM
BELOW COLUMS

Design Steps
Locate the point of application of the column
loads on the footing.
Proportion the footing such that the resultant of loads passes
through the center of footing.
Compute the area of footing such that the allowable soil
pressure is not exceeded.
Calculate the shear forces and bending moments at the
salient points and hence draw SFD and BMD.
Fix the depth of footing from the maximum bending moment.
Calculate the transverse bending moment and design the
transverse section for depth and reinforcement. Check for
anchorage and shear.

Design Steps -Contd.,


Check the footing for longitudinal shear and hence
design the longitudinal steel
Design the reinforcement for the longitudinal moment
and place them in the appropriate positions.
Check the development length for longitudinal steel
Curtail the longitudinal bars for economy
Draw and detail the reinforcement
Prepare the bar bending schedule

Detailing
Detailing of steel (both longitudinal and transverse) in a
combined footing is similar to that of conventional beamSP-34
Detailing requirements of beams and slabs should be
followed as appropriate-SP-34

Design of combined footing


Slab and Beam type
1.Two interior columns A and B carry 700 kN and 1000 kN
loads respectively. Column A is 350 mm x 350 mm and
column B is 400 mm X 400 mm in section. The centre to
centre spacing between columns is 4.6 m. The soil on
which the footing rests is capable of providing resistance of
130 kN/m2. Design a combined footing by providing a
central beam joining the two columns. Use concrete grade
M25 and mild steel reinforcement.

Draw to a suitable scale the following


1.The longitudinal sectional elevation
2.Transverse section at the left face of the heavier column
3.Plan of the footing

Solution: Data
fck = 25 Nlmm2,
fy= 250 N/mm2,
fb = l30 kN/m2 (SBC),
Column A = 350 mm x 350 mm,
Column B = 400 mm x 400 mm,
c/c spacing of columns = 4.6 m,
PA = 700 kN and PB = 1000 kN
Required: To design combined footing with central beam
joining the two columns.

Proportioning of base size


Working load carried by column A = PA = 700 kN
Working load carried by column B = PB = 1000 kN
Self weight of footing 10 % x (PA + PB) = 170 kN
Total working load = 1870 kN
Required area of footing = Af = Total load /SBC
=1870/130 = 14.38 m2
Let the width of the footing = Bf = 2m
Required length of footing = Lf = Af /Bf = 14.38/2 = 7.19m
Provide footing of size 7.2m X 2m,Af = 7.2 x 2 = 14.4 m2

For uniform pressure distribution the C.G. of


the footing should coincide with the C.G. of
column loads. Let x be the distance of C.G.
from the centre line of column A
Then x = (PB x 4.6)/(PA + PB) = (1000 x 4.6)/(1000 +700)
= 2.7 m from column A.
If the cantilever projection of footing beyond column A is a
then, a + 2.7 = Lf /2 = 7.2/2, Therefore a = 0.9 m
Similarly if the cantilever projection of footing beyond B is 'b'
then, b + (4.6-2.7) = Lf /2 = 3.6 m,
Therefore b = 3.6 - 1.9 = 1.7 m
The details are shown in Figure

700 kN

1000 kN

a=900
C

4600 mm
A

b=1700
D

pu=177 kN/m2

wu=354 kN/m
Combined footing with loads

Rectangular Footing with Central Beam:Design of Bottom slab.


Total ultimate load from columns = Pu= 1.5(700 + 1000) = 2550 kN.
Upward intensity of soil pressure wu= P/Af= 2550/14.4 = 177 kN/m2
Design of slab
Intensity of Upward pressure = wu =177 kN/m2
Consider one meter width of the slab (b=1m)
Load per m run of slab at ultimate = 177 x 1 = 177 kN/m
Cantilever projection of the slab (For smaller column)
=1000 - 350/2 = 825 mm
Maximum ultimate moment = 177 x 0.8252/2 = 60.2 kN-m.

Slab design-Contd.,
1m
0.35m
0.825 m
1m

pu=177 kN/m2
For M25 and Fe 250, Q u max = 3.71 N/mm2
Required effective depth = (60.2 x 106/(3.71 x 1000)) = 128 mm
Since the slab is in contact with the soil clear cover of 50 mm is
assumed.
Using 20 mm diameter bars
Required total depth = 128 + 20/2 + 50 =188 mm say 200 mm
Provided effective depth = d = 200-50-20/2 = 140 mm

To find steel
Mu/bd2 =3.073.73, URS
Mu=0.87 fy Ast[d-fyAst/(fckb)]

pt=1.7%
Ast = 2380 mm2
Use 20 mm diameter bar at spacing
= 1000 x 314 / 2380 = 131.93 say 130 mm c/c
Area provided =1000 x 314 / 130 = 2415 mm2

Check for development length


Ldt= [0.87 x 250 / (4 x 1.4)] =39
= 39 x 20 = 780 mm
Available length of bar=825 - 25 = 800mm
> 780 mm and hence safe.

Transverse reinforcement

0.825 m

Required Ast=0.15bD/100
1m
pu=177 kN/m2
=0.15x1000 x 200/100 = 300mm2
Using 8 mm bars, Spacing=1000x50/300
= 160 mm
Provide distribution steel of 8 mm at 160 mm c/c,<300,
<5d

Design of Longitudinal Beam


Load from the slab will be transferred to the beam.
As the width of the footing is 2 m, the net upward soil
pressure per meter length of the beam
= wu = 177 x 2 = 354 kN/m
Shear Force and Bending Moment
VAC= 354 x 0.9 =318.6 kN, VAB = 1050-318.6 =731.4 kN
VBD= 354 x 1.7 = 601.8kN, VBA = 1500-601.8 = 898.2 kN
Point of zero shear from left end C
X1 = 1050/354 = 2.97m from C or
X2 = 7.2-2.97 = 4.23 m from D

Maximum B.M. occurs at a distance of 4.23 m from D


MuE = 354 x 4.232 / 2 - 1500 (4.23 - 1.7) = -628 kN.m
Bending moment under column A= MuA=354x0.92 /2 =
143.37 kN.m
Bending moment under column B = MuB = 354 x 1.72
= 511.5 kN-m
Let the point of contra flexure be at a distance x from
the centre of column A
Then, Mx= I050x - 354 (x + 0.9 )2/ 2 = 0
Therefore x = 0.206 m and 3.92 m from column A
i.e. 0.68 m from B.

0.9 m 1050 kN
A
C

1500 kN

4.6 m
E

B
354 kN/m

ME=628 kN-m
_

X=0.206 m

0.68m

.+

MA=143.37 kN-m

MB=511.5 kN-m

BMD at Ultimate
V1=318.6 kN
+
-

V3=898.2 kN

V2=731.4 kN

1.7 m

V4=601.8 kN

X1=2.97 SFD at Ultimate


m

X2=4.23
m

Depth of beam from B.M.


The width of beam is kept equal to the maximum
width of the column i.e. 400 mm. Determine the
depth of the beam where T- beam action is not available.
The beam acts as a rectangular section in the cantilever portion,
where the maximum positive moment = 628 kNm.
d = (628 x 106/ (3.73 x 400)) = 586 mm
Provide total depth of 750 mm. Assuming two rows of bars with
effective cover of 70 mm.
Effective depth provided = d= 750-70 = 680 mm (Less than
750mm and hence no side face steel is needed.

B=400 x 400 mm
D+db/2
B

D+ds

2000

D
D+db

0.825m

0.8m

A 350 x 350

400

1.9m

2.7m
a=0.9m

400 x 400 B

4.6m
7200 mm

1.5m
b=1.7m

2000
mm

350x350
0.9 m
3- 16

400x400
4.6 m

(5-32 + 3- 16)

1.7 m
(3-32 + 3- 16

3- 16

Side face
2- 12

3-32
+
4-16
12@300, 12@140, 12@300,
2L Stp
2L Stp
4L Stp

12@120,
4L Stp

12@300,
2L Stp

400
400
3-16

5-32
3-16

750
200

750

4-16

2000
C/S at Centre

3-32
4-16
C/S at the junction
(Right of B)

8@160

20@130

2
m

7200 mm
Plan of footing slab