ADVANCED R C DESIGN
JAYARAM DEVARAJ
CECE 4244
09/07/16
CECE 4242 Advanced RC design 3
Credit Hours
Prerequisites: CECE 3241
Goal To equip the student with an understanding
of advanced concepts of
structural concrete design to enable him/her to
present the complete
Final design of building structures.
Objectives Outcomes
The course should enable the student to:
1. Understand behavior and design aspects
of more complex reinforced concrete structures
2. Understand basic concept of prestressed
concrete members under normal and unusual
loads such as wind and earthquake
The students should be able to:
1. Design complex concrete members such
as:
2. Short and slender columns
3. One and Twoway slabs
4. Concrete shear walls
5. Bridge and multistory buildings
6. Braced and unbraced frames
7. Reinforced concrete foundations
8. Specify design considerations for
accidental damage, wind and earthquake
9. Present the complete final design of
structures
10. Analyze and design prestressed
concrete
Quizzes
A minimum number of four quizzes need to be
conducted.
More than 4 quizzes can also be conducted.
Course lecturer can decide the no. of quizzes
depending on the course.
Average of best two quizzes mark will be considered
for Quiz marks weightage.
The last quiz is announced except that all other
quizzes are unannounced.
No complementary quiz is given to absent
student even for any valid excuse.
Assignments/ Mini Project
No. of assignments and evaluation
procedures and assessment depends
on the nature of the course.
20% of assignment scored mark
will be reduced for each day of late
submission
Midterm and Final Exams
All topics covered in the given
materials will be included in the
exams.
Valid college ID card is a must
to attend Midterm and Final
examination.
If the absence reaches 30%, the student will be
debarred from the final exam and will get ZERO in
the final exam.
A student will be considered as LATE when s/he
arrives after 10minutes of the class start time. Being
LATE for THREE times in a class will be considered
as ONE class absence.
The full course delivery plan must be covered. If
studentsare absent without a valid reason, it will be
considered as if the topic/s is already covered and
will be included in exams.
If a student is absent for two continuous weeks
within the semester in all courses, s/he will be
DISMISSED from the College.
In case of an accusation of cheating
during an Quiz examination is proven,
the following will be imposed:
Disciplinary Action for Cheating Case/s:
First Offense (Zero Mark)
Second Offense (Study Suspensionfor one
semester)
Third Offense (Dismissal from the
College)
10 minutes late consider as absent
Introduction to column
Columns act as vertical supports to beams
and slabs, and to transmit the loads to the
foundations.
Columns are primarily compression members,
although they may also have to resist bending
moment transmitted by beams.
Columns may be classified as short or slender,
braced or unbraced depending on various
dimensional and structural factors.
Column sections
Common column cross sections are: (a)
square, (b) circular and (c) rectangular section.
COLUMN
The greatest dimension should not exceed four
times its smaller dimension. (h4b).
WALL
For h>4b, the member should be regarded as a
wall for design purpose.
Failure modes of columns
Columns may fail in one of three mechanisms:
1.Compression failure of the concrete or steel
reinforcement;
2.Buckling
3.Combination of buckling and compression
failure.
Compression failure is likely to occur with
columns which are short and stocky.
Buckling is probable with columns which are
long and slender.
Failure modes of columns
1.Compression failure
2.Buckling
Short and slender columns (Clause 3.8.1.3,
BS 8110)
A braced column is classified as being
short if :
Braced and unbraced columns (clause
3.8.1.5, BS 8110)
A column may be considered braced in a
given plane if lateral stability to the
structure as a whole is provided by wall or
bracing or buttressing designed to resist
all lateral forces in that plane. It should
otherwise be considered as unbraced.
Short column design
The short column are divided into three
categories:
1.Columns resisting axial load only,
2.Columns supporting an approximately
symmetrical arrangement of beams,
3.Columns resisting axial loads and
uniaxial or biaxial bending
AXIAL LOADED COLUMN
SHORT COLUMN DESIGN
Pu = 0.4fck Ac + 0.67fy Asc
where
Pu = factored axial load on the member,
fck = characteristic compressive strength of
the concrete,
Ac = area of concrete,
fy = characteristic strength of the
compression reinforcement, and
Asc = area of longitudinal reinforcement for
columns.
2.Columns supporting an approximately
symmetrical arrangement of beams
Column resisting an axial load and uniaxial
bending
Design charts are derived based on yield
stress of 460 N/mm2 for reinforcement steel.
They are applicable for reinforcement with
yield stress of 500 N/mm2, but the area of
reinforcement obtained will be approximately
10% greater than required.
Design charts are available for concrete
grades 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50.
The d/h ratios are in the range of 0.75 to
0.95 in 0.05 increment.
Column resisting an axial load and biaxial
bending
The columns are subjected to an axial and
bending moment in both x and y directions.
The columns with biaxial moments are
simplified into the columns with uniaxial
moment by increasing the moment about one
of the axes then design the reinforcement
according the increased moment.
Design of column
Design 1: A square column 500mm X 500mm carries an axial
load of 1500 KN . Design the column. Use M20 and Fe 415
steel.
Design of Column:
Load on the column W = 1500 KN
Factored load Pu = 1.5 x 1500 = 2250 KN
Over all area of the column section Ag= 500 x 500
= 250000 mm2
Area of the steel = Asc
Area of the concrete = Ac = Ag Asc
= 250000Asc
Ultimate load Pu=0.4 fck Ac + 0.67 fy Asc
2250000 = 0.4 X 20 X ( 250000 Asc) + 0.67 X 415 x Asc
Asc= 925.75 mm2
Assume 29 mm dia bars
Provide 4 bars of 20 mm dia
Lateral ties :
diameter of the longitudinal bar
5mm
From the above two take the greater one so provide the
diameter of 6 mm dia bar.
Pitch of lateral ties:
(i)Least lateral dimension of the column = 500mm
(ii)16 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars
=16 X 20 = 320 mm
(iii)48 times the diameter of the ties = 48 X6
Provide 6 mm dia ties at 250 mm c/c.
Design 2: A circular column 600 mm diameter carries an axial
load of 2000 KN . Design the column. Use M20 and Fe 500
steel.
Columns resisting an axial load and bending
moment
Design the longitudinal and shear
reinforcement for a 275 mm square, short
braced column which supports either
(a)An ultimate axial load of 1280 kN and a
moment of 62.5 kNm about the xx axis
(b)An ultimate axial load of 1280 kN and
bending moment of 35 kNm about the xx axis
and 25 kNm about the yy axis
Design chart for column resisting an axial load and uniaxial bending moment, (Part 3,
BS 8110)
CHAPTER : 3
DESIGN OF FOOTINGS
ISOLATED FOOTING AND
COMBINED FOOTING DESIGN
FOUNDATION
The foundation of a structure is the
part of the structure which transfers
the load to the soil on which it rests.
The ground surface in contact with the
lower surface of the foundation is
called the base of the foundation
The ground on which the foundation
rest is called the subgrade or
foundation soil.
Types of Foundations
Shallow Foundations
If the depth of the foundation is equal
to or less than its width the foundation
is classified as shallow foundation
(i) Wall Footing
(ii)Column or Isolated Footing
(iii)Combined Footing
(iv)Mat Footing
Deep foundation
If the depth of the foundation is greater than its
width it is called as deep foundation.
(i)Well foundation
(ii)Pile foundation
Bearing Capacity of soil:
Ability of the soil to resists the load with out
failure.
Causes of failure of foundations:
(i)Unequal settlement of subsoil
(ii)Shinkage of soil below the foundation due to
withdrawal of moisture
Safe Bearing capacity of the different
soils
Types of Soil
Safe Bearing
Capacity of soil
( KN/m2)
1.Hard Dry Clay
2.Sand and clay
mixed
3.Firm clay
4.Fine confined wet
sand
5.Fine dry sand
6.Coarse sand
7.Soft rock
8.Hard rock (mixture
350
200
200
200
350
450
650
900
1100
2750
Formula for finding the
depth of the foundation:
2
D depth of the foundation in m
p Safe bearing capacity of the soil
rSpecific weight of the soil
0Angle of repose
Design 1 Find the area and the depth of
foundation required for a column carrying an
axial load of 1250 KN . The safe bearing
capacity of the soil is 120 KN/m2 . The
density of the soil is 18 KN/m3 and has an
angle of repose of 30 degree.
Solution:
Load on the column = 1250 KN
Approximate weight of foundation = 125 KN
( take 10 % of total weight)
Total load = load on the column +
approximate weight of the column.
= 1250 + 125 = 1375 KN
Area of the foundation = total load / safe
bearing
capacity of soil
= 1375/120
= 11.46 m2
Provide a foundation area of 12 m2
Determination of depth of the
foundation:
Minimum depth of
2
the foundation = (p/r){(1sin0)/(1+sin0)}
= (120/18) {(1sin30)/(1+sin30)}2
= 0.75 m.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
Chapter 5
CONTENTS:
Introduction to prestressing
Concrete
Steel
Comparsion of RC and PC
Applications of prestressing
Stages of loading
Losses in prestress
Types of Prestressing
Materials and hardwares
Advantages and limitations
Introduction to prestressing:
Definition:
Prestressing is the application of an initial load on the structure so
as to enable the structure to counteract the stresses arising during
its service period
History:
The application of prestressing in concrete structures is not the onl
There were some earlier attempts made.Two of the instances are pr
1) Forcefitting of metal bands on wooden barrels:
The metal bands around the barrel induce a state of initial hoop c
counteract the hoop tension caused by filling of liquid in the barre
Fig1:wooden barrels wounded with steel bands
2)
Pretensioning of spokes in a bicycle wheel
The pretension is applied in the spoke to such an extent that
always be a residual tension in the spoke
Fig: spokes of a bicycle wheel in pretension
The concept of prestressed concrete is also not new. In 1886, a p
granted for tightening steel tie rods in concrete blocks. This is ana
modern day segmental constructions.
Early attempts were not very successful due to low strength of
that time.Since we cannot prestress at high stress level, the prestr
due to creep and shrinkage of concrete quickly reduce the effectiv
of prestressing.
Concrete
Introduction:
concrete itself is a composite material . The basic ingredients of t
are water , portland cement and aggregates(rock and sand).
Mechanical properties of concrete that are relevant to the prestres
design:
Compressive Strength
Modulus of Elasticity
Modulus of Rupture
The properties of concrete which one should be familiar with before a
to make use Prestressed concrete design are:
a)Compressive strength
b)Character of the Stressstrain relationship
c)Modulus of elasticity
d)Creep and shrinkage
e)Tensile strength
Compressive strength:
The compressive strength of concrete is given in terms of the charact
Compressive strength of 150 mm size cubes tested at 28 days . The c
strength is defined as the strength of the concrete below which not m
than 5% of the test results are expected to fall. This concept assumes
distribution of the strengths of the samples of concrete.
Points to recall about reinforced concrete:
Concrete is strong in compression but weak in
tension
Steel is strong in tension (as well as compression)
Reinforced concrete uses concrete to resist compression and to
bars in place, and uses steel to resist all of the tension
Tensile strength of concrete is neglected (i.e. zero)
RC beam always crack under service load
Defects in concrete:
Shrinkage
associated with the loss of moisture from gel particles of
Creep
Time dependent increase in deformation due to sustained
occur in all types of loadingcompression , tension and tors
earlier the age at which loading is applied larger the creep
higher in wet conditions than in dry conditions.
Steel:
The terms commonly used in prestressed concrete are explained. Th
placed in groups as per usage.
Forms of Prestressing Steel
Wires
Prestressing wire is a single unit made of steel.
Strands
Two, three or seven wires are wound to form
a prestressing strand.
Tendon
A group of strands or wires are wound to
form a prestressing tendon.
Cable
A group of tendons form a prestressing cable.
Bars
A tendon can be made up of a single steel bar. The diameter of a ba
larger than that of a wire.
Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concreteisconcretein which reinforcement bars ,
reinforcement grids,platesorfibershave been incorporated
to strengthen the concrete intension.
Rebars ofSagrada Familias roof in construction
(2009)
The term Ferro Concrete refers only to concrete that is
reinforced with iron or steel.
Concrete is strong incompression, but weak in tension.
The failure strain of concrete in tension is so low that the
reinforcement has to hold the cracked sections together.
For a strong, ductile and durable construction the
reinforcement shall have the following properties.
High strength
High tensile strain
Good bond to the concrete
Thermal compatibility
Durability in the concrete environment
Common failures modes of steel reinforced
concrete
Reinforced concrete can fail due to inadequate strength,
leading to mechanical failure.
reduction in its durability
Corrosion and freeze/thaw cycles may damage poorly
designed or constructed reinforced concrete.
Prestressed concrete
Prestressed concrete is a technique that greatly increases
loadbearing strengh of concrete beams.
Stressed ribbon pedestrian bridge,Grants Pass, Oregon, USA
Pretensioned concrete:
Pretensioned concrete is cast around already tensioned
tendons.
This method produces a good bond between the tendon and
concrete, which both protects the tendon from corrosion
and allows for direct transfer of tension.
Advantages of PC over RC:
Take full advantages of high strength concrete and high
strength steel
Need less materials
Smaller and lighter structure
No cracks
Use the entire section to resist the load
Better corrosion resistance
Good for water tanks and nuclear plant
Very effective for deflection control
Better shear resistance
Applications of prestressed concrete:
Bridges
Slabs in buildings
Water Tank
Concrete Pile
Thin Shell Structures
Offshore Platform
Nuclear Power Plant
Repair and Rehabilitations
Classification and types
Pretensioning v.s. posttensioning
external v.s. internal
Linear v.s. circular
Endanchored v.s. non endanchored
Bonded v.s. unbonded tendon
Precast v.s. cast inplace v.s. composite
Partial v.s. full prestressing
Pretensioning v.s. posttensioning
In pretension , the tendons are tensioned against some
abutments before the concrete is placed.
After the concrete hardened , the tension force is realeased.
The tendon tries to shrink back to the intial length but the
concrete resist it through the bond between them , thus
compression force is induced in concrete.
Pretensioning v.s. posttensioning
In posttension , the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has
hardened.
Metal or plastic ducts are placed inside the concrete before casting.
After the concrete hardened and had enough strength , the tendon
was placed inside the duct stressed and anchored against concrete.
Linear v.s. circular prestressing
Linear prestressing :Prestressing can be done in straight structure
such as beams
Circular prestressing : prestressing around a circular structure , such
as tank .
External vs. internal
Prestressing may be done inside or outside.
Bonded vs. unbonded tendon.
The tendon may be bonded to concrete ( prettensioning or
posttensioning with grouting)
Bonding prevent corosion of the tendon
The tendon may be unbounded to concrete ( posttensioning without
grouting).
Bonded vs. unbonded
Unbonding allows readjustment of prestressing force at later
times.
Endanchored vs. nonendanchored
nonend anchored :In pretensioning , tendons transfer the
bond action along the tendon .
Endanchored: in posttensioning , tendons are anchored at
their ends using mechanical devices to transfer the prestress
to concrete.
Partial vs. full prestressing
Prestressing tendon may be used in combination with regular
reinforcing steel.
thus , it is something between full prestressed concrete (PC)
and reinforced concrete (RC).
The goal is to allow some tension and cracking under full
service load while ensuring sufficient ultimate strength.
We use partial prestressed concrete (PPC) to control camber
and deflection , increase ductility and save costs.
RC vs. PPC vs. PC
Materials and Hardwares for prestressing:
Prestressing tendons:
Prestressing tendon may be in the form of stands , wires ,
round bar , or threaded rods
Prestressing steel
Materials
High strength steel
Fiberreinforced composite ( glass or carbon fibers )
Common shapes of prestressing tendons.
Tendons
Among these 7wire strand is most popular
Advanages of Prestressing
The use of prestressed concrete offers distinct advantages over or
reinforced listed as follows:
General advantages:
Prestressing minimises the effect of cracks in concrete elements by
holding the concrete in compression.
Prestressing allows reduced beam depths to be achieved for equiva
design strengths.
Prestressed concrete is resilient and will recover from the effects of
a greater degree of overload than any other structural material.
If the member is subject to overload, cracks, which may develop, w
close up on removal of the overload.
Prestressing enables both entire structural elements and structures
be formed from a number of precast units,
e.g. Segmented and Modular Construction.
Lighter elements permit the use of longer spanning members with
strength to weight characteristic.
The ability to control deflections in prestressed beams and slabs permits lon
spans to be achieved.
Prestressing permits a more efficient usage of steel and enables the econ
of high tensile steels and high strength concrete.
Cost advantages of Prestressing
Prestressed concrete can provide significant cost advantages over structu
steel sections or ordinary reinforced concrete.
Limitations of Prestressing
Although prestressing has advantages, some aspects need to be
carefully addressed.
Prestressing needs skilled technology. Hence, it is not as common
reinforced concrete.
The use of high strength materials is costly.
There is additional cost in auxiliary equipments.
There is need for quality control and inspection.
Conclusions
Prestressed concrete design and construction is precise. The high
stresses
imposed by prestressing really do occur. The following points
should be
carefully considered:
Because the construction system is designed to utilise the
optimum stress
capability of both the concrete and steel, it is necessary to ensure
that these
materials meet the design requirements. This requires control and
responsibility
from everyone involved in prestressed concrete work  from the
designer right
through to the workmen on the site.
The result on the analysis carried out on both the prestressedand
reinforced concrete indicated very significant benefits for
theprestressedconcrete, even amidst the threats of
environmentalfactors. Therefore, we could conclude that the
CHAPTER : 4
SHEAR WALL DESIGN
RETAINING WALL DESIGN
DESIGN AND DETAILING
OF RETAINING WALLS
Learning Outcomes:
After this class students will be able to do the
complete design of retaining walls.
68
RETAINING WALL
Retaining walls are usually
built to hold back soil mass.
However, retaining walls can
also be constructed for
aesthetic
landscaping
purposes.
GL2
BACK
SOIL
GL1
Gravity retaining wall
69
Cantilever Retaining wall
with shear key
Batter
Drainage Hole
Toe
70
Photos of Retaining
walls
71
Classification of
Retaining walls
Gravity wallMasonry or Plain
concrete
Cantilever retaining wallRCC
(Inverted T and L)
Counterfort retaining wallRCC
Buttress wallRCC
72
Classification of Retaining
walls
Backfill
Tile
drain
Gravity RW
TShaped RW
Backfill
LShaped RW
Backfill
Counterfort
Counterfort RW
Buttress
Weep
hole
Buttress RW
73
Earth Pressure (P)
Earth pressure is the pressure
exerted by the retaining material
on the retaining wall. This pressure
tends to deflect the wall outward.
Types of earth pressure :
Active earth pressure or earth
pressure (Pa) and
Passive earth pressure (Pp).
Active earth pressure tends to
deflect the wall away from the
backfill.
GL
Pa
Variation of Earth pressure
74
Factors affecting earth
pressure
Earth pressure depends on type of
backfill, the height of wall and the
soil conditions
Soil conditions: The different soil
conditions are
Dry leveled back fill
Moist leveled backfill
Submerged leveled backfill
Leveled backfill with uniform
surcharge
Backfill with sloping surface
75
Stability requirements of RW
It should not overturn
It should not slide
It should not subside, i.e Max.
pressure at the toe should not
exceed the safe bearing capacity of
the soil under working condition
76
Depth of foundation
Rankines formula:
Df =
Df
77
Preliminary Proportioning
(T
shaped
wall)
Stem: Top width 200 mm to
400 mm
Base slab width b= 0.4H to
0.6H, 0.6H to 0.75H for
surcharged wall
Base slab thickness= H/10 to
H/14
Toe projection= (1/31/4)
Base width
200
tp= (1/31/4)b
H/10
H/14
b= 0.4H to 0.6H
78
Design of Heel and Toe
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Heel slab and toe slab should also be designed
as cantilever. For this stability analysis should
be performed as explained and determine the
maximum bending moments at the junction.
Determine the reinforcement.
Also check for shear at the junction.
Provide enough development length.
Provide the distribution steel
79
Cantilever RW design
Design a cantilever retaining wall (T type) to retain earth for a
height of 4m. The backfill is horizontal. The density of soil is
18kN/m3. Safe bearing capacity of soil is 200 kN/m 2. Take the
coefficient of friction between concrete and soil as 0.6. The
angle of repose is 30. Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.
Solution
Data: h' = 4m, SBC= 200 kN/m 2, = 18 kN/m3, =0.6, =30
80
Depth of foundation
To fix the height of retaining
wall [H]
H= h' +Df
Depth of foundation
Df =
200
h1
Df
b
= 1.23m say 1.2m ,
Therefore H= 5.2m
81
Proportioning of
Thicknesswall
of base slab=(1/10
200
to1/14)H
0.52m to 0.43m, say 450 mm
Width of base slab=b = (0.5 to
0.6) H
2.6m to 3.12m say 3m
Toe projection= pj= (1/3 to )H
1m to 0.75m say 0.75m
Provide 450 mm thickness for
the stem at the base and 200
H=5200 mm
tp= 750 mm
450
b= 3000 mm
82
Design of stem
Ph= x 1/3 x 18 x 4.752=67.68 kN
M = Ph h/3 = 0.333 x 18 x 4.753/6
= 107.1 kNm
Mu= 1.5 x M = 160.6 kNm
h
P
Taking 1m length of wall,
Mu/bd2= 1.004 < 2.76, URS
M
(Here d=450 eff. Cover=45050=400
D
mm)
k h
To find steel
Pt=0.295% <0.96%
3
Or
M
=
[k
H
]/6
2
u
a
Ast= 0.295x1000x400/100 = 1180 mm
#12 @ 90 < 300 mm and 3d ok
83
a
Curtailment of barsStem
Curtail 50% steel from
top
(h1/h2)2 = 50%/100%=
(h1/4.75)2 = , h1 =
3.36m
Actual point of cutoff
= 3.36Ld=3.3647 bar
= 3.360.564 = 2.74m
from top.
Spacing of bars = 180
mm c/c < 300 mm and
Dist.
from
top
h1
Ast/2
Every
alternate
bar cut
h2
h1c
Ldt
Ast
h2
Ast/2
Ast
Ast
Provide
d
84
Design of stemContd.,
Development length (Stem
steel)
Ld=47 bar =47 x 12 = 564
mm
200
H=5200 mm
Secondary steel for stem at
front
0.12% GA
= 0.12x450 x 1000/100 =
540 mm2
#10 @ 140 < 450 mm and
5d ok
Distribution steel
tp= 750 mm
450
b= 3000 mm
85
Drawing and detailing
#12 @ 180
#10 @ 140
#12 @ 90
#16 @ 190
#10 @ 140
C/S OF WALL
L/S ELEVATION OF WALL
Definition and Types of
Bridge
What is a bridge?
Bridge is a structure built to span a
valley, road, river, body of water, or
any other physical obstacle.
Designs of bridges will vary
depending on the function of the
bridge and the nature of the area
where the bridge is to be constructed.
Types of Bridges
There are six main types of
bridges:
1. beam bridges,
2. cantilever bridges,
3. arch bridges,
4. suspension bridges,
5. cablestayed bridges and
6. truss bridges
Beam Bridge
The beam is one of
the simplest forms
of bridge.
East India Beam footbridge
Cantilever Bridge
A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using
cantilevers: structures that project
horizontally into space, supported on only
one end.
Forth Bridge, Edinburg
ARCH Bridge
Arches are used in bridges in
different ways, depending on
whether they are made of steel,
brick or stone. The arch takes
(transmits) the load from the
deck of the bridge to the land on
both sides.
Garabit Bridge, Massif Central, France
Garabit Viaduct, Massif Central, France
Ancient Roman aqueduct
Segovia, Spain
Eyeglasses bridge , Japan
"Japan Bridge" Pedestrian Overcrossing, La Dfense, Paris (1994)
Suspension Bridge
A suspension bridge works by
hanging (suspending) the deck
of the bridge from flexible chains
or ropes.
Clifton Bridge. Bristol
Runcorn Bridge, England
Cable Stayed Bridge
The cable stayed bridge is newer
than the other types of bridge. Large
upright steel supports are used to
transmit the load into the ground.
The Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge, USA
Docklands footbridge  South Quay.
Deskywy Bridge
TheRioAntirio
bridge , Greece
The Tatara Bridge has
the largest span
among cablestayed
bridges
Coalbrookdale cable stayed bridge.
Normandie Bridge
Truss Bridge
A truss bridge is a bridge composed
of connected elements (typically
straight) which may be stressed from
tension, compression, or sometimes
both in response to dynamic loads.
Truss bridges are one of the oldest
types of modern bridges.
Truss arch bridge
A Russian truss bridge by Lavr Proskuryakov
Various Examples from
different types of Bridges
NEMO bridge Amsterdam
Mertyl Edwards Park, Seattle
First Futuristic ARCH Bridge Dubai
The proposed Bridge of Reeds, intended to be built near Cambridge
The design for the 175ft high bridge was today officially announced as the winner of
a competition to find a new landmark for the east of England, beating more than
230 other entries by architects from around the world
3d Chain Bridge
The lakes at Rudan , walk through this futuristic looking spiral
MODEL
Norwegian bridge by Leonardo Da Vinci
This bridge was designed for Halic by DA
Vinci for the Galata in 18th century but it
never constructed.
prizewinning bridge design
A futuristic bridge proposal for Brooklyn
President Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge
in Brazil
KULTUR ARENA BERLIN
Whittle Arch and Glass Bridge, Coventry
Millennium Place
Millenium Place  The slender glass bridge over Millennium Place in Coventry,
with the Whittle Arches in the background
Tensegrity Tube Bridge
"Skywalk"shown in an illustration extend over the edge
of the Grand Canyon, 4,000 feet (1,200 meters) above
the Colorado River.
Ladevesa by Calatrava
made of steel and aluminum
It's a machine, it's a bridge,
it's an electrical generator: it's the Wind
Tunnel Footbridge;
made of steel and aluminum
Michael Jantzen
Wind Turbine Observation Tower, "an observation tower that people can
walk through to view the surrounding landscape, while the five wind
activated segments of the structure rotate around them in different
directions. While these segments rotate, they also produce electricity
which is used to light the structure at night Michael Jantzen
By Zaha Hadid
sheikzayedbridge by Zaha Hadid , Dubai
shell
Living Bridge design for
Hamburg (Competition)
Habitable bridge
by Hadid
Glasgow Tower
Living bridge
Amgen Helix
Pedestrian Bridge
bridge forms a pedestrian access !!
Pedestrian Bridge
Caf under the pedestrian bridge
Art bridge" over Stanley street
Living bridge
Limericks Living Bridge
bridge in Paris, over the Seine
Hassell Bridge
2005 Istanbul Design WeekGALATA KOPRUSU
Design of theatre and office units
over a bridge
The second floor plan
The third floor plan
A working model, made from found objects, starts to define the space
A second model showing a more definite arrangment
Program spaces start to take form
A detail model showing how the spaces and structure relate to the bridge.
The final model showing how the project occupies the bridge
Spaghetti Bridge Student
Work Competition
Advanced RC Design
Foundation Design
Learning Outcomes:
After this students will be able design and detail
combined footings through drawing and bar bending
schedule.
Footings
The function of a footing or a foundation is to
transmit the load form the structure to the
underlying soil.
The choice of suitable type of footing depends on
the depth at which the bearing strata lies, the soil
condition and the type of superstructure.
Combined footing
Whenever two or more columns in a straight line are carried on
a single spread footing, it is called a combined footing. Isolated
footings for each column are generally the economical.
Combined footings are provided only when it is absolutely
necessary, as
1.When two columns are close together, causing overlap of
adjacent isolated footings
2.Where soil bearing capacity is low, causing overlap of
adjacent isolated footings
3.Proximity of building line or existing building or sewer,
adjacent to a building column.
P2
P1
a1
a2
+
L/2
L/2
R
x
Combined footing with
loads
Property line
Types of combined
footings
Types of combined footing
1. Slab type
2. Slab and beam type
3. Strap type
The combined footing may be rectangular,
trapezoidal or Teeshaped in plan.
The geometric proportions and shape are so fixed that the
centeroid of the footing area coincides with the resultant of the
column loads. This results in uniform pressure below the entire
area of footing.
Trapezoidal footing is provided when one column load is much
more than the other. As a result, the both projections of footing
beyond the faces of the columns will be restricted.
Rectangular footing is provided when one of the projections of the
footing is restricted or the width of the footing is restricted.
Rectangular
combined footing
Longitudinally, the footing acts as an upward loaded beam
spanning between columns and cantilevering beyond. Using
statics, the shear force and bending moment diagrams in
the longitudinal direction are drawn. Moment is checked at
the faces of the column. Shear force is critical at distance d
from the faces of columns or at the point of contra flexure.
Twoway shear is checked under the heavier column.
The footing is also subjected to transverse bending and this
bending is spread over a transverse strip near the column.
Pa
Pb
Longitudinal Bending
pj
T
Transverse Bending
SLAB TYPE COMBINED FOOTING
d/2
Section 11, 22, 55, and 66 are sections for critical moments
Section 33, 44 are sections for critical shear (one way)
Section for critical two way shear is abcd
CRITICAL SECTIONS FOR MOMENTS AND SHEAR
P1
P2
b
1m
L/2 x
L/2
TRANSVERSE BEAM
BELOW COLUMS
Design Steps
Locate the point of application of the column
loads on the footing.
Proportion the footing such that the resultant of loads passes
through the center of footing.
Compute the area of footing such that the allowable soil
pressure is not exceeded.
Calculate the shear forces and bending moments at the
salient points and hence draw SFD and BMD.
Fix the depth of footing from the maximum bending moment.
Calculate the transverse bending moment and design the
transverse section for depth and reinforcement. Check for
anchorage and shear.
Design Steps Contd.,
Check the footing for longitudinal shear and hence
design the longitudinal steel
Design the reinforcement for the longitudinal moment
and place them in the appropriate positions.
Check the development length for longitudinal steel
Curtail the longitudinal bars for economy
Draw and detail the reinforcement
Prepare the bar bending schedule
Detailing
Detailing of steel (both longitudinal and transverse) in a
combined footing is similar to that of conventional beamSP34
Detailing requirements of beams and slabs should be
followed as appropriateSP34
Design of combined footing
Slab and Beam type
1.Two interior columns A and B carry 700 kN and 1000 kN
loads respectively. Column A is 350 mm x 350 mm and
column B is 400 mm X 400 mm in section. The centre to
centre spacing between columns is 4.6 m. The soil on
which the footing rests is capable of providing resistance of
130 kN/m2. Design a combined footing by providing a
central beam joining the two columns. Use concrete grade
M25 and mild steel reinforcement.
Draw to a suitable scale the following
1.The longitudinal sectional elevation
2.Transverse section at the left face of the heavier column
3.Plan of the footing
Solution: Data
fck = 25 Nlmm2,
fy= 250 N/mm2,
fb = l30 kN/m2 (SBC),
Column A = 350 mm x 350 mm,
Column B = 400 mm x 400 mm,
c/c spacing of columns = 4.6 m,
PA = 700 kN and PB = 1000 kN
Required: To design combined footing with central beam
joining the two columns.
Proportioning of base size
Working load carried by column A = PA = 700 kN
Working load carried by column B = PB = 1000 kN
Self weight of footing 10 % x (PA + PB) = 170 kN
Total working load = 1870 kN
Required area of footing = Af = Total load /SBC
=1870/130 = 14.38 m2
Let the width of the footing = Bf = 2m
Required length of footing = Lf = Af /Bf = 14.38/2 = 7.19m
Provide footing of size 7.2m X 2m,Af = 7.2 x 2 = 14.4 m2
For uniform pressure distribution the C.G. of
the footing should coincide with the C.G. of
column loads. Let x be the distance of C.G.
from the centre line of column A
Then x = (PB x 4.6)/(PA + PB) = (1000 x 4.6)/(1000 +700)
= 2.7 m from column A.
If the cantilever projection of footing beyond column A is a
then, a + 2.7 = Lf /2 = 7.2/2, Therefore a = 0.9 m
Similarly if the cantilever projection of footing beyond B is 'b'
then, b + (4.62.7) = Lf /2 = 3.6 m,
Therefore b = 3.6  1.9 = 1.7 m
The details are shown in Figure
700 kN
1000 kN
a=900
C
4600 mm
A
b=1700
D
pu=177 kN/m2
wu=354 kN/m
Combined footing with loads
Rectangular Footing with Central Beam:Design of Bottom slab.
Total ultimate load from columns = Pu= 1.5(700 + 1000) = 2550 kN.
Upward intensity of soil pressure wu= P/Af= 2550/14.4 = 177 kN/m2
Design of slab
Intensity of Upward pressure = wu =177 kN/m2
Consider one meter width of the slab (b=1m)
Load per m run of slab at ultimate = 177 x 1 = 177 kN/m
Cantilever projection of the slab (For smaller column)
=1000  350/2 = 825 mm
Maximum ultimate moment = 177 x 0.8252/2 = 60.2 kNm.
Slab designContd.,
1m
0.35m
0.825 m
1m
pu=177 kN/m2
For M25 and Fe 250, Q u max = 3.71 N/mm2
Required effective depth = (60.2 x 106/(3.71 x 1000)) = 128 mm
Since the slab is in contact with the soil clear cover of 50 mm is
assumed.
Using 20 mm diameter bars
Required total depth = 128 + 20/2 + 50 =188 mm say 200 mm
Provided effective depth = d = 2005020/2 = 140 mm
To find steel
Mu/bd2 =3.073.73, URS
Mu=0.87 fy Ast[dfyAst/(fckb)]
pt=1.7%
Ast = 2380 mm2
Use 20 mm diameter bar at spacing
= 1000 x 314 / 2380 = 131.93 say 130 mm c/c
Area provided =1000 x 314 / 130 = 2415 mm2
Check for development length
Ldt= [0.87 x 250 / (4 x 1.4)] =39
= 39 x 20 = 780 mm
Available length of bar=825  25 = 800mm
> 780 mm and hence safe.
Transverse reinforcement
0.825 m
Required Ast=0.15bD/100
1m
pu=177 kN/m2
=0.15x1000 x 200/100 = 300mm2
Using 8 mm bars, Spacing=1000x50/300
= 160 mm
Provide distribution steel of 8 mm at 160 mm c/c,<300,
<5d
Design of Longitudinal Beam
Load from the slab will be transferred to the beam.
As the width of the footing is 2 m, the net upward soil
pressure per meter length of the beam
= wu = 177 x 2 = 354 kN/m
Shear Force and Bending Moment
VAC= 354 x 0.9 =318.6 kN, VAB = 1050318.6 =731.4 kN
VBD= 354 x 1.7 = 601.8kN, VBA = 1500601.8 = 898.2 kN
Point of zero shear from left end C
X1 = 1050/354 = 2.97m from C or
X2 = 7.22.97 = 4.23 m from D
Maximum B.M. occurs at a distance of 4.23 m from D
MuE = 354 x 4.232 / 2  1500 (4.23  1.7) = 628 kN.m
Bending moment under column A= MuA=354x0.92 /2 =
143.37 kN.m
Bending moment under column B = MuB = 354 x 1.72
= 511.5 kNm
Let the point of contra flexure be at a distance x from
the centre of column A
Then, Mx= I050x  354 (x + 0.9 )2/ 2 = 0
Therefore x = 0.206 m and 3.92 m from column A
i.e. 0.68 m from B.
0.9 m 1050 kN
A
C
1500 kN
4.6 m
E
B
354 kN/m
ME=628 kNm
_
X=0.206 m
0.68m
.+
MA=143.37 kNm
MB=511.5 kNm
BMD at Ultimate
V1=318.6 kN
+

V3=898.2 kN
V2=731.4 kN
1.7 m
V4=601.8 kN
X1=2.97 SFD at Ultimate
m
X2=4.23
m
Depth of beam from B.M.
The width of beam is kept equal to the maximum
width of the column i.e. 400 mm. Determine the
depth of the beam where T beam action is not available.
The beam acts as a rectangular section in the cantilever portion,
where the maximum positive moment = 628 kNm.
d = (628 x 106/ (3.73 x 400)) = 586 mm
Provide total depth of 750 mm. Assuming two rows of bars with
effective cover of 70 mm.
Effective depth provided = d= 75070 = 680 mm (Less than
750mm and hence no side face steel is needed.
B=400 x 400 mm
D+db/2
B
D+ds
2000
D
D+db
0.825m
0.8m
A 350 x 350
400
1.9m
2.7m
a=0.9m
400 x 400 B
4.6m
7200 mm
1.5m
b=1.7m
2000
mm
350x350
0.9 m
3 16
400x400
4.6 m
(532 + 3 16)
1.7 m
(332 + 3 16
3 16
Side face
2 12
332
+
416
12@300, 12@140, 12@300,
2L Stp
2L Stp
4L Stp
12@120,
4L Stp
12@300,
2L Stp
400
400
316
532
316
750
200
750
416
2000
C/S at Centre
332
416
C/S at the junction
(Right of B)
8@160
20@130
2
m
7200 mm
Plan of footing slab