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PROTOZOOLOGY

Amoebae
Flagellates
Cilliates
Sporozoa
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Amoebae
General Morphology &
Classification

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Morphology
Ameboid shape
Locomotory organ: pseudopodia
(ectoplasms)
Generally 2 stages:
Trofozoite (active stage)
Cyst (dorman and infective form)

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Classification
Intestinal amoebae:
Pathogenic: Entamoeba histolytica
Non pathogenic: Entamoeba coli, etc

Atrial amoebae:
Entamoeba gingivalis

Pathogenic free-living:
Naegleria fowleri
Acanthamoeba sp.

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Entamoeba histolytica
Trofozoites

20-40 m
Broad ectoplasm (pseudopod)
1 entamoeba nucleus
Erytrocytes within endoplasm

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Entamoeba histolytica
Trofozoites

Trofozoites with RBC inside cytoplasms


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E. histolytica
Trofozoites

Various features of trofozoite

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Entamoeba histolytica
Cysts
Cysts:
Rounded, 10-20 m
Mature cysts consist of 4
nuclei
Chromatoidal body1
(sausage-like) found in
immature cysts

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Entamoeba histolytica
Cysts
Mature cysts consist
of 4 nuclei (1,2,3,4)

1
3

2
4

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E. histolytica
Life cycle
Infective stage:
mature cysts
Route of infection:
ingestion
Dx stage:
Trofozoit from
fresh stool
Cyst from stool

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Entamoeba coli
Trofozoites

Non-pathogenic intestinal amoebae


15-50 m
Less progressive ectoplasm
(pseudopod)
1 entamoeba nucleus
Cytoplasms contains vacuoles,
bacteria, fungus, and debris, but no
RBC

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Entamoeba coli
Cysts
Rounded, 10-35 m
Mature cysts consist of 816 nuclei
Chromatoidal bodies
(needle-like)

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Ciliates
Balantidium coli

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Balantidium coli
Life cycle

Habitat: large intestine


Infective stage: cysts
Route of infection:
ingestion
Dx stage:
Trofozoit from fresh
stool
Cyst from stool

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Balantidium coli
Trofozoites

30-100 m length, 30-80 m width


Ciliates (locomotory appendages)
2 nuclei: macronucleus &
micronucleus
Cytostome

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Balantidium coli
Cysts

Rounded, 45-65 m
Ciliates between cyst walls
2 nuclei: macronucleus &
micronucleus
Vacuoles

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Flagellates
Intestinal fagellates
Atrial flagellates
Blood flagellates

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Giardia lamblia

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Giardia lamblia
Life cycle

Habitat: small intestine


Infective stage: cysts
Route of infection:
ingestion
Dx stage:
Trofozoit from fresh
stool
Cyst from stool

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Giardia lamblia
Trofozoites

Pear shape, 9-20 m x 5-15 m


Broad anterior, sucking disc
2 nuclei
Locomotory apparatus: 8
flagella
Axoneme, median bodies

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Giardia lamblia
Cysts

Ovoid, 8-18 m x 7-10 m


Mature cysts consist of 4
nuclei
Axoneme, median bodies la

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Trichomonas sp.
Trichomonas hominis
Intestinal flagellate

Trichomonas vaginalis
urogenital flagellate

Trichomonas tenax
mouth flagellate

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Trypanosomatidae
Blood flagellates

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Trypanosoma
gambiense
T. rhodesiense
T. cruzi

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Trypanosomatidae
Life cycle

Amastigote (leishmanial
form)

Promastigote
(leptomonas form)

Epimastigote (critidial
form)

Trypomastigote
(trypanosomal form)

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Trypanosoma gambiense
Life cycle

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Trypanosoma gambiense
Morphology
Trypomastigote
form in blood as
diagnostic stage

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Leishmania sp.
Life cycle

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Leishmania sp.
Morphology
Amastigotes in
tissues (including
macrophages) as
diagnostic stage

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Thank you

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