0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

20 Aufrufe38 Seitenmodule_5_dimensional_analysis_and_similitude
dimensional and scale analysis related to fluid mechanics particularly boundary layer flow.

Sep 08, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

module_5_dimensional_analysis_and_similitude
dimensional and scale analysis related to fluid mechanics particularly boundary layer flow.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

20 Aufrufe

module_5_dimensional_analysis_and_similitude
dimensional and scale analysis related to fluid mechanics particularly boundary layer flow.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- WPH01_01_msc_20150305_2
- Experimental Modelling
- Dimensional Analysis
- Nano Materials
- Fouling calculation in heat exchanger
- I have a dream
- PREDICTING PRESSURE FILTER NET SOLIDS YIELD USING BUCKINGHAM-Π METHOD OF LMT DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS.
- 1 Relative Motion
- Horno Rotatorio
- Heist 2009
- ch1-mechanics.ppt
- ch12
- Turbulent Drag Reduction by Polymers
- Measure Met of Boundary on a Flat Plate
- 1 Fluid Properties
- Componets of Resistance [Compatibility Mode]
- Incorporating Complex Mathematical Relations in Web-Portable Domain Ontologies
- Physics old question
- Conference Paper First Draft AI-3
- Metrology

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 38

Similitude

Dr. Om Prakash Singh

Asst. Prof., IIT Mandi

www.omprakashsingh.com

and

Dimensional

Similitude

Many problems of interest

Analysis

and

using the integral and/or differential equations.

Wind motions around a football stadium, the air flow around the

deflector on a semitruck, the wave motion around a pier or a ship,

and air flow around aircraft are all examples of problems which are

studied in the laboratory with the use of models.

A laboratory study with the use of models is very expensive,

however, and to minimize the cost, dimensionless parameters are

used.

In fact, such parameters are also used in numerical studies for the

same reason.

Once an analysis is done on a model in the laboratory and all

quantities of interest are measured, it is necessary to predict those

same quantities on the prototype, such as the power generated by

a large wind machine from measurements on a much smaller

model.

Similitude is the study that allows us to predict the quantities to be

expected on a prototype from measurements on a model.

This will be done after our study of dimensional analysis that

guides the model study.

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensionless parameters are obtained using a method called

dimensional analysis.

It is based on the idea of dimensional homogeneity: all terms in an

equation must have the same dimensions.

By simply using this idea, we can minimize the number of

parameters needed in an experimental or analytical analysis, as

will be shown.

Any equation can be expressed in terms of dimensionless

parameters simply by dividing each term by one of the other

terms.

For example, consider Bernoullis equation,

(1)

Now, divide both sides by gz2 . The equation can then be

written as

(2)

Analysis

Suppose the drag force is

desired on an object with a

spherical front that is shaped as

shown in Fig.

A study could be performed, the

drag force measured for a

particular radius R and length L

in a fluid with velocity V,

viscosity , and density .

Gravity is expected to not

Flow around an object

influence

the

force.

This

dependence of the drag force on

the other variables would be

(3)

written as

To present the results of an experimental study, the drag force

could be plotted as a function of V for various values of the

radius R holding all other variables fixed.

Then a second plot could show the drag force for various values

of L holding all other variables fixed, and so forth.

Analysis

viscosity holding the density fixed and then the density holding

the viscosity fixed, would require a variety of fluids leading to a

very complicated study, and perhaps an impossible study.

Analysis

The actual relationship that would relate the drag force to the

other variables could be expressed as a set of dimensionless

parameters, much like those of Eq. (2), as

(3)

(4)

The procedure to do this will be presented next.

The results of a study using the above relationship would be much

more organized than the study suggested by the curves of Fig. 2.

An experimental study would require only several different models,

each with different R/L ratios, and only one fluid, either air or water.

Varying the velocity of the fluid approaching the model, a rather

simple task, could vary the other two dimensionless parameters.

A plot of FD/ (V2 R2) versus VR/ for the several values of R/L would

then provide the results of the study.

Dimensional analysis

Nondimensionalization of an equation by inspectional analysis is

useful only when one knows the equation to begin with.

However, in many cases in real-life engineering, the equations are

either not known or too difficult to solve;

often times

experimentation is the only method of obtaining reliable

information.

In most experiments, to save time and money, tests are

performed on a geometrically scaled model, rather than on the fullscale prototype.

In such cases, care must be taken to properly scale the results.

We introduce here a powerful technique called dimensional

analysis. While typically taught in fluid mechanics, dimensional

analysis is useful in all disciplines, especially when it is necessary to

design

conduct

experiments. parameters that help in the design

To and

generate

nondimensional

You of

areexperiments

encouraged (DoE)

to use

this powerful

on other and

subjects

as

(physical

and/or tool

numerical)

in the

well,reporting

not justofinexperimental

fluid mechanics.

resultsThe three primary purposes of

dimensional

analysis

To obtain

scalingare

laws so that prototype performance can be

predicted from model performance

To (sometimes) predict trends in the relationship between

parameters

Before discussing the technique of dimensional analysis, we

first explain the underlying concept of dimensional analysis

the principle of similarity.

There are three necessary conditions for complete similarity

between a model and a prototype.

The first condition is geometric similaritythe model must be

the same shape as the prototype, but may be scaled by some

constant scale factor.

The second condition is kinematic similarity, which means

that the velocity at any point in the model flow must be

proportional (by a constant scale factor) to the velocity at the

corresponding point in the prototype flow

Fig.: Kinematic similarity is achieved

when, at all locations, the velocity in

the model flow is proportional to that

at corresponding locations in the

prototype flow, and points in the same

direction. In other words, ratio of

velocity must remain constant.

The third and most restrictive similarity condition is that of

dynamic similarity.

Dynamic similarity is achieved when all forces in the model

flow scale by a constant factor to corresponding forces in

the prototype flow (force-scale equivalence).

As with geometric and kinematic similarity, the scale factor

for forces can be less than, equal to, or greater than one.

All three similarity conditions must exist for complete similarity to

be ensured.

In a general flow field, complete similarity between a

model and prototype is achieved only when there is

geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarity.

We match the Reynolds numbers for

the full scale model and prototype.

wind tunnel speed for the model tests

Vm

While drag coefficient CD is a strong

function of the Reynolds number at

low values of Re, CD often levels off

for Re above some value. In other

words, for flow over many objects,

especially

bluff objects

like

trucks, buildings, etc., the flow is

Reynolds

number

independent

above some threshold value of Re

(Fig., typically when the boundary

layer and the wake are both fully

turbulent.

levels off at Reynolds numbers above

some threshold value. This fortunate

situation is called Reynolds number

independence. It enables us to extrapolate

to prototype Reynolds numbers that are

outside of the range of our experimental

Problem

The aerodynamic drag of a new sports car is to be predicted

at a speed of 50.0 mi/h at an air temperature of 25C.

Automotive engineers build a one fifth scale model of the car to

test in a wind tunnel. It is winter and the wind tunnel is located in an

unheated building; the temperature of the wind tunnel air is only

about 5C. Determine how fast the engineers should run the

wind tunnel in order to achieve similarity between the model and the

prototype.

Ans: 221 mi/h

There are only three basic dimensions, since Newtons second law

can be used to relate the basic dimensions.

Using F, M, L, and T as the dimensions on force, mass, length, and

time, we see that F= ma demands that the dimensions are related

by

(5)

We choose to select the M-L-T system (F-L-T system can also be

used) and use Eq. (5) to relate F to M, L, and T.

If temperature is needed, as with the flow of a compressible gas,

an equation of state, such as

could be expressed dimensionally as

where the brackets mean the dimensions of. Note that the

product RT does not introduce additional dimensions.

Dimensions of fluid

variables

Quantities of Interest Using the

M-L-T System

Dimensional analysis

1. Rayleigh method (or power

series)

2. Buckingham theorem

Above are methods to convert a dimensional relationship into nondimensional form

Dimensional analysis is used to test models in

Civil Engineering: study of structures such as dams, spillways,

canals etc. to predict the working of full suze structure

Mechanical engineering: model tests on pumps, compressors,

engines, turbine etc.

Aeronautical engineering: Model tests on aeroplanes, rockets,

missiles in wind tunnel

Naval Engineering: Model tests on ships, submarines etc.

Architectural engineering: Model tests on buildings to predict

wind loads, airflow pattern; helps in design passage ways,

thermal comport of the buildings

The Rayleighs method is based on the following steps:

1. First of all, write the functional relationship with the given

data.

2. Now write the equation in terms of a constant with exponents

i.e. powers a, b, c,...

3. With the help of the principle of dimensional homogeneity,

find out the values of a, b, c, ... By obtaining simultaneous

equation and simplify it.

4. Now substitute the values of these exponents in the main

equation, and simplify it.

5. If the number of exponents involved is more than 3, then the

exponents of the properties D, V, and are evaluated in

terms of other exponents. That helps to group the variables

into recognized dimensionless parameters.

how that the resistance force F to the motion of a sphere of diameter D moving

ith a uniform velocity V through a real fluid of density and viscosity is given b

Buckingham theorem

Rayleigh method becomes laborious and cumbersome when large

number of physical variables are involved.

The Buckingham theorem is used to create the dimensionless

parameters, given a functional relationship such as that of Eq.

(3). Write the primary variable of interest as a general function,

such as

where n is the total number of variables.

If m is the number of basic dimensions, usually 3, the

Buckingham theorem demands that (n m) dimensionless

groups of variables, the terms, are related by,

The term 1 is selected to contain the dependent variable [it would

be FD of Eq. (3)] and the remaining terms contain the independent

variables.

It should be noted that a functional relationship cannot contain a

particular dimension in only one variable; for example, in the

relationship v=f(d, t, ) the density cannot occur since it is the

only variable that contains the dimension M, and M would not have

the possibility of canceling out to form a dimensionless term.

Buckingham theorem

Steps:

The steps that are followed when applying the Buckingham theorem

are:

1. Write the dependent variable as a function of the (n1)

independent variables. This step requires knowledge of the

phenomenon being studied. All variables that influence the

dependent variable must be included and all variables that do

not influence the dependent variable should not be included.

In most problems, this relationship will be given.

2. Identify the m repeating variables that are combined with the

remaining variables to form the terms. The m variables must

include all the basic dimensions present in the n variables of

the functional relationship, but they must not form a

dimensionless term by themselves. Note that an angle is

dimensionless, so it is not a candidate to be a repeating

variable.

3. Combine each of the (n m) variables with the repeating

variables to form the terms. Step 3 is carried out by either

inspection or by an algebraic procedure.

4. Write the term containing the dependent variable as a

function of the remaining terms.

5. Suitable non-dimensional group results when repeating

Buckingham theorem

Example

The method of inspection will be used in an example. To

demonstrate the algebraic procedure, lets form a term of the

variables V, R, , and . This is written as

In terms of dimensions, this is

system of equations:

Buckingham theorem

The solution is

If we desire V to be in the denominator, select d =1; if we

desire V to be in the numerator, select d = 1. Select d = 1

so that

term would then

be equal to a constant which could be determined by a single

experiment.

Buckingham theorem

Finally, consider a very general functional relationship between a

pressure change p, a length l, a velocity V, gravity g, viscosity , a

density , the speed of sound c, the surface tension , and an

angular velocity .

All of these variables may not influence a particular problem, but it is

interesting to observe the final relationship of dimensionless terms.

Dimensional analysis, using V, l, and

as repeating variables

provides the relationship

parameter in certain flow situations.

Buckingham theorem

The dimensionless term with its common name is listed as follows:

For the case of model testing of flows with free surfaces (boats and

ships, floods, river

flows, aqueducts, hydroelectric

dam

spillways,

interaction of waves with piers, soil erosion, etc.), complications arise that

preclude complete similarity between model and prototype.

For example, if a model river is built to study flooding, the model is often

several hundred times smaller than the prototype due to limited lab space. If

the vertical dimensions of the model were scaled proportionately, the depth of

the model river would be so small that surface tension effects (and the

Weber number) would become important, and would perhaps even

dominate the model flow, even though surface tension effects are

negligible in the prototype flow.

In addition, although the flow in the actual river may be turbulent, the flow in

the model river may be laminar, especially if the slope of the riverbed is

geometrically similar to that of the prototype. To avoid these problems,

researchers often use a distorted model in which the vertical scale of the

model (e.g., river depth) is exaggerated in comparison to the horizontal

scale of the model (e.g., river width). In addition, the model river bed slope

is often made proportionally steeper than that of the prototype. These

modifications result in incomplete similarity due to lack of geometric

similarity.

Model tests are still useful under these circumstances, but other tricks

In many practical problems involving free

surfaces, both the Reynolds number and Froude

number appear as relevant independent groups

in the dimensional analysis (Fig.). It is difficult

(often impossible) to match both of these

dimensionless parameters simultaneously. For a

free-surface flow with length scale L, velocity

scale V, and kinematic viscosity , the Reynolds

number is matched between model and prototype

when

The Froude number is matched between model

and prototype when

simultaneously for the required length

scale factor Lm/Lp

liquid with a free surface,

both the Reynolds number

and Froude number are

relevant

nondimensional

parameters. Since it is not

always possible to match

both Re and Fr between

model and prototype, we are

sometimes forced to settle

for incomplete similarity.

Eliminating the ratio Vm/Vp from above Eq., we see that the

required ratio of kinematic viscosities to match both Re and Fr:

similarity is achievable without unwanted surface tension

effects as discussed previously), we would need to use a

liquid whose kinematic viscosity satisfies above Eq.

Problem

In the late 1990s the U.S. Army

Corps of Engineers designed an

experiment to model the flow

of

the

Tennessee

River

downstream of the Kentucky

Lock and Dam (Fig. ). Because

of laboratory space restrictions,

they built a scale model with

a length scale factor of Lm/Lp =

1/100. Suggest a liquid that

would

be1.00

appropriate

Ans: m =

x 10-9 m2/s for the

experiment.

We need to find a liquid that has a viscosity of 1.00 x 10 9

m2/s. A quick glance through the property table yields no

such liquid. Hot water has a lower kinematic viscosity than

cold water, but only by about a factor of 3. Liquid mercury

has a very small kinematic viscosity, but it is of order 10 7

m2/sstill two orders of magnitude too large to satisfy .

Even if liquid mercury would work, it would be too

expensive and too hazardous to use in such a test. What

do we do? The bottom line is that we cannot match both

the Froude number and the Reynolds number in this model

test.

In other words, it is impossible to achieve complete

similarity between model and prototype in this case.

Instead, we do the best job we can under conditions of

incomplete similarity. Water is typically used in such tests

for convenience.

Buckingham theorem

Not all of the above numbers would be of interest in a particular

flow; it is highly unlikely that both compressibility effects and

surface tension would influence the same flow.

These are, however, the primary dimensionless parameters in our

study of fluid mechanics.

The Euler number is of interest in most flows used to characterize

losses in the flow (pressure drop by kinetic energy per unit volume)

where a perfect frictionless flow corresponds to an Euler number of

1; the Froude number in flows with free surfaces in which gravity is

significant (e.g., wave motion), it the ratio of a characteristic

velocity to a gravitational wave velocity; the Reynolds number in

flows in which viscous effects are important, the Mach number in

compressible flows, the Weber number in flows affected by surface

tension (e.g., sprays with droplets), it is a measure of the relative

importance of the fluid's inertia compared to its surface tension;

and the Strouhal number in flows in which rotation or a periodic

motion plays a role.

Each of these numbers, with the exception of the Weber number

(surface tension effects are of little engineering importance), will

appear in flows studied in other cases.

Note: The Froude number is often defined as V2/lg; this would not

Problem

The pressure drop p over a length L of pipe is assumed to depend

on the average velocity V, the pipes diameter D, the average

height e of the roughness elements of the pipe wall, the fluid

density , and the fluid viscosity . Write a relationship between the

pressure drop and the other variables using Buckingham theorem.

Ans:

Problem

The speed V of a weight when it hits the floor is assumed to depend on

gravity g, the height h from which it was dropped, and the density of

the weight. Use dimensional analysis and write a relationship between

the variables.

Ans:

A simple

End

- WPH01_01_msc_20150305_2Hochgeladen vonSany Fahym
- Experimental ModellingHochgeladen vonrahmath ameen
- Dimensional AnalysisHochgeladen vonMxia Yew
- Nano MaterialsHochgeladen vonInz Mat
- Fouling calculation in heat exchangerHochgeladen vonteguh hady a
- I have a dreamHochgeladen vonAnand Kumar
- PREDICTING PRESSURE FILTER NET SOLIDS YIELD USING BUCKINGHAM-Π METHOD OF LMT DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS.Hochgeladen vonIJAR Journal
- 1 Relative MotionHochgeladen vonTABIBI11
- Horno RotatorioHochgeladen vonEfrain Josue Boatswain Medina
- Heist 2009Hochgeladen vonJanos Kovacs
- ch1-mechanics.pptHochgeladen vonMarisol Tan Alberca
- ch12Hochgeladen vonmishazujev
- Turbulent Drag Reduction by PolymersHochgeladen vonprahalad_sudhakar
- Measure Met of Boundary on a Flat PlateHochgeladen vonMunJiwon
- 1 Fluid PropertiesHochgeladen vonShafiq Hafizullah
- Componets of Resistance [Compatibility Mode]Hochgeladen vonSurya Prakash Raju Mudunuri
- Incorporating Complex Mathematical Relations in Web-Portable Domain OntologiesHochgeladen vonmkppan
- Physics old questionHochgeladen vonAkash Heera
- Conference Paper First Draft AI-3Hochgeladen vonsudjiro
- MetrologyHochgeladen vonkhAleL_aSyRanI
- Tuần 1Hochgeladen vonTrí Trần
- no_front_wing2012..xlsHochgeladen vonAnonymous h9DpkR73ye
- Elwha River Surface-WaterHochgeladen vonkamran_watsan
- 1.3673571Hochgeladen vonAlina Elena
- Heat ExchangerHochgeladen vonJournalNX - a Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed Journal
- Hydraulics Unit 1Hochgeladen vonAnand Nagarajan
- Friction Loss in PipesHochgeladen vonannussciah suppiah
- Science 3Hochgeladen vonHossein Yadollahtabar
- 1-s2.0-S1359431116314259-mainHochgeladen voncesar
- CE 3411 Manual- Spring2016Hochgeladen vonGoutam Kumar

- Field Scale Simulation of Cyclic Solvent Injection (CSI)2Hochgeladen vonJhon Alex Pabon
- DOC-20190929-WA0001Hochgeladen voncollins unanka
- Mechanical Aspects of High Power Wave Guide StructureHochgeladen vonInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- SoilMat - PLAXIS 2D Input Objects DocumentationHochgeladen vonRakesh7770
- 7- Mathematical Formulation for the Counter Flow Regenerative Rotary Heat ExchangerHochgeladen vonShenbagam Siva Kumar
- UNU-GTP-2014-17Hochgeladen vonHamdi Said
- Beam on Elastic Foundation PaperHochgeladen vonponjove
- Finite Strain TheoryHochgeladen vonSnehasish Bhattacharjee
- Design of Machine Elements -IHochgeladen vonAnonymous utfuIcn
- Thermo 2 Final Exam Study Guide(Answered)Hochgeladen vonStefan Jobe
- DVM S Technical Bulletins_DVM S System Refrigerant Pump Down Guideline (2).pdfHochgeladen vonDavid Almeida
- tarea_1Hochgeladen vonAangel Tello Pech
- Slab Using Staad ProHochgeladen vonErnesto Suarez
- iapws 1.1Hochgeladen vonArzu Akar
- 2 Reversed Carnot Engine HP & Ref MachHochgeladen vonJustin Mercado
- tutorial 2.pdfHochgeladen vonjan
- A Consistent Rule for Selecting Roots in Cubic Equations of State.pdfHochgeladen vonToño Camargo
- 1 ModellingHochgeladen vonguillermococha
- Classx SoundHochgeladen vonSARANYA J
- Equilibrium Practice Test 1Hochgeladen vonCarlos Hf
- BS 5950Hochgeladen vonadihind
- Stiffness versus Strength.pdfHochgeladen vonHyunkyoun Jin
- 2 VUMAT@ABAQUS User Subroutine Instruction (Reference Manual)Hochgeladen vonpcncku1215
- Surfacebuoy SolutionHochgeladen vonAleksa Cavic
- Compendium of en 1993-1-1Hochgeladen vonvasiile
- ch18Hochgeladen von1rubena1
- ideal gas mixtureHochgeladen vonMichael Miller
- 374dl Plano HidraulicoHochgeladen vonCarlos Casquino Bernedo
- SRS One Way Slab Design WSMHochgeladen vonKaustubh Jadhav
- gibbs.paradox.pdfHochgeladen vonArije Jay Abbey

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.