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Oil Analysis Training

5.0 Wear Elements &


Contaminants
1
For ExxonMobil use only

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Oil Analysis
1.0 Why Oil Analysis

What oil analysis is


Goals of an analysis program
Reasons for doing oil analysis
The value of analysis to customers

2.0 Taking the Sample

Safety First
Taking a Representative Sample
Sampling Techniques
Visual Inspection

3.0 Sample Frequency


Considerations
Suggested Frequencies

4.0 Oil Testing & Analysis

Viscosity & Soot


Water
Oxidation
Nitration
Particle Count

5.0 Wear Elements & Contaminants

Wear Elements
Trend Analysis
Contaminants
PQ Index
Additives

6.0 Final Exam Instructions


Final Exam Instructions
Oil Analysis Final Exam

Section Objectives
At the completion of this section, you will be able to:
1. Describe how the presence of various metals in the lubricating
oil indicates the point of wear in the equipment.
2. List at least four common wear metals with at least two usual
origins for each.
3. List and describe common introduced or ingressed
contaminants.
4. List some common system-generated contaminants, e.g.,
coolant and additives.

Wear Elements & Contaminants


Wear Elements
Trend Analysis
Contaminants
PQ Index
Additives

Submenu

Wear Elements Types of Wear


Whatever the type of wear, the end result is that traces
of metallic elements end up in the lubricating oil.

Adhesive
Abrasive

Erosive

Fatigue

Four Factors Affecting Wear


Analyzing the lubricating oil tells what wear elements are present.
The next step is to consider possible source(s) of each element within the equipment.
Unusually high or changing amounts of any element may provide an early indication of a part or system that needs preventive care.

Four Factors Affecting Wear

ICP Metals/Elements Test


The Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) test is the most common method
for identifying traces of wear elements in the lubricating oil.
Diluted portions of the sample are burned in a plasma flame.
Elements in the oil give off different wavelengths of light that can be
detected and measured for quantitative analysis.
All elements are measured at once.
Particles greater than 5-8 microns in size are not burned and are not
detected.
X-Ray & Atomic Absorption Spectrophotography are other
comparable methods, though ICP is most common.

Wear Elements - Iron


Now lets look at some individual elements and their
characteristics.

Iron

With Silicon = dirt ingression

Evaluate with Chromium

Evaluate with Aluminum

Evaluate Component Composition


Drain Plug Magnet

Wear Elements - Copper


Copper

Look at Hydraulic System Components

With Sodium & Potassium = cooler (engine)

Cooler Core Leaching?

Brass Alloy?

Additive (linked to zinc?)

Never-Seez (anti-seize compound)?

10

Wear Elements Copper & Iron


Copper & Iron

30,000 engine oil samples1

95% of iron below 136 ppm

97% of copper below 167 ppm

1. Source: Noria Corporation

11

Wear Metals Aluminum, Chromium


Aluminum

Dirt or component

Chromium

Evaluate with iron trend dirt ingression

Rings on engine the killer. Look at dirt ingestion

Hydraulic rod cylinders

Rolling element bearings

12

Wear Metals Tin, Lead


Tin
Lead

Determine the composition of bearings


when doing wear metal analysis.
How are they layered?

13

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

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Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

14

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)

Cylinders
Block
Gears
Crankshaft
Wrist Pins
Rings (Cast)
Camshaft
Valve Train
Oil Pump
Liners

Transmission
Gears
Discs
Housing
Bearings
Brake Bands
Shift Spools
Pumps
PTO

Differential
Gears
PTO
Shafts
Bearings
Housings

Hydraulic
Pump/Motor
Vanes
Gears
Pistons
Cylinder Bores
& Rods
Bearings
Valves
Pump Housing

Torque
Converter
Housings Bearings
Shafts

Chromium
(Cr)

Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

15

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

Wrist PinBushings
Bearings
(Near Failure)
Cam Bushings
Oil Cooler
Valve TrainBushings
Thrust Washers
Governor
Oil Pump

Clutches
Steering Discs
Bushing
Thrust Washers
Oil Cooler

Bushings
Thrust Washers
Oil Pumps
(where used)

Pump Thrust
Plate
Pump Piston
Cylinder GlandsGuides
Bushings
Oil Coolers

Bushings
Thrust Washers
(where used)

Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

16

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

Tin (Sn)

Pistons
Bearings
(near failure)
Bushings (some)
Blocks (some)
Housing
Oil Pump Bushing
Blowers
Thrust Bearing

Pumps
Clutches (some)
Thrust Washers
Bushings

Thrust Washers
Pump Bushings
(some)

Pump/Motor
Housing
Cylinder Gland
(some)

Impeller Turbine
Pump (some)

Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

17

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Roller/Taper Bearings
Water Treatment
(oil cooler)

Roller/Taper Bearings
(some)

Rods
Spools
Roller/Taper
Bearings (some)

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

Tin (Sn)

Rings
Roller/Taper Bearings
(some)
Liners
Exhaust Valves
Water Treatment

Roller/Taper
Bearings (some)

Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

18

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

Tin (Sn)

Pistons (overlay)
Bearings (overlay)
Bushings

Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

19

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb)

Bearings
Gasoline Octane
Improver

Oil Additives (some)

Oil Additives (some)

Oil Additives
(some)

Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

20

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)

Anti-Foam
Ingested Dirt

Disc Lining

Ingested Dirt

Ingested Dirt

Ingested Dirt

Sodium
(Na)

21

Wear Metal Origins


Engine

Transmission

Differential

Hydraulic

Torque
Converter

Iron (Fe)
Copper
(Cu)
Aluminum
(Al)
Chromium
(Cr)

Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb)
Silicon
(Si)
Sodium
(Na)

Oil Additives (some)


Anti-freeze
Road Salt
Ingested Dirt

Oil Additives
Ingested Dirt
Road Salt
Anti-freeze

Ingested Dirt

Ingested Dirt

Oil Additives
Ingested Dirt

22

Q15
Question
What wear element might have its source in
roller/taper bearings?
a. Iron
b. Chromium
c. Aluminum
d. Tin

23

Q15
wrong
Question
Wear
WearMetal
MetalOrigins
Origins
Iron (Fe)
Iron (Fe)
Copper
Copper
(Cu)
(Cu)
Aluminum
Aluminum
(Al)
(Al)
Chromium
Chromium
(Cr)
(Cr)
Tin (Sn)
Tin (Sn)
Lead (Pb)
Lead (Pb)
Silicon
Silicon
(Si)
(Si)
Sodium
Sodium
(Na)
(Na)

Engine
Engine

Torque
Torque
Transmission Differential Hydraulic Converter
Transmission Differential Hydraulic Converter

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That is not correct.


Review the Wear Metal Origins
slide, then return to the question.
13

13

24

Q15
correct
Question
What wear element might have its source in
roller/taper bearings?
a. Iron

b. Chromium
c. Aluminum
d. Tin
That is correct.
Proceed to the next slide.

25

Wear Elements & Contaminants


Wear Elements
Trend Analysis
Contaminants
PQ Index
Additives

Submenu

26

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & Soot


How would you rate these trends?
Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Jan

100

12

Feb

100

15

Mar

100

16

Ox

Vis

1.30

15.0

1.44

15.1

1.39

15.0

Low
X

Moderate
Normal
X

High
X

Viscosity

Wear Metals

Soot

Soot

Choose a box and see correct


answers next slide.

27

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & Soot


Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Jan

100

12

Feb

100

15

Mar

100

16

Soot

Ox

Vis

1.30

15.0

1.44

15.1

1.39

15.0

Moderate soot with normal viscosity and normal wear metals.

Soot

Low
X

Moderate
Normal

High
X

Viscosity

Wear Metals

28

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & Soot


Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Jan

100

12

Feb

100

15

Mar

100

16

Soot

Ox

Vis

1.30

15.0

1.44

15.1

1.39

15.0

These trends are probably OK. They are fairly tight.

Soot

Low
X

Moderate
Normal

High
X

Viscosity

Wear Metals

29

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & Soot


Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Jan

100

12

Feb

100

15

Mar

100

16

Soot

Ox

Vis

1.30

15.0

1.44

15.1

1.39

15.0

Now how would you rate these trends?


Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Soot

Ox

Vis

Jan

100

54

1.30
130

17.1

Feb

100

57

1.44
144

17.8

Mar

100

70

1.39
139

19.2

Low
Wear Metals X

Normal
X

High
X

Choose a box and see correct


answers next slide.

Low Moderate High


X
X
Soot X

Viscosity

30

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & Soot

Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Soot

Ox

Vis

Jan

100

54

1.30
130

17.1

Feb

100

57

1.44
144

17.8

Mar

100

70

1.39
139

19.2

Low
Wear Metals X

Normal
X

High

Low Moderate High


X
Soot X

Viscosity

31

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & Soot

The chromium and


iron are trending
slowly up.

Viscosity is high.
It should be in the
14-16 range.

Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Soot

Ox

Vis

Jan

100

54

1.30
130

17.1

Feb

100

57

1.44
144

17.8

Mar

100

70

1.39
139

19.2

There could be a
problem with use of
the wrong oil.

32

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & FDIL or Shear

Low Viscosity with Fuel Dilution or Shear:


Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Jan

100

12

Feb

100

15

Mar

100

69

Soot Loading

Soot

Ox

Vis

0.65

15.0

0.60

15.1

0.99

12.5

Permanent Shear
Fuel Dilution

33

Trend Analysis - Viscosity & FDIL or Shear


This could indicate
ring wear.

Maybe a fuel
problem.

Cr

Si

Mo

Fe

Pb

Cu

Sn

Na

Al

Soot

Ox

Vis

Jan

100

12

0.65

15.0

Feb

100

15

0.60

15.1

Mar

100

69

0.99

12.5

Soot Loading

Permanent Shear
Fuel Dilution

34

Wear Elements & Contaminants


Wear Elements
Trend Analysis
Contaminants
PQ Index
Additives

Submenu

35

Contaminants
Lubricant
Lubricant Condition
Condition
Equipment
Equipment Condition
Condition
Operating
Operating Conditions
Conditions
Contaminants
Contaminants
Next we will discuss one of the chief causes of failure we identified
in the previous section: contaminants.
There are two main sources for contaminants:
Introduced or Ingressed
System Generated

36

Sources of Ingressed Contaminants

Pump
Pump~~Tote
Tote
Pump
not
seated
Pump not seated

Dirty
DirtyEnvironment
Environment

Huffy
HuffyBucket
Bucket==Dirt
DirtMagnet
Magnet

Oil
OilRite
RiteJug
Jug==covered
covered

37

Lube Truck Ideal

In an ideal world, there would be few opportunities


for contaminants to be ingressed or introduced.

38

Lube Truck Reality, too often

Lube Truck
But most of us live and work Cat
in something
less than an ideal world.

39

Contaminant Elements
Here are some common contaminant elements and
their sources. Many of these are system generated.

Silicon

Dirt
Unrepresentative/poorly taken sample
Recent mechanical work
Antifoam additive normal (5-20 ppm)
Gasket sealants
Antifreeze (coolant inhibitor)

Calcium

Additive from an admixed oil, can be contaminant


In circulating systems, look at H2O trend

Sodium & Potassium


Coolant inhibitors
Road salt
Seawater

40

Contaminant Elements
Coolant
Sodium, Potassium - - detect here first by
ICP in lab

Boron
Coolant inhibitor, dispersant additive in
some oils

Vanadium
Present in heavy fuel oil

41

Wear Elements & Contaminants


Wear Elements
Trend Analysis
Contaminants
PQ Index
Additives

Submenu

42

PQ Analysis
In PQ analysis, a sensitive magnetometer measures the mass of
ferrous debris in a sample and displays this as a PQ index.
Sample Bottle
Upper
Balance Coils

Excitation Coil

Lower
A ferrite rod passes
through the center of
the coil assembly.
Ferrite Core
Adjustment Screw

43

PQ Index

The PQ index is a quantitative unitless number that can be


trended with accepted linearity over a wide range of ferrous
debris content and particle size.
Since ICP/DCP is measuring Iron, you would expect a strong
correlation between PQ and Iron.
But because the ICP/DCP measures only small particles (<5
Microns) the correlation is low. See the following slide.
The PQ tells us if we have large particles or lots of small
particles.
Most engines do not have large particles.

44

PQ Index
Low PQ
High Iron

PQ-60 Iron-286

Iron
PQ
High/ PQ
Low Iron

PQ-67 Iron-15

Low PQ
Low Iron

PQ-66 Iron-64

Since ICP/DCP is measuring Iron, you would expect a strong correlation between
PQ and Iron. But because the ICP/DCP measures only small particles (<5
Microns) the correlation is low.

PQ-154 Iron-407

PQ-105 Iron-52

PQ-52 Iron-56
45

Wear Elements & Contaminants


Wear Elements
Trend Analysis
Contaminants
PQ Index
Additives

Submenu

46

Additives
Lubricant oil additives can become contaminants as well.

What They Do:

Barium - Detergent, Dispersant, or Rust Inhibitor

Calcium - Detergent

Magnesium - Detergent (engines)

Phosphorus - EP

Zinc - AW and antioxidant ***Keep this out of Turbine Oil***

Evaluate For:

Oil Performance

Correct Product in Service

47

Congratulations!
You have completed the objectives
for Section 5.0 Wear Elements &
Contaminants.
Press ESC to return to main menu
and continue with
Section 6.0 Final Exam Instructions.

48