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Original Title: 7- Flexible Pavement Design-Asphalt Institute Method

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7- Flexible Pavement Design-Asphalt Institute Method

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Source:

Chapter 20: Traffic & Highway Engineering by Nicholas Garber and Lester Hoel, Third

Edition, Brooks/Cole.

Chapter 16: Highway Engineering, by Paul Wright & Karen Dixon, 7 th Edition, Wiley &

sons

Instructor:

Pavement Types

Flexible Pavement:

materials.

subgrade and distribute loads to it, and depends on

aggregate interlock, particle friction, and cohesion for

stability.

Rigid pavement:

strength that will permit it to act as a beam and allow

it to bridge minor irregularities in base and subgrade.

Conventional Flexible Pavement

Design

Pavement

structure is considered as a

multilayered elastic system.

Materials in each layers is characterized by

certain physical properties (Mr, E,.).

It assumes that subgrade is infinite in both the

vertical and horizontal directions.

Other layers are finite the vertical direction and

infinite in the horizontal direction.

The application of the wheel load causes a

stress distribution (See Figure 20.2)..

Design Cont.

occur directly under the wheel load.

Stresses decrease with increase in depth from the

surface.

The maximum horizontal stress also occurs directly

under the wheel load but can be either tensile or

compressive.

When the load and pavement thickness are within

certain ranges, horizontal compressive stresses will

occur above the neutral axis, whereas horizontal

tensile stresses will occur below the neutral axis.

The temperature distribution within the pavement

structure will also have an effect on the magnitude of

the stresses

distribution in flexible pavements under wheel load

Design

The

generally based on on strain criteria that limit

both horizontal and vertical strain below those

that will cause excessive cracking and

permanent deformation.

These criteria are considered in terms of

repeated load applications.

Most commonly used methods:

Asphalt Institute Method

AASHTO method

California method

Traffic Loading

2. Climate or Environment

3. Material Characteristics

4. Others: Cost, Construction,

Maintenance, Design period.

1.

Traffic Loading

Pavement must withstand the large umber of

repeated loads of variable magnitudes

Primary loading factors:

1.

2.

3.

Volume & composition of axle load (Traffic survey, load

meters, & growth rate).

Tire pressure & contact area.

lb or 18 kips) single axle load.

The total no. of ESAL is used as a traffic loading

input in the design of pavement structure.

Climate or Environment

1.

2.

performance of materials used in pavements

Temperature: high temp. cause asphalt to

loose stability, low temp. cause asphalt to

become hard & stiff, and frost heave.

Moisture: Frost related damage, volume

changes due to saturation, chemical stability

problems with moisture existence (Stripping).

Material Characteristics

1.

2.

3.

Asphalt surface: Material should be strong & stable

to resist repeated loading (fatigue).

Granular base & subbase: gradation, stable & strong

to resist shears from repeated loading.

Subgrade: soil classification, strong & stable.

Various standard tests are available for

determination of desired properties.

CBR, Marshal stability, Resilient Modulus, Shear

strength.

Mr (psi) = 1500 CBR or Mr (Mpa) = 10.3 CBR

conditions:

1.

surface through the tire at a uniform vertical

pressure (Po). The stresses are then spread through

the pavement structure to produce a reduced max.

vertical stress (P1) at the subgrade surface. (See

Figure 20.3 in text )

The wheel load (W) causes the pavement structure

to deflect creating both compressive & tensile

stresses in the pavement structure. (See Figure

20.4 in text ).

2.

pavement structure

pavement structure

1.

2.

as being responsible for the most common

traffic related distresses:

Max. Horizontal tensile strains (Et) on the

bottom of the asphalt layer (causes fatigue

cracking).

Max. Vertical compressive strains (Ec) on the

top of subgrade (causes permanent

deformation).

Et & Ec are used as failure criteria

Institute Method

prepared using a computer program and suitable data.

The charts have been prepared for a range of

traffic load, which are usually adequate for normal

traffic volume encountered in practice, when this

range is exceeded the computer version should be

used.

The manual includes charts for six types of pavement

structures, and three sets of environmental conditions

based on the mean annual air temp. (45o, 60o, and 75o

F).

Example design chart is shown in the coming slide.

Institute Method

Full depth asphalt concrete. (see Fig. 20.5)

Asphalt concrete surface and emulsified asphalt

base.

1.

2.

1.

2.

3.

dense-graded aggregates. (see Fig. 20.6)

Type II: Emulsified asphalt mixes made with semiprocessed, crusher-run, pit-run, or bank-run aggregates.

(see Fig. 20.7)

Type III: Emulsified asphalt mixes made with sands or silty

sands. (see Fig. 20.8)

3.

1.

2.

Base thickness of 12. (see Fig. 20.10)

Institute Method

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Select surface and base material.

Determine minimum thickness required for

input data.

Evaluate feasibility of stage construction and

prepare stage construction plan.

Carry our economic analysis of alternative

design and select the best design.

Design

Traffic

Inputs are:

characteristics.

Subgrade engineering properties.

Subbase and base engineering properties.

Traffic Characteristics

Determined

in terms of number of

repetitions of an 18,000 lb (80)kN single

axle load applied to the pavement on

two sets of dual tires (Equivalent Single

Axle Load (ESAL)).

See next slides for the determination of

the ESAL.

Traffic Analysis

Estimate the number of vehicles of

different types (Passenger cars, single

unit trucks, multi unit trucks of various

sizes) expected to use the pavement

over the design period.

In case data are not available, estimates

can be made from Table 20.4 in text

which gives representative values for

the united states.

1.

2. Estimate the (%) of total truck traffic expected

to use the design lane.

Design lane: Lane expected to receive the

severe service.

% of trucks is found by observation

In

be made from Table 20.4 which gives

representative values for truck distribution in

the united states.

(see Table 16.1 also in the Reference text).

3. When the axle load of each vehicle type is known,

these can be converted to ESAL using the equivalency

factors given in Table 20.3 in text or Table 16.3 in Ref

If the axle load is unknown, the ESAL can also be

found from the vehicle types by using a truck factor for

that vehicle type.

Truck Factor (TF): The no. of ESALs contributed by

passage of a vehicle.

For each weight class, determine the truck factor.

TF = [SUM (No. of axles in each wt. class X EALF)] / Total No. of

vehicles

Table16.2 from ref.

Equivalent Axle Load factor or Load equivalency factor (EALF)

presented in Table 20.3 in text or Table 16.3 in Ref.

EALF: Defines the damage per pass to a pavement by the axle of

question relative to the damage per pass of a standard axle load

(80 kN or 18-kip)

EALF depends on type of pavement, thickness or structural

capacity, and failure conditions (based on experience).

See Truck Factor Example provided in Figure 16.8 Ref. and

example in Table 20.8 in text.

Single Axle with

Single Tire

Tires

Tires

4. Multiply (Tf) by the no. of vehicles in

each group and get the sum for all

groups.

ESAL = Sum (TF X No. of vehicles) all

groups.

See Example provided in next slides.

design period can be determined only if the following

are known:

Design period

Traffic growth factor

records or comparable facilities or obtained from

studies made by specialized agencies.

It is advisable to determine annual growth rates for

trucks and passenger cars separately.

Design period: Number of years the pavement will

effectively continue to carry the traffic load without

requiring an overlay. (usually 20 years).

Design Period

See Table 20.6 for growth factors, or

calculate it using:

Gjt = ( (1 + j)t -1)/ j )

j: Rate of growth.

t: Design period (yrs).

used in the determination of pavement thickness.

Either lane of a two-lane highway is a design lane.

In multilane highways the outer lane is the design lane.

See Table 20.7 for percentage of total truck traffic on

design lane.

The initial daily traffic is in two directions over all traffic

lanes.

Must be multiplied by direction distribution & Lane

distribution to obtain initial traffic on design lane.

Traffic to be used in design is the average traffic during

design period (i.e. multiply by growth factor).

truck traffic on design lane

ESALi = (AADTi) (Fd) (Gjt) (Ni) (FEi) (365)

ESALi : ESAL for axle category i

AADTi: First year annual average daily traffic for axle

category i.

(Fd): Design lane factor

(Gjt): growth rate factor for a given growth rate j and

design period t.

(Ni): number of axles on each vehicle in category i.

(FEi): load equivalency factor for axle category i.

When truck factors are used

ESALi = (AADTi) (Fd) (Gjt) (fi) (365)

ESALi : ESAL for axle category i

AADT: First year annual average daily traffic for axle

category i.

(Fd): Design lane factor

(Gjt): growth rate factor for a given growth rate j and

design period t.

(Ni): number of axles on each vehicle in category i.

(fi): Truck factor for vehicle in truck category i.

When truck factors are used

ESAL = SUM [ESALi ]

from i =1 to n

n= number of truck categories

period.

ESAL Example

An

on a new alignment. Traffic volume forecast

indicates that AADT in both direction during

the first year of operation will be 12,000 with

the following vehicle mix:

Passenger cars (1000 lb/axle) = 50%

2-axle single unit trucks (6000 lb/axle) = 33%

3-axle single unit trucks (10,000 lb/axle) = 17%

If the expected annual traffic growth rate is 4% for all

vehicles,

Determine the design ESAL for a design period of 20

years.

ESAL Example

Solution

Growth Factor = Gjt = [(1 + j)t - 1]/ j = [(1 + 0.04)20 - 1]/ 0.04

= 29.78 (or see Table 20.6)

Table 20.7)

Load equivalency Factors (Table 20.3)

Passenger cars (1000 lb/axle) = 0.00002

(negligible)

2-axle single unit trucks (6000 lb/axle) = 0.01043

3-axle single unit trucks (10,000 lb/axle) = 0.0877

ESAL Example

Solution

ESALi = (AADTi) (Fd) (Gjt) (Ni) (FEi) (365)

For 2-axle single unit trucks

ESAL = (12,000 X 0.33) X 0.45 X 29.78 X 2 X 0.01043 X 365

= 0.4041 X 106

ESAL = (12,000 X 0.17) X 0.45 X 29.78 X 3 X 0.0877 X 365

= 0.2.6253 X 106

Materials Evaluation

subgrade is its Resilient Modulud (Mr).

The design subgrade (Mr) should be based on

expected level of traffic expressed in ESALs.

To ensure more conservative design, lower value of

(Mr) is used for higher volumes of traffic.

It is recommended that (Mr) is found for (6 to 8)

samples of subgrade.

Arrange Mr values in descending order.

Plot as cumulative distribution.

Chose design subgrade (Mr) from the curve as

follows:

Design Subgrade Mr

Mr test

Value

13500

% values

Value >=

>=

1

12.5

11900

25

11300

37.5

10000

50

9500

62.5

8800

75

7800

87.5

6200

100

Traffic Level

Design Percentile

ESAL

Value

<= 10,000

60

10000 to 1000,000

75

> 1000,000

87.5

(Mr) can be found using repeated loading procedure test such as

(unconfined compression test or triaxial compression test).

0.1 sec loading and 1 to 3 sec. unloading.

Linear Variable Displacement Transducers (LVDTs) are used to

measure strains.

Elastic modulus based on the recoverable strain under repeated

loading is called the resilient modulus

Deviator stress = Axial stress confining pressure

Recoverable axial strain = Max strain permanent strain

See Fig. 16.2 in ref.

Mr = 1500 CBR (psi)

These formulas can be used when only when Mr < 30000 psi.. CBR < 20

Freeze Time

Recovery

Time

Properties

Certain

are given in terms of

PI

%

Min. sand equivalent.

See

requirements of untreated base and

subbase.

Base and Subbase Materials

materials

surface or an emulsified asphalt surface along with an

asphalt concrete base, an emulsified asphalt base, or

an untreated aggregate base for the underlying layer.

The choice will depend on the material that is

economically available.

Asphalt Institute recommend certain grades of asphalt

cement that should be used for different temperature

conditions (mean annual temp.)

See Table 20.10 in text.

Temperature Conditions

Requirements

and the type of surface, base, and subbase selected is

obtained either by:

Charts: using design ESAL and subgrade Mr.

See Table 20.11 for min thicknesses of asphalt

concrete over types II & III emulsified asphalt base.

See Table 20.12 for min thicknesses of asphalt

concrete over untreated aggregate base.

emulsified asphalt bases

Untreated Aggregate Base

construction

Planned

successive application of HMA layers according

to a predetermined time schedule.

Beneficial when:

Funds are insufficient for constructing a pavement

with long design life.

Great amount of uncertainty in estimating traffic.

second stage will be constructed before the first

stage shows serious signs of distress.

Pavement

next stage can be designed using traffic

projections based on traffic in service.

Stage construction allows weak spots

that develop in the first stage to be

detected and repaired in the second

stage.

n1: Actual ESAL for stage 1

N1: Allowable ESAL for initial thickness (h1) selected for stage 1.

Then The damage ratio (Dr) at the end of stage 1 is:

Dr = n1/ N1

Dr < 1.0 . When Dr =1.0 pavement fails.

stage 1.

h1 is obtained based on Dr =1.0.

To keep some life, h1 should be determined based on adjusted

ESAL (N1) > ESAL (n1)

N1= n1/Dr

n2: Design ESAL for stage 2.

N2: Allowable or adjusted ESAL to permit selection of (h2) that will carry

traffic n2 and use the remaining life in stage 2.

Then The damage incurred in stage 2 should not exceed the remaining life.

n2/ N2 = (1-Dr)

N2 = n2/ (1-Dr)

MS-1 recommended (5 10 yrs) stage 1 with 60% Dr.

Example

Given:

Full-depth asphalt pavement

subgrade Mr = 10,000 psi

Use two stage to construct this pavement

Stage 1: 5 yrs, ESAL = 150,000 , Dr = 60% at

the end of stage 1.

Stage 2: 15 yrs, ESAL = 850,000

Required:

Determine thickness of HMA required for first 5yrs.

Thickness of overlay required to accommodate the

additional traffic expected during the next 15 yrs.

Example Cont.

Solution:

n1=150,000 &

Dr = 0.6

N1 = n1/Dr = 150,000/ 0.6 = 250,000

design Chart with N1 & Mr find

use 7.5 in.

Find

From

h1=7.3 in

n2 = 850,000

& 1-Dr = 0.40

N2 = n2/ (1-Dr) = 850,000/ 0.4 = 2,100,000

design chart with N2 & Mr find

h2 =11.0

Overlay thickness hs = h2 h1 = 11.0 7.5 = 3.5 in.

Find

From

Example Cont.

Solution:

If the design was not divided into 2 stages, the

thickness of the pavement using (Mr = 10,000

psi & ESAL = 1000,000) is :

9.8 in use 10 in.

The use of stage construction decreased the

thickness in first stage by (10.0 -2.5 = 2.5 in),

but increased the total thickness by

(11.0 - 10.0 = 1.0 in).

Selection

Find

same design ESAL and subgrade Mr.

Carry out an economic evaluation of

these alternatives.

Determine best alternative.

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