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15 Aufrufe36 Seitenpowerpoint presentation on electricity of class 10
it is very useful for the 10th std to understand about the electricity chapter.

Sep 11, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

powerpoint presentation on electricity of class 10
it is very useful for the 10th std to understand about the electricity chapter.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

15 Aufrufe

powerpoint presentation on electricity of class 10
it is very useful for the 10th std to understand about the electricity chapter.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

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Made by :PUSHKAR.U

X-C

Types of charges

There are two types of charges : Positive charge :- These are made of

sub atomic particle proton.

Negative charge :- These are made

of negative sub atomic particle

electron.

The S.I. unit of charge is coulomb.

An electron posses a negative charge

of 1.5 x 10-19.

The S.I. unit of one coulomb is

equivalent to the charge containing

6.25 x 10-18.

Conductors

These substance

have the property to

conduct electricity

through them.

These have free or

loosely held

electrons which

helps in conducting

electricity.

Example copper.

Insulators

These substance have

the property to

obstruct the flow of

electricity.

These do not have

free electrons present

in them.

Example Rubber

Insulation.

Electric potential

When a small electric charge is

placed in the electric field due to

another charge, it experiences a

force. So, work has to be done on the

positive charge to move it against

this force of repulsion.

The electric potential is defined as

the work done in moving a unit

positive charge fro infinity to that

point.

Potential Difference

The concept of electric potential is closely linked to

that of the electric field. A small charge placed

within an electric field experiences a force, and to

have brought that charge to that point against the

force requireswork. The electric potential at any

point is defined as the energy required to bring a

unit test charge from aninfinite distanceslowly to

that point.

It is usually measured involts, and one volt is the

potential for which onejouleof work must be

expended to bring a charge of onecoulombfrom

infinity.

Potential

difference =

or,

V= .

and Q = quantity of

charge moved.

S.I. unit of potential difference is volt.

thus 1 volt =

Voltmeter

Avoltmeteris an

instrument used

for

measuringelectric

al

potentialdifference

between two points

in an electric

circuit.

Voltmeter has a

high resistance so

that it takes

Electric Current

The

movement of electric charge is known

as anelectric current, the intensity of which

is usually measured inamperes. Current can

consist of any moving charged particles;

most commonly these are electrons, but any

charge in motion constitutes a current.

1 ampere = .

Ammeter

Anammeteris

ameasuring

instrumentused to measure

theelectric currentin

acircuit. Electric currents

are measured

inamperes(A), hence the

name.

An ammeter should have a

very low resistance so that

it may not change the value

of current flowing in the

circuit.

Circuit Diagram

We know that an electric circuit, as shown in Fig.

12.1, comprises a cell(or a battery), a plug key,

electrical component(s), and connecting wires. It is

often convenient to draw a schematic diagram, in

which different components of the circuit are

represented by the symbols conveniently used.

Conventional symbols used to represent some of the

most commonly used electrical components.

Georg Ohm

Georg Simon Ohm(16 March

1789 6 July 1854) was

aGermanphysicistand

mathematician. As a school

teacher, Ohm began his research

with the newelectrochemical cell,

invented by Italian

scientistAlessandro Volta. Using

equipment of his own creation,

Ohm found that there is a direct

proportionality between the

potential difference (voltage)

applied across a conductor and the

resultantelectric current. This

relationship is known asOhm's law.

Ohms Law

Ohms Law explains the relationship

between voltage (V or E), current (I) and

resistance (R)

Used by electricians, automotive

technicians, stereo installers.

According to Ohms law : At constant

temperature, the current flowing through

a conductor is directly proportional to the

potential difference across its end.

According

to Ohms law:

VI

or, V= R x I.

where R is constant resistance of the

conductor.

This can also be written as

or, I = .

So,

Current, I = .

Therefore,

i. The current is directly proportional to

potential difference.

ii. The current is inversely proportional to

resistance.

Resistance

An electron traveling through the wires and loads of the

external circuit encounters resistance.Resistanceis

the hindrance to the flow of charge. For an electron,the

journey from terminal to terminal is not a direct route.

Rather, it is a zigzag path that results from countless

collisions with fixed atoms within the conducting

material. The electrons encounter resistance - a

hindrance to their movement.

The S.I. unit of resistance is ohms ().

i. Length of conductor.

ii. Area of cross section of the

conductor (or thickness of the

conductor).

iii. Nature of the material of the

conductor, and

iv. Temperature of conductor.

Resistivity

It has been found by experiments that :

The resistivity of a given of a given conductor

is directly proportional to its length.

R l ..(1)

The resistivity of a given conductor is inversely

proportional to its area of cross section.

R 1/A (2)

Combining (1) and (2), we get :

R l/A

R = .(3)

Where

p(rho) is a constant known as resistivity of

the material.

The resistivity of a substance is numerically equal

to the resistance of a rod of that substance which is

1 meter long and 1 square meter in cross section.

Resistivity, p = .

The unit of resistance R is ohm.

The unit of area of cross-section A is (meter) 2.

The unit of length l is meter.

putting these unit in the above equation

p=.

p = ohm-meter.

The S.I. unit of resistivity is ohm-meter (m)

C)

those of pure metals (from which they are

made).

For example the resistivity of maganine (which

is an alloy of copper, manganese and nickel)is

about 25 times more than that of copper.

Alloys are used in making heating a materials as

heating elements produce a lot of heat on

passing current).

ii. Alloys do not undergo oxidation easily even at

high temprature.

Combination of Resistors

Resistors can be combined in two

ways

i. In series.

ii.In parallel.

Resistors in Series

When two (or more) resistors are

connected end to end consecutively, they

are said to be connected in series.

According to the law of combination of

resistance in series: The combined

resistance of any number of

resistances connected in series is

equal to the sum of the individual

resistances.

R= R1 +R2 +R3+..

connected in series are joined to the

terminal of a battery, then each

resistance has a different potential

difference across its ends (which

depends on the value of resistance).

But the total potential difference

across all the ends of all the

resistors in series is equal.

II. When a number of resistors are

connected in series, then the same

current flows through each

resistance.

Series

The figure shows three resistances R 1,R2,R3 connected in series.

Now suppose potential difference across resistance R 1 is V1 , R2 is

V2 and R3 is V3. Let potential difference across battery be V, then :

V = V1+V2+V3.

Applying Ohms law to the whole circuit : V = IR.

..(1)

Applying Ohms law to the three resistors separately, we get:

V1 = I x R1.

.. (2)

V2 = I x R2.

.. (3)

V3 = I x R3.

.. (4)

Substituting (2), (3), (4) in (1)

IR = IR1 + IR2+ IR3

OR, IR= I (R1+R2+R3)

Or, R = R1+R2+R3 .

Therefore we conclude that the sum total resistance in a series

resistance connection is equal to the sum of all the resistances.

Resistors in Parallel

When two (or more) resistors are connected between

the same points, they are said to be connected in

parallel.

According to the law of combination of resistance in

parallel: The reciprocal of the combined

resistance of any number of resistances

connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the

reciprocals of the individual resistances.

1/R= 1/R1 +1/R2 +1/R3+..

When a number of resistances are connected in

parallel then their combined resistance is less than

the smallest individual resistance.

parallel, then the potential difference across each

resistance is same which is equal to the voltage

of battery applied.

When a number of resistances connected in

parallel are joined to the two terminals of a

battery, then different amounts of current flow

through each resistance (which depend on the

value of resistance). But the current flowing

through each parallel resistance, taken together,

is equal to the current flowing in the circuit as a

whole. Thus, when a number of resistance are

connected in parallel, then the sum of current

flowing through all the resistances is equal to the

total current flowing in the circuit.

Parallel

The figure shows three resistances R1,R2,R3 connected in series.

Now suppose currant across resistance R1 is I1 , R2 is I2 and R3 is I3.

Let total current in the circuit be I, then:

I = I1+I2+I3.

Applying Ohms law to the whole circuit : I = V/R.

..(1)

Applying Ohms law to the three resistors separately, we get:

I1 = V / R1.

.. (2)

I2 = V / R2.

.. (3)

I3 = V / R3.

.. (4)

Substituting (2), (3), (4) in (1)

V/R = V/R1 + V/R2+ V/R3

OR, V/R= I (1/R1 +1/R2 + 1/R3)

Or, 1/R = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 .

Therefore we conclude that the sum total resistance in a parallel

resistance connection is equal to the sum of reciprocal of all the

resistances.

connection

If one electric appliance

stops working due to some

Parallel

connection

appliances keep working

normally.

In parallel circuits, each

electric appliance has its

own switch due to which it

can be turned on or off

independently.

Each appliance gets same

voltage as that of power

source.

Overall resistance of

household circuit is

reduced due to which the

current from power supply is

Series connection

If one electric appliance stop

working due to some defect, then

all other appliances stop working.

All the electric appliances have

only one switch due to which they

cannot be turned on or off

separately.

In series circuit, the appliances do

not get same voltage (220 V) as

that of the power supply line.

In series circuit the overall

resistance of the circuit increases

due to which the current from the

power source is low.

current

When electricity passes through a high

resistance wire like a nichrome wire, the

resistance wire becomes very hot and

produces heat. This is called the heating

effect of current.

James Prescott Joule(24 December

1818 11 October 1889) was an

Englishphysicist andbrewer, born

inSalford, Lancashire. Joule studied

the nature ofheat, and discovered its

relationship to mechanical work. This

led to thelaw of conservation of

energy, and this led to the

development of thefirst law of

thermodynamics. TheSI derived

unitof energy, thejoule, is named for

James Joule. He worked withLord

Kelvinto develop the absolute scale

oftemperature. Joule also made

observations of magnetostriction, and

he found the relationship between

thecurrent through aresistorand the

Let

An electric current I is flowing through a resistor having resistance equal to R.

The potential difference through the resistor is equal to V.

The charge Q flows through the circuit for the time t.

Thus, work done in moving of charge Q of potential difference V = VQ

Since, this charge Q flows through the circuit for time t,

proportional to

i. Square of current.

ii. Resistance of wire.

iii. Time for which current is passed.

electric current

There are many practical uses of heating effect of current. Some of the most common are

as follows.

Anincandescent light bulbglows when the filament is heated by heating effect of current,

so hot that it glows white withthermal radiation(also calledblackbody radiation).

Electric stovesand otherelectric heatersusually work by heating effect of current.

Soldering ironsandcartridge heatersare very often heated by heating effect of current.

Electric fusesrely on the fact that if enough current flows, enough heat will be generated

to melt the fuse wire.

Electronic cigarettesusually work by heating effect of current, vaporizing propylene glycol

and vegetable glycerin.

Thermistorsandresistance thermometersare resistors whose resistance changes when

the temperature changes. These are sometimes used in conjunction with heating effect of

current(also called self-heating in this context): If a large current is running through the

nonlinear resistor, the resistor's temperature rises and therefore its resistance changes.

Therefore, these components can be used in a circuit-protection role similar tofuses, or

for feedbackin circuits, or for many other purposes. In general, self-heating can turn a

resistor into a nonlinear and hysteretic circuit element.

Electric Energy

H = I2 Rt gives the rate at which electric energy is dissipated or consumed in an

electric circuit. This is also termed as electric power. The power P is given by

P = VI

Or P = I2R = V2/R

The SI unit of electric power is watt (W). It is the power consumed by a device

that carries 1 A of current when operated at a potential difference of 1 V. Thus,

1 W = 1 volt 1 ampere = 1 V A

The unit watt is very small. Therefore, in actual practice we use a much larger

unit called kilowatt. It is equal to 1000 watts. Since electrical energy is the

product of power and time, the unit of electric energy is, therefore, watt hour (W

h). One watt hour is the energy consumed when 1 watt of power is used for 1

hour. The commercial unit of electric energy is kilowatt hour (kW h), commonly

known as unit.

1 kW h = 1000 watt 3600 second

= 3.6 106 watt second

= 3.6 106 joule (J)

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