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# Electricit

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Types of charges
There are two types of charges : Positive charge :- These are made of
sub atomic particle proton.
Negative charge :- These are made
of negative sub atomic particle
electron.

## S.I. unit of charge

The S.I. unit of charge is coulomb.
An electron posses a negative charge
of 1.5 x 10-19.
The S.I. unit of one coulomb is
equivalent to the charge containing
6.25 x 10-18.

## Conductors and Insulators

Conductors
These substance
have the property to
conduct electricity
through them.
These have free or
loosely held
electrons which
helps in conducting
electricity.
Example copper.

Insulators
These substance have
the property to
obstruct the flow of
electricity.
These do not have
free electrons present
in them.
Example Rubber
Insulation.

Electric potential
When a small electric charge is
placed in the electric field due to
another charge, it experiences a
force. So, work has to be done on the
positive charge to move it against
this force of repulsion.
The electric potential is defined as
the work done in moving a unit
positive charge fro infinity to that
point.

Potential Difference
The concept of electric potential is closely linked to
that of the electric field. A small charge placed
within an electric field experiences a force, and to
have brought that charge to that point against the
force requireswork. The electric potential at any
point is defined as the energy required to bring a
unit test charge from aninfinite distanceslowly to
that point.
It is usually measured involts, and one volt is the
potential for which onejouleof work must be
expended to bring a charge of onecoulombfrom
infinity.

Potential
difference =

or,

V= .

## where W = work done.

and Q = quantity of
charge moved.
S.I. unit of potential difference is volt.
thus 1 volt =

Voltmeter
Avoltmeteris an
instrument used
for
measuringelectric
al
potentialdifference
between two points
in an electric
circuit.
Voltmeter has a
high resistance so
that it takes

Electric Current
The
movement of electric charge is known
as anelectric current, the intensity of which
is usually measured inamperes. Current can
consist of any moving charged particles;
most commonly these are electrons, but any
charge in motion constitutes a current.
1 ampere = .

Ammeter
Anammeteris
ameasuring
instrumentused to measure
theelectric currentin
acircuit. Electric currents
are measured
inamperes(A), hence the
name.
An ammeter should have a
very low resistance so that
it may not change the value
of current flowing in the
circuit.

Circuit Diagram
We know that an electric circuit, as shown in Fig.
12.1, comprises a cell(or a battery), a plug key,
electrical component(s), and connecting wires. It is
often convenient to draw a schematic diagram, in
which different components of the circuit are
represented by the symbols conveniently used.
Conventional symbols used to represent some of the
most commonly used electrical components.

Georg Ohm
Georg Simon Ohm(16 March
1789 6 July 1854) was
aGermanphysicistand
mathematician. As a school
teacher, Ohm began his research
with the newelectrochemical cell,
invented by Italian
scientistAlessandro Volta. Using
equipment of his own creation,
Ohm found that there is a direct
proportionality between the
potential difference (voltage)
applied across a conductor and the
resultantelectric current. This
relationship is known asOhm's law.

Ohms Law
Ohms Law explains the relationship
between voltage (V or E), current (I) and
resistance (R)
Used by electricians, automotive
technicians, stereo installers.
According to Ohms law : At constant
temperature, the current flowing through
a conductor is directly proportional to the
potential difference across its end.

According
to Ohms law:

VI
or, V= R x I.
where R is constant resistance of the
conductor.
This can also be written as
or, I = .
So,
Current, I = .
Therefore,
i. The current is directly proportional to
potential difference.
ii. The current is inversely proportional to
resistance.

Resistance
An electron traveling through the wires and loads of the
external circuit encounters resistance.Resistanceis
the hindrance to the flow of charge. For an electron,the
journey from terminal to terminal is not a direct route.
Rather, it is a zigzag path that results from countless
collisions with fixed atoms within the conducting
material. The electrons encounter resistance - a
hindrance to their movement.
The S.I. unit of resistance is ohms ().

## Factors affecting Resistance

i. Length of conductor.
ii. Area of cross section of the
conductor (or thickness of the
conductor).
iii. Nature of the material of the
conductor, and
iv. Temperature of conductor.

Resistivity
It has been found by experiments that :
The resistivity of a given of a given conductor
is directly proportional to its length.
R l ..(1)
The resistivity of a given conductor is inversely
proportional to its area of cross section.
R 1/A (2)
Combining (1) and (2), we get :
R l/A
R = .(3)

Where
p(rho) is a constant known as resistivity of

the material.
The resistivity of a substance is numerically equal
to the resistance of a rod of that substance which is
1 meter long and 1 square meter in cross section.

Resistivity, p = .
The unit of resistance R is ohm.
The unit of area of cross-section A is (meter) 2.
The unit of length l is meter.
putting these unit in the above equation
p=.
p = ohm-meter.
The S.I. unit of resistivity is ohm-meter (m)

C)

## The resistivity of alloys are much more than

those of pure metals (from which they are
For example the resistivity of maganine (which
is an alloy of copper, manganese and nickel)is
about 25 times more than that of copper.
Alloys are used in making heating a materials as

## i. Alloys have very high resistivity (due to which

heating elements produce a lot of heat on
passing current).
ii. Alloys do not undergo oxidation easily even at
high temprature.

Combination of Resistors
Resistors can be combined in two
ways

i. In series.
ii.In parallel.

Resistors in Series
When two (or more) resistors are
connected end to end consecutively, they
are said to be connected in series.
According to the law of combination of
resistance in series: The combined
resistance of any number of
resistances connected in series is
equal to the sum of the individual
resistances.
R= R1 +R2 +R3+..

## I. When a number of resistors

connected in series are joined to the
terminal of a battery, then each
resistance has a different potential
difference across its ends (which
depends on the value of resistance).
But the total potential difference
across all the ends of all the
resistors in series is equal.
II. When a number of resistors are
connected in series, then the same
current flows through each
resistance.

## Resultant of Resistances connected in

Series
The figure shows three resistances R 1,R2,R3 connected in series.
Now suppose potential difference across resistance R 1 is V1 , R2 is
V2 and R3 is V3. Let potential difference across battery be V, then :
V = V1+V2+V3.
Applying Ohms law to the whole circuit : V = IR.
..(1)
Applying Ohms law to the three resistors separately, we get:
V1 = I x R1.
.. (2)
V2 = I x R2.
.. (3)
V3 = I x R3.
.. (4)
Substituting (2), (3), (4) in (1)
IR = IR1 + IR2+ IR3
OR, IR= I (R1+R2+R3)
Or, R = R1+R2+R3 .
Therefore we conclude that the sum total resistance in a series
resistance connection is equal to the sum of all the resistances.

Resistors in Parallel
When two (or more) resistors are connected between
the same points, they are said to be connected in
parallel.
According to the law of combination of resistance in
parallel: The reciprocal of the combined
resistance of any number of resistances
connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the
reciprocals of the individual resistances.
1/R= 1/R1 +1/R2 +1/R3+..
When a number of resistances are connected in
parallel then their combined resistance is less than
the smallest individual resistance.

## When a number of resistance are connected in

parallel, then the potential difference across each
resistance is same which is equal to the voltage
of battery applied.
When a number of resistances connected in
parallel are joined to the two terminals of a
battery, then different amounts of current flow
through each resistance (which depend on the
value of resistance). But the current flowing
through each parallel resistance, taken together,
is equal to the current flowing in the circuit as a
whole. Thus, when a number of resistance are
connected in parallel, then the sum of current
flowing through all the resistances is equal to the
total current flowing in the circuit.

## Resultant of Resistances connected in

Parallel
The figure shows three resistances R1,R2,R3 connected in series.
Now suppose currant across resistance R1 is I1 , R2 is I2 and R3 is I3.
Let total current in the circuit be I, then:
I = I1+I2+I3.
Applying Ohms law to the whole circuit : I = V/R.
..(1)
Applying Ohms law to the three resistors separately, we get:
I1 = V / R1.
.. (2)
I2 = V / R2.
.. (3)
I3 = V / R3.
.. (4)
Substituting (2), (3), (4) in (1)
V/R = V/R1 + V/R2+ V/R3
OR, V/R= I (1/R1 +1/R2 + 1/R3)
Or, 1/R = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 .
Therefore we conclude that the sum total resistance in a parallel
resistance connection is equal to the sum of reciprocal of all the
resistances.

## Parallel and Series

connection
If one electric appliance
stops working due to some
Parallel
connection

## defect, then all other

appliances keep working
normally.
In parallel circuits, each
electric appliance has its
own switch due to which it
can be turned on or off
independently.
Each appliance gets same
voltage as that of power
source.
Overall resistance of
household circuit is
reduced due to which the
current from power supply is

Series connection
If one electric appliance stop
working due to some defect, then
all other appliances stop working.
All the electric appliances have
only one switch due to which they
cannot be turned on or off
separately.
In series circuit, the appliances do
not get same voltage (220 V) as
that of the power supply line.
In series circuit the overall
resistance of the circuit increases
due to which the current from the
power source is low.

## Heating effect of electric

current
When electricity passes through a high
resistance wire like a nichrome wire, the
resistance wire becomes very hot and
produces heat. This is called the heating
effect of current.

## James Prescott Joule

James Prescott Joule(24 December
1818 11 October 1889) was an
Englishphysicist andbrewer, born
inSalford, Lancashire. Joule studied
the nature ofheat, and discovered its
relationship to mechanical work. This
led to thelaw of conservation of
energy, and this led to the
development of thefirst law of
thermodynamics. TheSI derived
unitof energy, thejoule, is named for
James Joule. He worked withLord
Kelvinto develop the absolute scale
observations of magnetostriction, and
he found the relationship between
thecurrent through aresistorand the

## Joules law of heating

Let
An electric current I is flowing through a resistor having resistance equal to R.
The potential difference through the resistor is equal to V.
The charge Q flows through the circuit for the time t.
Thus, work done in moving of charge Q of potential difference V = VQ
Since, this charge Q flows through the circuit for time t,

## The heat produced in wire is directly

proportional to
i. Square of current.
ii. Resistance of wire.
iii. Time for which current is passed.

## Applications of heating effect of

electric current
There are many practical uses of heating effect of current. Some of the most common are
as follows.
Anincandescent light bulbglows when the filament is heated by heating effect of current,
Electric stovesand otherelectric heatersusually work by heating effect of current.
Soldering ironsandcartridge heatersare very often heated by heating effect of current.
Electric fusesrely on the fact that if enough current flows, enough heat will be generated
to melt the fuse wire.
Electronic cigarettesusually work by heating effect of current, vaporizing propylene glycol
and vegetable glycerin.
Thermistorsandresistance thermometersare resistors whose resistance changes when
the temperature changes. These are sometimes used in conjunction with heating effect of
current(also called self-heating in this context): If a large current is running through the
nonlinear resistor, the resistor's temperature rises and therefore its resistance changes.
Therefore, these components can be used in a circuit-protection role similar tofuses, or
for feedbackin circuits, or for many other purposes. In general, self-heating can turn a
resistor into a nonlinear and hysteretic circuit element.

Electric Energy
H = I2 Rt gives the rate at which electric energy is dissipated or consumed in an
electric circuit. This is also termed as electric power. The power P is given by
P = VI
Or P = I2R = V2/R
The SI unit of electric power is watt (W). It is the power consumed by a device
that carries 1 A of current when operated at a potential difference of 1 V. Thus,
1 W = 1 volt 1 ampere = 1 V A
The unit watt is very small. Therefore, in actual practice we use a much larger
unit called kilowatt. It is equal to 1000 watts. Since electrical energy is the
product of power and time, the unit of electric energy is, therefore, watt hour (W
h). One watt hour is the energy consumed when 1 watt of power is used for 1
hour. The commercial unit of electric energy is kilowatt hour (kW h), commonly
known as unit.
1 kW h = 1000 watt 3600 second
= 3.6 106 watt second
= 3.6 106 joule (J)