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THE INTERNET AND

THE WORLD WIDE WEB

What is the internet?


Internet is a global network of computers.
Network connection of several computers for
the purpose of sharing resources and
data.
Intranet a private network for information
management and sharing among only
its members or employees.

EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNET


YEA
R
1957
1969
1972
1976
1977
1981

EVENT
The USSR launches Sputnik 1, the worlds first
artificial satellite. In response, the US forms the
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to
establish its leadership in science and technology.
Birth of networking through ARPANET.
ARPANET became international with 23 nodes. EMAIL is invented by Ray Tomlinson who worked at
BBN.
Networking is made available to public
Birth of newsgroups, linking people in electronic
communities.
First interactive multi-user sites come online,
resulting in Interactive adventure games, board
games, rich and detailed.

YEAR

EVENT

1988

The virus called Internet worm (created by Robert Morris)


was released. It infected 10 percent of all Internet hosts.
Also in this year, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) was written by
Jarkko Oikarinen.

1991

The World Wide Web was created by Tim Berners-Lee at


CERN(a French acronym for the European Laboratory for
Particle Physics) opening up easy access to information
around the world.

1992

WWW became available to the public.


Internet is coined by Jean Armour Polly.

1993

The company called Netscape Communications, formed


by Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark, released Netscape
Navigator, a Web browser that captured the imagination of
everyone who used it.

1994

Stanford graduate students David Filo and Jerry Yang


developed their Internet search engine and directory
called Yahoo!, which is now world-famous.

Surfing the

YEAR

EVENT

1994

Commercialization of the Internet begins, making it


possible for people to order pizza and other items using
the Internet; the first cyberbank comes online

1995

The internet programming environment, JAVA, was


released by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This language,
originally called Oak, allowed programmers to developed
Web pages that were more interactive

1995

The software giant committed many of its resources to


developing its browser, Microsoft Internet Explorer, and
Internet applications.

2000

The I Love You Virus spread from the Philippines and


infected millions of computers worldwide.

2001

The search engine Google has a huge index of more than


1.3 billion Web pages.

2004

Google.com launches Filipino version of its


directory/search facility.

What is the World Wide


Web?

Or simply
global
network of
resources
accessed
worldwide
computers
Internet.

the Web, is a
computer-based
information and
that
can
be
through
the
network
of
known as the

Internet vs. WWW


the Internet is the highway
system
the Web is the package
delivery service that uses the
highway.

How does it work?


All computers in the web can communicate
with each other using the communication
standard called HTTP (Hypertext Transfer
Protocol)
Client/Server Architectures
o Information is stored on computers called
Web servers
o Computers reading the information are
called Web clients

How does it work?


Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
businesses that provide individuals
and companies with the means to
connect to the internet.
e.g. Sky cable, home cable, aol...etc.

Two types of Internet


Access
o dedicated 24/7 connection

e.g. DSL, cable


o dial-up uses a device called a
telephone modem. It connects to
the internet through existing phone
lines

Web Page vs. Web


Site
Web information is stored in
documents called Web Pages
Web pages are clustered as Web
sites

Browsers
Web clients view the pages with a
program called Web browser
e.g.
Internet Explorer and Netscape
Navigator

How does the browser


fetch Web pages?
through a request
a
standard
http
request
contains a web page address
or url (uniform resource locator)
e.g. http://www.homepage.com.page.html

How does the browser display the Web


pages?

All
Webpages
contain
instructions for display
The browser displays the page
by reading these instructions
The most
instructions
tags

common display
are called HTML

HTML tags look like this -

<p>This is a

Who are making the Web standards?

not Microsoft or Netscape


The rule-making body of the
Web is the W3C(World Wide
Web Consortium)
The most essential Web
standards are HTML, CSS and
XML.

What are the types of Web Sites?


o Personal: promote oneself and
services
o Organization/Topical: promote
member accomplishments or
encourage support and
participation/talk about a specific
theme/topic
o Commercial: promote and sell
products online

What are the types of Web Sites?


o Search Services:
search
engines and directories.
o Portals: offer a wide array of
services, such as e-mail,
forums, search engines, and
on-line shopping malls

What are the other types of


Internet Applications?

email,
newsgroups/egroups,
Telnet,
IP-telephone,
peer-to-peer, ftp (file
transfer
protocol),
instant messaging chat,
video conference, etc...

INTERNET GROWTH
Key reasons for the Internets
great success:
1. Decisions were made on a technical
rather than political basis, especially
without the need for international political
groups.
2. The Internet did not require a centralized
structure that would not scale up; it was
and is a distributed operation.

3.

Due to the homogeneity of


language and outlook, a sharp
focus on the Internet itself could be
maintained.

4. The Internet allowed people to do


things of inherent interest, such as
sending and receiving email.
5. The software involved was free or
very low cost.

NETWORK BENEFITS:

Provide convenience Computers on a


network can be back up their files over
the network.
Allow Sharing Networked computers
can share resources, such as disks and
printers.
Facilitate communications Sending
and receiving email, transferring files,
and videoconferencing are examples of
how networks promote communication,

Generate savings networked computers can


provide more computing power for less money.
Several small computers connected on a network
can provide as much as or more computing power
than single, large computer and will cost much
less. Also, since resources can be shared, not
everyone needs their own peripherals, which can
result in a substantial cost savings.

Provide reliability if one part of a network is


down, useful work may still be possible using a
different network path.
Simplify scalability it is relatively easy to add
more computers to an existing network.

INTERNET CULTURE
How can you critically evaluate information? You
might start by asking the following questions:
Who wrote the information? Was the person
who wrote the material knowledgeable and
careful? Can the author be trusted?
Is the writing quality high? A document
riddled with typos is more likely to have
inaccurate content than a carefully crafted
Webpage?

Is the document up to date? Try to


determine whether the information is
current. When was it last updated?
Are there obvious errors in the
content? For example, if you know
that the game of baseball requires 9
players on a team and the document
you are reading says it only requires
6, be wary.

Benefits that Internet provides:


More educational opportunities for
both children and adults.
The ability to communicate more
readily with others all over the world.
The sharing of research ideas and
information.

The convenience of performing many


functions, such as banking and
shopping, on-line.
Opportunities for entertainment.
Rapid and global dissemination of
important information.
Worldwide discussion forums to
promote solutions to global problems.

MODULE 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF
ELECTRONIC MAIL

Email ( electronic mail) is a


store-and-forward
method
of
writing,
sending, receiving and
saving messages over
electronic communication
systems.

ADVANTAGES OF USING EMAIL


Convenience
Speed
Inexpensive
Printable

DISADVANTAGES
Misdirection
Interception
Forgery
Overload
Junk
No response

USERIDS, PASSWORDS, AND


EMAIL ADDRESSES
Userid username or account name,
identifies you to the computer.
Pick as descriptive a name as possible,
but one that is also easy to type and
associate with you.
Uppercase or lowercase is normally not
significant in email names

if you have a common name or are part


of a large organization, it maybe
necessary to append a number to your
name.

Password is a secret code that


authenticates you to the
computer.
This is done
simply to check that you are
who you say you are.

A good password should:


Be at least five characters long.
Contain a nonalphabetical symbol such
as &, %, or !.
Contain a number.
Possess
letters.

uppercase

and

lowercase

Case is significant in passwords.


You may pick fairly easy-to-remember
passwords and change them regularly or
set a good password and stick with it.
You should change your password
immediately if you think it has been
compromised.
Avoid writing down passwords, especially
in on-line files.

Email addresses
The basic form of an email address is:
username@hostname.subdomain.domain

the text before the @ sign specifies the


username of the individual while the text after it
indicates how the computer system can locate
that individuals mailbox.
A given field in an email address, that is, a part
separated by dots, can be no more than 63
characters long. All fields combined must total
less than 256 characters.

The Generic Top-Level Domain Names


Domain name
com
edu
gov

Meaning

commercial business
education
government agency

int

international entity

mil

military agency

net

networking organization

org

nonprofit organization

MESSAGE COMPONENTS
From: Kiarraleigh@eng.adamson.edu
Date: Wed, 26 June 2011 9:00:46
To: Psalmhenrique@aol.com
Subject: bean dip
Cc: jun@sport.middlebury.edu
Hi Guys,
Someone accidentally finished off the black bean dip last
night. Can one of you pick up another case of it on your way
home? I think Gabrielle is on her bike today so you might
have to, Champ.
--Kiarra Leigh
Office:5242011 / mobile no: 09276412081/ faxno:(02-1234567

The first five lines of the message are


referred to as the email header
The From field indicates who sent
the message and when.
The To field specifies to whom the
message was sent.
The Subject field provides a hint as
to what the message is about.
The Cc field tells us that the message
was carbon copied to another user.

The opening
Hi Guys,
is called
greeting of the message. More formal
message are addressed like off-line
letters and usually begin with Dear.
The main content is called the text of
the message.
The final part of the message is
known as the signature.

The greeting, text, and signature


form the body of the message.
A third part of some messages is a
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions) attachment.

NETIQUETTE
It is the informal rules of network etiquette.
It suggest practicing restraint when using email
to express opinions or ideas, especially when
the message will be read by people who do not
know you well.
When the message is informal, a common
practice is to use smiley or a wink to indicate
something said in jest. These little symbols and
others like them are called emoticons and
resemble little sideways faces.

Typing a message in capital letters is


considered shouting, and doing so
signals that the sender is either an
email novice, very angry, excited, or
ignorant of the rules of netiquette.
Not following the rules of netiquette
may result in a flaming by someone
who took offense to what you said. A
flame is a nasty response from the
offended party