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HISTORY

3rd-4th century BCE

Until 1102 AD

SANGAM PERIOD

BRITISH RULE

1795-1947

MYSORE RULE

CHERA PERIOD

DUTCH PERIOD

1773-78 83-88 1660-1795

Calicut is anglicized form of kalikut the Arabic for

the Malayalam Kozhikode.


The term means koyil (palace) kodu (fortified), a
historical town which attracted travelers i.e the
western powers. .
It was dubbed the "City of Spices" for its role as
the major trading point of eastern spices during
the Middle ages and probably as early as Classical
antiquity.

12th-18th century
ZAMORIN RULE

PORTUGUESE
PERIOD
15th-16th century

TALI SHIVA TEMPLE

Important spiritual and cultural centre since the 14th century.


It is considered to have been constructed by Swamy

Thirumulpad of the Zamorin ruling family (Though temple's date


of origin is uncertain but was most likely built during the
foundation of the city itself in the 12th century or before.)
fine example of the integration between wood and laterite, a
remarkable feature in the Kerala type of architecture which relied
on indigenous raw materials.
The temple comprises of high laterite walls, extensive exemplary
wood work, gabled timber and a tiled roof.
two large ponds in the temple premises ensure its water supply
even now.

MISHKAL
MOSQUE
four-storied mosque situated in Kuttichira - built by a rich
Arab merchant, Nakhooda Mishkal, in the 14th century.
The mosque was initially five storied, reduced to a fourstoried structure following a Portuguese attack in 1510.
The outer paving with Italian tiles, 47 doors, 24 pillars
decorated with carvings that support the entire structure,
the big prayer hall capable of accommodating about 300
people
Unlike other mosques, this one lacks copulas and minarets.
resemblance to traditional temple architecture is reflected
in the intricate carvings on the walls and ceilings and in the
gopuram-style arches at the entrance.
Square and rectangular tanks can be seen attached to the
mosque.
The area inside the mosque is well-ventilated with mihrabstyle doors.
During its renovation, a wooden mimbar, with intricate
motifs, was added to the structure.

JUM-A
MASJID
(KUTTICHIRA JAMA PALLI)
situated midway
between Mishkal mosque and
Muchundipalli.
.This 14th-century structure has the largest floor area
compared to that of the other mosques in Kerala and
it can accommodate about 1000 people at a time.
Extensive use of wood is involved in the construction
of the mosque and it has a circular structure with
wood panellings on top.
The movable roof is one of the peculiarities and the
mosque promotes some natural resources
conservative efforts like rain water harvesting.
Just in line with the temple architecture of the 14th
century, this mosque too has intricate wood carvings
like lotuses and geographic motifs on the ceiling.
Arabic inscriptions are seen on the wooden walls and
the rafters of the ceiling.

MUCHUNDIPALLI
built in the 13th century, is the oldest mosque in

the city.
It is said that the Zamorins, patronized Islam. The
property for building the mosque was donated by
the king. There is a stone slab in the mosque that
narrates this story. It is inscribed in the ancient
Malayalam script, Vattezhuthu.
The entire structure stands on a 1.5 m high plinth.
The double-tiered roof with a decorated gable, the
floral wood work on the ceiling, the intricate work
on the pillars and the carvings of animals are all
reminiscent of temple architecture - Hindu
influence.
Inscriptions from the Holy Koran can also be seen.
Inside the mosque, there is a semi-circular mihrab.

PANNIYANKARA BHAGAVATHI TEMPLE


Built almost 2 centuries before the city of Kozhikode

itself
Architectural example of 11 th and 12th century AD
typical Chera period structure with a square
garbhagriha and mandapa and probably had a
currambalam and prakara (outer walls) that are no
more

THIRUVANNUR
SIVAwith
TEMPLE

has an apsidal garbhagriha, decorated


typical Chola pillars
and pilasters,
panjaras and vyalimukhas.

An inscription unearthed records have been dated to 1044 AD.

The deity appears to have been Jain Tirthankara

The Jain temple must have been converted into a Siva temples
sometime in the

LOKANARKAVU TEMPLE
The temple officially belongs to

five hundred Aryan citizens who


came to Kerala to settle down
here, as well as their successors.
It is believed that Aryans
constructed the temple some
1500 years ago. The Idol of the
mighty Durga is worshipped in
Lokanarkavu Temple. Two
temples, each dedicated to Lord
Vishnu and lord Shiva, are also
located in the vicinity of the
temple.
The three rock cut caves in the
temple premises are artfully
engraved with beautiful carvings
and fascinating murals.

MOTHER OF GOD CATHEDRAL

Built in the Roman architectural style, the church

dates back to 1513 AD, when the Portuguese


entered into a treaty with the Zamorins.
The added attraction of the church is a 200-yearold portrait of St Mary.
The Gothic Cathedral is said to have been
designed by Italian architects.
The curved arches on the doors and windows,
colonnade on the spires
The neo- Roman architectural style of the elegant
structure is prominent in the faade that is
flanked by lofty, square towers on either side.

ST. The
MARYS
CHURCH
CSI St. Marys Church
at Nadakkavu, in
Kozhikode, is also known
as the English Church.
This church, with arched
entrances, was built by
the British. The
construction of this
protestant church was
completed in September
1863
The cemetery adjacent to
the church houses tombs
that date as far back as
1717.

INFLUENCES AND ARCHITECTURAL STYLE

During Zamorian rule, the buildings were climate responsive and had
secular and religious influence. Buildings were designed according to vastu
shastra. Buildings were made out of locally available materials stones,
timber, clay ,palm leaves, Granite and laterite blocks. Timber architecture
was extensively used due to abundance of timber, this style of architecture
was known as dravida kerala architecture.
Long, steep sloping roof built
More horizontal
to protect the houses walls
architecture rather than and to withstand the heavy
vertical architecture to monsoon
maintain proportion
Thatched
with human scale
labyrinth of
palm leaves

The base model is normally


circular, square or
rectangular plain shapes
with a ribbed roof evolved
from functional
Buildings open spaces
consideration.
outside and inside i.e
verandah and courtyards
for cross ventilation.

short door
height (6ft) &
broad
threshold .
Wooden carvings
High plinth for
protection
against
dampness and
insects in the
tropical

TRADITIONAL HOUSE

The home itself is built around a central open-to-sky courtyard space,


which provides ventilation and light. In the exterior it was surrounded by
verandah.
FLOORING:
1. Clay tiles
2. Wooden
3. Red and black oxide
with local mix of egg
white batter and
lime used for
polishing

Nasikas were natural


solution for light and
ventilation. In temples had
demonic carvings , in
mosques geometric
elements, in churches motif
of cross, angels.

Attic
space for
storage
and also
for cooling
the
interior
Small windows
with wooden
screens

EVOLUTION OF ROOFING

Thatched labyrinth of
palm leaves

Rectangular clay
tiles with thick
edging to rest on
the rafter.

Fish tiles or
dutch tiles

Mangalore tiles

Double hipped roof with

pierced gables called


nasikas.
Deep overhangs &
steeply pitched roof at
angle of 45 deg with
horizontal
During 15th century they
used copper shingles
over wooden frame
Gap between the wall
and the roof for the
escape of hot air.

The roof frame consisted of timber


rafters which connected to the ridge
made of bamboo hence there was sag
due to the weight.

Islamic architecture
It began in 12th century ,the mosques had the traces of the original construction seen

in the plinth, the columns and the roof of the old traditional styles of Hindu temples
as the contruction was done by hindu artisians.
In plan the mosque comprises a large prayer hall with a mihrab on the western wall
(since Mecca is west to Kerala) and covered verandah all around.

Muchundipalli mosque
features of hindu temple

. After 18th century during the period of occupation by Hyder Ali and later by Tipu Sultan , the

features of Islamic architecture were reflected on the building.


. High minarets & domes grew vertically .
. Ablution area were adopted in houses.
. The bazar streets lined with buildings on both the sides , the upper floor with living
rooms view windows towards the street with wooden screens used for privacy.
. Imaamat area (leader reading the prayer) was protruding out.

Cheraman mosque with


islamic architecture

Christian architecture
During 4th century Syrians
migrated to Kerala
1. Churches where regular like
Hindu temples from exterior
2. Nasikas consisted of murals of
cross ,angles and saints.
3. The towers the grew vertically
looked like Hindu shikaras
4. Granite carvings of saints and
angels.
Portuguese introduced European style of
architecture.
Granite carvings were removed and
replaced by wooden carvings .
Ceilings and walls were painted with
religious themes
Stained glasses and pointed arches
were introduced
Portuguese architect Thomas
Fernandez constructed of forts , ware
houses & bungalows with features of
projecting balconies , gothic arches &
cast iron window grills.

Old Calicut
railway station
during British
period
Venetian blades
windows

High ceiling
rooms

During British period , Latin cross plans were


adopted .
1. Exteriors had pilaster, gothic arches &
buttresses .
2. Indo European work remained in exposed
laterite and chunam plastering.
3. Buildings have large rooms with high ceiling
and verandahs all around .
4. Wooden windows and shutter doors have
ribbed elements venetian blades permitting
air circulation and privacy.
5. Windows were of larger size with projections
with ornamental brackets and columns.

URBAN TIMELINE

Period of British rule


Part of Madras Presidency
Calicut becomes a Municipal
town
Area 28.23 sq.km

Area 29.26
sq.km

1866

1941

2006

2010

Area expands from


84.23 sq.km to
118.2 sq.km
Total district area =
2345 sq.km

Beginning of modern
construction boom
First high-rise buildings
construction begins

Madras state of Republic India is


formed
Calicut becomes headquarters of
Malabar district

1947 - 1956

1962

Calicut becomes a Corporation