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OUR EARTH

BY ANJALI
RAVINDRAN
5G1
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EARTH
Earthisthefifthlargestplanetinthesolar
system.Itappearsbrightandbluishincolourwhen
viewedfromouterspace.
Earthistheonlyplanetinthesolarsystemthat
cansupportlife.Millionsofdifferentspeciesofliving
thingsareabletothriveonthe
planetEarthbecauseofitslargeamountsofliquid
water,itsatmospherecontainingamixtureof
oxygenandnitrogen,anditsmoderate
temperatures.

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WHAT IS EARTH MADE OF?


Earthismadeupofthreebasiclayers:thecore,the
mantleandthecrust.Thecore,theinnermostarea,is
veryhot.Itisabout6,900kilometres(4,300miles)in
diameter.Themantlecoversthecoreandisabout
2,900kilometres(1,800miles)thick.Theoutermost
layer,calledthecrust,coversthemantlelikeathin
sheet.Atitsthickestthecrustaveragesabout31
kilometres(19miles)thick.Plants,animalsandpeople
liveonthecrust.

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SHAPE OF THE EARTH


Earthisnotperfectlyroundinshape.Ithasa
slightbulgearoundtheequator.Thetotalsurface
areaoftheplanetisabout510millionsquare
kilometres(197millionsquaremiles).Land
coversabout30percentofEarth,whileoceans
coverabout70percent.

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WHAT IS EARTHS CRUST MADE UP


OF?

Earth'scrustismostlymadeupofstone,soiland
rock.Inaddition,thecrusthasplains,forests,
valleys,mountains,desertandcanyons.

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WEATHER
Earthhastheperfectrangeoftemperaturesfor
sustaininglife.Itisnottoohot,unlikeVenus,andnot
toocold,unlikeNeptune.
DifferentplacesonEarthhavedifferenttemperatures
anddifferenttypesofweather.However,theaverage
temperatureonEarthisabout15C(59F).

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SATELLITE
Earthhasonenaturalsatellitecalledthemoon.A
satelliteisanobjectinspacethatorbitsanother
objectofalargersize.Thedistanceofthemoon
averagesabout384,000kilometres(239,000miles)
fromEarth.

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WATER
MostofEarthiscoveredbywater.Thiswaterisinthe
formofoceans,rivers,lakesandgroundwater.Some
waterisfrozen.Forexample,thereareglacierson
mountainsandicesheetsintheArcticandAntarctic.
ThefourmajorwaterbodiesonEartharetheArctic,
Atlantic,PacificandIndianoceans.

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ATMOSPHERE
Earth'satmosphereismadeupofdifferentgases.
Thisistheairthatlivingthingsbreathetolive.The
atmospheredoesnothaveasharpboundary.It
stretchestoafewhundredkilometresabovethe
surfaceofEarth.Theatmospheregetsthinnerasit
getsfurtherfromEarth'ssurface.Itcontainswater
vapourandthegasesnitrogen(77percent)
andoxygen(21percent).Italsocontainsargon,
carbondioxide,helium,neonandhydrogen.

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CONTINENTS
There are 7 continents:
1. ASIA
2. AFRICA
3. ANTARCTICA
4. AUSTRALIA

5. EUROPE
6. NORTH AMERICA
7. SOUTH AMERICA

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ASIA

Thelargestandmostpopulatedcontinentintheworld,Asiaalso
hasimpressivegeographicalfeatures.IthasEarth'shighestpoint
(MountEverestinNepal)andlowestpoint(theDeadSeain
Jordan).Asiaalsoincludessomeoftheworld'swettest,driest,
hottestandcoldestplaces.

Thecontinentwasthehomeofthegreatearlycivilizations
ofMesopotamiaandtheIndusRivervalley.Theworld'smajor
religionsBuddhism,Christianity,Hinduism,IslamandJudaism
allbeganinAsiaaswell.

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AFRICA
AfricaisthesecondlargestcontinentintheworldafterAsia.It
coversaboutone-fifthofthetotallandsurfaceofEarth.The
continentissurroundedbywater.Tothenorthisthe
MediterraneanSea,tothewestandsouththeAtlanticOcean,and
totheeasttheIndianOceanandRedSea.
ThecontinentiscrossedmidwaybytheEquator.Severalislands
areconsideredpartofAfrica.Themostsignificantoftheseis
Madagascar,thefourthlargestislandintheworld.Withother
smallislandsitformsthecountry
ofMadagascar. Comoros, Mauritius, Runion and Cape
Verdearealsoislandnations.

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ANTARCTICA
Thesouthernmostcontinentintheworld,Antarcticasurroundsthe
SouthPole.ItsnamemeansoppositetotheArctic'(theArcticis
theregionaroundtheNorthPole).Antarcticahasnopermanent
humanpopulation.
AnicesheetcoversnearlyallofAntarctica.Atitsthickestpoint
theicesheetis4,776metres(15,670feet)deep.Itsaverage
elevationisestimatedatbetween2,100to2,400metres(7,000
to8,000feet)abovesealevel.Thecontinentcoversabout14
millionsquarekilometres(5.4millionsquaremiles).Itsicesheet
contains90percentoftheworld'siceand70percentofthe
world'sfreshwater.

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AUSTRALIA
Australiaisknownforitsbeautifuldesertlandscapes,itsdeep
andclearblueseasanditsuniquewildlife.Thecapital
ofAustraliaisCanberra.
Australiaistheonlynationthattakesupawholecontinent.This
makesitoneofthelargestcountriesintheworld.Thecontinent,
however,isthesmallestintheworld.Australiahasanareaof
about7.7millionsquarekilometres(3millionsquaremiles).The
islandcontinentislocatedtothesouthofAsia.Tothewestisthe
IndianOcean.TotheeastisthePacificOcean.Morethan1,600
kilometres(1,000miles)tothesouth-eastisNew Zealand.

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EUROPE
Europeisthesecondsmallestoftheworld'ssevencontinents,
coveringanareaofabout10.4millionsquarekilometres(4
millionsquaremiles).NeverthelessEurope hasmorepeoplethan
anyothercontinentexceptAsiaandAfrica.Despiteitssize,it
hashadagreatinfluenceontheworld.Thepeoplesandculture
ofEuropehavespreadtomanyotherregionsoftheworld.
EuropeisboundedinthenorthbytheArcticOceanandinthe
westbytheAtlanticOcean.TheMediterranean,BlackandCaspian
seasformmostofthesouthernboundary.DividingEuropefrom
AsiatotheeastaretheUral Mountains.TheBritishIsles,
IcelandandmanyislandsintheMediterraneanandArcticare
groupedwithEurope.

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NORTH AMERICA
ThecontinentsofNorthandSouthAmerica togethermakeup
whatwasonceknownastheNewWorld.NorthAmericaisthird
insizeandfourthinpopulationamongEarth'scontinents.Ithas
anareaofmorethan24,100,000squarekilometres(9,300,000
squaremiles)andapopulationofabout490millionpeople.
Canada,theUnited StatesandMexicomakeupthelargest
partofNorthAmerica.CentralAmerica,theislandsof
theWest Indies, Bermuda, GreenlandandSaint-Pierreand
MiquelonarealsoconsideredtobewithintheNorthAmerican
region.

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SOUTH AMERICA
ThecontinentofSouthAmericaispartofavastculturalregion
knownasLatinAmerica.Thisareaalsoincludesthecountriesof
CentralAmericaandtheCaribbeanSea.Forthemostpartthe
peopleinthesecountriesspeakRomancelanguagesthat
developedfromLatin.Thetermusuallyappliesspecificallyto
thoseplaceswherethepeoplespeakSpanishorPortuguese.The
SpanishwerethefirstEuropeanstoseethisregion,andtheysoon
tookcontrolofalargeportionofwhattheycalledtheNewWorld.
Althoughtheyeventuallygaveupthatcontrol,theirinfluence
continues.

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OCEANS
There are 5 oceans:
1. PACIFIC OCEAN
2. ATLANTIC OCEAN

4. INDIAN OCEAN
5. SOUTHERN OCEAN

3. ARCTIC OCEAN

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PACIFIC OCEAN
ThePacificisthelargestofEarth'soceans.Itcoversmoreof
Earth'ssurfacethanallthedrylandputtogether.Theexplorer
Ferdinand MagellannamedtheoceanEl Mar pacifico,which
meansthepeacefulsea.

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ATLANTIC OCEAN
TheAtlanticOceanisthesecondlargestoceanonEarth,after
thePacificOcean.However,theAtlanticdrainsmoreofthe
Earth'slandareathananyotherocean.Thismeansthatmuchof
theworld'sriverwaterflowsintotheAtlantic.TheancientGreeks
namedtheocean afterAtlas,acharacterinGreekmythology.
Atlasstoodonpillarsintheoceantoholduptheheavens.

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ARCTIC OCEAN
The Arctic is the smallest of the world's oceans. It occupies the most
northern region of Earth. The North Pole is near the center of
the Arctic Ocean.

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INDIAN OCEAN
LongbeforethelargerAtlanticandPacificoceanshadbeenwell
explored,theIndianOceanwasabustlingregionoftraveland
trade.Morethan2,000yearsago,traderssailedtheoceanto
exchangegoodsbetweenIndia,Africa,andArabia.

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SOUTHERN OCEAN
TheSouthern Ocean(alsoknownastheGreat Southern
Ocean,theAntarctic Ocean,andtheSouth Polar Ocean)
comprisesthesouthernmostwatersoftheWorld Ocean,
generallytakentobesouthof60S latitudeand
encirclingAntarctica.Itisusuallyregardedasthefourth-largest
ofthefiveprincipaloceanicdivisions.Thisoceanzoneiswhere
cold,northwardflowingwatersfromtheAntarcticmixwith
warmersubantarcticwaters.

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THANK YOU!

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