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1. .,1983
2. ..
., 1982
3. ..
., 1987
4. .
., 1995
5. .
., 2002


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9. _________________________________________________

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10
11-20
21-30
30
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1.
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2.
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1, 2, . r
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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8


.
(1 2)
(2 1)
(1 3)
(2 3)
(1 4)
(2 4)
(1 5)
(2 5)
(1 6)
(2 6)
(1 7)
(2 7)
(1 8)
(2 8)

k(k-1)/2
.
,

,

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.

2
1
4
5
6
1
A1

1
3
4
5
6
7
A8

2
1
4
1=A5
1
1=A7
A8

1=A2
1
1=A4
A5
6
1
A8

1-
1 j-,
i- . 2-
2
j- i-
.
j=1
i=0
j=i=0.5 .

A1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5 0.5

2.5

0.1 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2


4

0.45

0.35 0.25

0.4

0.6

0.45

0.4

0.4

0.75

0.9

0.7

0.75

0.4

0.4

0.8

0.55 0.85

0.5

0.65

0.55 0.65
-

0.6

0.1

0.2

0.55

0.7

0.4

0.45

0.4

0.3

0.45

0.4

0.75

0.5

0.45

0.55 0.25 0.15

0.3

0.25

0.3

0.15

0.6

0.5

0.7

0.65

6
7

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.35 0.55 0.55 0.85 0.35

i
j

/




.

Zij

0.0199

0.0596

-0.0398

0.0398

-0.0199

-0.0398

-0.0398

-0.0199

0.0987

0.1554

0.0793

0.0987

-0.0398

-0.0398

-0.0596

-0.0987

0.1179

0.0199

0.1368

0.0596

0.0398

-0.1554

-0.1179

0.0199

0.0793

-0.0398

-0.0199

-0.0398

-0.0793

-0.0199

-0.0199

0.0987

-0.0199

0.0199

-0.0987

-0.1368

-0.0793

-0.0987

-0.0793

-0.1368

0.0398

0.0398

0.0398

0.0793

0.0596

0.0398

0.0398

-0.0596

0.0199

0.0199

0.1368

-0.0596

0.0996

-0.3326

-0.1759

-0.1168

0.0801

0.6097

-0.6165

-0.137

0.01245

-0.04158

-0.02199

-0.0146

0.010013

0.076213

-0.07706

-0.01713

0.08951

0.03548

0.05507

0.06246

0.087073

0.153273

0.05993

ij
=(ij)/8
+0.0770
6

0.08951

/
I

0.03548

II

0.05507

III

0.06246

IY

0.087073

0.153273

YI

YII

A8

0.05993

YIII

A7

1
n n h
2
Me X 0
nMe

21

30

15

17

34

(/n*100)

16, 23, 11, 21, 26,


5
6
8
2
7

16, 40, 51, 73, 100


5
2
9
2

127

=2+1((49.940.1)/11.8)=2.8
Me=2.8

Q3 / 4

Q3 / 4

3
*100
4
3
(ni ) nH
4

nQ

Q1 / 4

*100
4

(ni ) nH
Q1/ 4 x0
nQ
1
4

Q1/ 4 Q3/ 4 3.2 6.3


Q

1.5
2
2

10

10

10

10

10

10

=0.90 >0.90

Method

The lecture
Classroom discussions
Workshop
Team-teaching
Team-learning: making a case for the
Small-group option
The laboratory classroom
Case-method teaching
Tutorials and independent
Study as methods of instruction
Field trips as a teaching method