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Concept Summary

Batesville High School Physics

Magnetic Poles
Magnetic

forces are produced by


magnetic poles.
Every magnet has both a North and
South pole.
Like poles repel, unlike poles attract.

Magnetic Fields
Magnetic fields transmit magnetic forces.
Direction of the field is from N to S.
Field is stronger where field lines are closer.
Unit of magnetic field strength is the Tesla.
The older unit Gauss is sometimes used.

Earths magnetic field strength is about 10-4 Tesla


or about 1 Gauss

What Causes a Magnetic


Field?
Magnetic

fields are produced by moving


electric charges.
Electrons in atoms both orbit and spin.
In most materials, electron spin
contributes more to magnetism than
electron orbital motion.
Electrons are (very) tiny magnets.

What Causes a Magnetic


Field?
Electrons

with opposite spins cancel


each others magnetic fields.
Electrons with spins aligned strengthen
each others magnetic fields.
Iron, nickel, cobalt (and a few other
elements) commonly have some
aligned electrons.
An iron atom is a (very) tiny magnet.

Magnetic Domains
A region

in which many atoms have


their magnetic fields aligned is called a
magnetic domain.

How Magnets Attract


A magnet

near an unmagnetized piece


of iron causes:
Growth

of aligned domains in the iron


Rotation of domains to align with the
magnetic field
Attractive magnetic force on the iron
This

causes the iron to become


temporarily magnetized

Making a Magnet
You

can make a magnet by:

Placing

a magnetic material like iron in a


strong magnetic field
Stroking a magnetic material like iron with
a strong magnet

Electric Currents & Magnetism


Since

moving charges create magnetic


fields, an electric current creates a
magnetic field.
A coil of wire can concentrate the
magnetic field and create an
electromagnet.

Magnetic Forces on Charges


A static

electric charge does not feel a


magnetic field. No magnetic force is
exerted on it.
If an electric charge moves, it generates
its own magnetic field, which interacts
with the original magnetic field, so:
A magnetic field exerts a force on a
moving electric charge.

Direction of the Force


The

direction of the magnetic force on a


moving charge is perpendicular to the
magnetic field, and also perpendicular
to the velocity of the particle!

Magnetic Force on a Moving


Charge
If:
F

= Magnetic force (in Newtons)


q = amount of charge (in Coulombs)
v = Velocity of the charge
B = Strength of the magnetic field (in Tesla)
= Angle between B and v
Then:

Magnetic Force on a Moving


Charge
F

= qvBsin
and the direction of F is perpendicular
to both v and B

Magnetic Forces on Electric


Currents
If

a magnetic field exerts a force on a


moving charge, a magnetic field must
exert a force on a current-carrying wire.

Magnetic Forces on Electric


Currents
A current-carrying

wire in a magnetic
field will deflect in a direction
perpendicular to the magnetic field and
the direction of the charges.

Meters
An

electric meter is a device that uses


an electric current to exert a force on a
magnet.
Alternatively, a magnet can be used to
deflect a current-carrying wire.

Motors
An

electric motor uses a magnet to


exert a force on a current-carrying coil
of wire.
An electric motor uses brushes and an
armature to reverse the flow of current
so that the coil of wire can rotate 360 o.

The Earth as a Magnet


Earth

itself is a magnet.
N and S poles do not correspond
exactly to the geographic poles. The
discrepancy is called magnetic
declination.
Strength of Earths field varies with
time.
N/S Poles have switched in the past.

The End