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# Concept Summary

Magnetic Poles
Magnetic

## forces are produced by

magnetic poles.
Every magnet has both a North and
South pole.
Like poles repel, unlike poles attract.

Magnetic Fields
Magnetic fields transmit magnetic forces.
Direction of the field is from N to S.
Field is stronger where field lines are closer.
Unit of magnetic field strength is the Tesla.
The older unit Gauss is sometimes used.

Field?
Magnetic

## fields are produced by moving

electric charges.
Electrons in atoms both orbit and spin.
In most materials, electron spin
contributes more to magnetism than
electron orbital motion.
Electrons are (very) tiny magnets.

Field?
Electrons

## with opposite spins cancel

each others magnetic fields.
Electrons with spins aligned strengthen
each others magnetic fields.
Iron, nickel, cobalt (and a few other
elements) commonly have some
aligned electrons.
An iron atom is a (very) tiny magnet.

Magnetic Domains
A region

## in which many atoms have

their magnetic fields aligned is called a
magnetic domain.

A magnet

of iron causes:
Growth

## of aligned domains in the iron

Rotation of domains to align with the
magnetic field
Attractive magnetic force on the iron
This

## causes the iron to become

temporarily magnetized

Making a Magnet
You

Placing

## a magnetic material like iron in a

strong magnetic field
Stroking a magnetic material like iron with
a strong magnet

Since

## moving charges create magnetic

fields, an electric current creates a
magnetic field.
A coil of wire can concentrate the
magnetic field and create an
electromagnet.

A static

## electric charge does not feel a

magnetic field. No magnetic force is
exerted on it.
If an electric charge moves, it generates
its own magnetic field, which interacts
with the original magnetic field, so:
A magnetic field exerts a force on a
moving electric charge.

The

## direction of the magnetic force on a

moving charge is perpendicular to the
magnetic field, and also perpendicular
to the velocity of the particle!

Charge
If:
F

## = Magnetic force (in Newtons)

q = amount of charge (in Coulombs)
v = Velocity of the charge
B = Strength of the magnetic field (in Tesla)
= Angle between B and v
Then:

## Magnetic Force on a Moving

Charge
F

= qvBsin
and the direction of F is perpendicular
to both v and B

Currents
If

## a magnetic field exerts a force on a

moving charge, a magnetic field must
exert a force on a current-carrying wire.

## Magnetic Forces on Electric

Currents
A current-carrying

wire in a magnetic
field will deflect in a direction
perpendicular to the magnetic field and
the direction of the charges.

Meters
An

## electric meter is a device that uses

an electric current to exert a force on a
magnet.
Alternatively, a magnet can be used to
deflect a current-carrying wire.

Motors
An

## electric motor uses a magnet to

exert a force on a current-carrying coil
of wire.
An electric motor uses brushes and an
armature to reverse the flow of current
so that the coil of wire can rotate 360 o.

## The Earth as a Magnet

Earth

itself is a magnet.
N and S poles do not correspond
exactly to the geographic poles. The
discrepancy is called magnetic
declination.
Strength of Earths field varies with
time.
N/S Poles have switched in the past.

The End