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MOIRE TECHNIQUES FOR OUT OF PLANE PROBLEMS

In-plane moir pattern is generated by superposing the


reference and object gratings in the same plane.(Plane
stress case and therefore Ux and Uy displacements
could be obtained).
To determine the displacement in Uz due to Poisson's
effects, some techniques to determine the lateral
displacements Uz in plane stress problems due to to
Poisson's effects.
(In case of plate bending ,The lateral displacements
becomes much larger compared to Ux and Uy
displacements.)

Moir techniques for lateral displacements due to


poisson's ratio effects is classified as,,,,,,
1 shadow Moir Techniques.
A) Collimated Illumination and recording Moir
B) Point Illumination and point-recording Moir
2 Lightenberg's Photo reflective Moir
3 Salet-Ikeda Moir techniques
4 Reflected images moir method

Collimated illumination recording moir


A collimated beam of light strikes a master grating of pitch p,
placed to touch points on the curved surface(caused by the
deformation due to the loading) of the specimen, at angle of
from the normal to the grating.
The shadow of the master grating on the specimen( which can
be taken as the deformed specimen grating) and the master grating
are assumed as being viewed at infinity by camera, The optic axis
of which makes an angle of
from the normal to the master
grating.
The image of the line grating in the AD part of the master grating
falls on AB part of the curved surface and therefore the pitch of
the lines on the curved surface will be different from p.
Camera collects the reflected beams from AB part of the
surface, which interferes with CA part of the master grating and
forms a moir patterns.

Collimated Illumination and recording method

Assuming AC has m lines and AD has m1 lines ,


AC = pm
AD = pm1
CD = AC-AD
= p(m-m1)
= pN
Where N is fringe order of the moir pattern at C, further,
CD = Uz
Where the Uz is the height of the master grating above the curved
surface at O. hence

When the optic axis of the camera is placed normal to master grating
plane
=0

Shadow moir method is extended useful to the solution of the


torsion problems.
A membrane is stretched over boundary corresponding to the
cross section of the shaft. It is subjected to uniform pressure
over its lower surface of the shaft tube.
A shadow moir pattern is obtained from the top reflective
surface of the membrane, From the moir pattern a curve
variation of fringe order along the radius is obtained.
From this Uz displacements along the radius s obtained.
This curve is common over the any diametric cross section
through the centre. The volume Under the membrane surface is
proportional to the torsion rigidity of the shaft
Maximum slope of the surface is proportional to the maximum
resultant shear.

Point illumination and point recording moir


When the area of the specimen being tested is large, the distance
between the camera and Specimen can no longer be considered to be
as infinite as in the previous case.
It become necessary to develop a new displacement-fringe equation to
take into account the mutual distance d1 between the source and
distance d2 between either the camera or source and the master grating.
Assumption
Camera and light source are approximated by points, taking into the
account of angel of inclination and that light source and camera are
placed at an equal distance d2 from the master grating.
The incident light is not collimated the angle of incident of the light
varies from place to place and so the angle of reflection ,
For a particular point B in figure angle of and and lateral Uz
displacement is given by,,,,,,,

Point Illumination and point Recording Moir

d2>>> Np

Increasing the value of (d1/d2)


yields Smaller value of Uz thus
improving Sensitivity of techniques,
increasing.
Value of d1/d2 means increasing the
Projection angle, decrees the
intensity Of light .

Lightenbergs Photo reflective Moir


Moir is produced by interference image of the master grating on the
reflective surface of the specimen in its unloaded state, with the image of
the master grating on the reflective surface of the specimen in its loaded
state. Superposition of these images is effected by exposing the same
film twice to the images.

The front surface of the specimen is made reflective and specimen in a loading jig is
Placed at a distance d from curved screen. A camera is placed in the center for viewing
Of the specimen .
When the specimen is in an unloaded state, A ray of light of light P to master grating is
Reflected at any angle of at point R, under consideration on the specimen to point Q
on the ground glass plate of camera.
When the specimen is loaded, the normal at R gets titled, The point Q on the ground
glass plate doesnt correspond any more to the point P on the master grating but
different point T. the ray RP has titled through an angle of 2Q resulting in a
displacement or shift equal to PT.
PT = 2d
A shift of one pitch in the distance PT yields one fringe at point Q If the shift PT = S =
NP, then Nth order is formed at Q
= NP/2d
The angle is the particular slope
and

Salet Ikeda Moir technique


A multiple light source illuminates the reflective surface of the
specimen the light reflected from the reflective surface of the specimen
is viewed through either a slit or pin hole.
The multiple light source consist of a coarse grating illuminated by
white light diffuser. The coarse grating can have either parallel line
grating or equispaced circular and radial line grating, this can also be a
crossed grating.
A collimating lens L1 is placed at focal length from coarse grating M.
The collimated beam of light passes through a second collimating
lens L2 either the slit or pinhole after getting reflected from the
reflective surface of the specimen.
The size of the slit or pinhole depends upon the pitch of the master
grating and not on the curvature of the specimen. It has been observed
that clearly defined slope contour are observed for a slot width or
pinhole diameter equal to half the pitch of the coarse master grating

Salet- ikeda Moir Technique

Reflected image Moir Technique


The image of the master grating MG illuminated by a light source gets reflected by
polished surface of the specimen and interference with second master grating MG2
whose pitch is same as that of 1st master grating .
In practice second master grating is placed on the ground glass plate of the camera and
camera lenses is adjusted to give unit magnification of the image of the 1 st master
grating.
The moir pattern yields the practical slope lines in master grating .The moir pattern
obtained with primary direction of the line grating along the other perpendicular axis
yields partial slope contour along the new direction.
The position of the camera lenses corresponding to which a minimum number of
fringes of the camera lens corresponding to which minimum number of fringes or no
moir fringe at all are observed for no load on the specimen corresponding to zero
fringe position.
To improve the senility of the moir data, the camera lens can be moved away from this
position to obtained initial equispaced parallel fringes with no load on the specimen.
this amounts to a differential image moir and facilitates easier determination of slope

Reflected Image Moir Method