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BASIC METRICS

These are Basic Media


measurement units which
have applicability across all
media

Reach
Two aspects
Reach of Communication
All the people out of the total Target Group
[TG], WHO WERE EXPOSED TO or Reached
by the communication.

Reach of Medium
% of people who were exposed to the
vehicle at least once in the period under
consideration.

Reach
Unduplicated Reach.
Person who has already been exposed to
an ad and counted, can not be included
again.

Example
PUBLICATION
REACH
TOI
45%
Mid Day
25%
Unduplicated less than 65%

Significance ?
In media planning

Cumulative Reach
Reach accumulates
across media vehicles
Period of time
Different issues of same vehicle.

This accumulation always happens


after taking away the duplication
factor.
Rate of cumulation is high in the
initial stages..why?

Frequency Distribution
In an ad campaign, an ad is shown a
number of times and the reach builds
up.
Different viewers see the ad different
number of times.
The spread of ads viewed is called
Frequency of Distribution.

Example
A

F 0 22 5
F1 16 26
F2 13 25
F3 9 16
F4 11 9
F5 6 8
F6 5 6
F7 4 5
F8 3 0
F9 3 0
F10 8 0
Total 100 100

QUESTIONS
Which campaign do you feel was
more effective? Why?
Which campaign should have been
discontinued?

Discrete and Cumulative


Distribution.
Discrete
Frequency distribution of people who
saw the ad exactly once, twice, thrice
etc

Cumulative
Adding up people who saw the ad at
least once, twice, thrice..will give total
reach.
1+reach

Significance

Price comparision ad.


Diwali discount ad.
New product
New concept
Market leader
Underdog in category with high
brand loyalty.

Average OTS Opportunity


to See
AOTS
Average number of exposures amongst
those who have been REACHED [seen
the ad at least once]
It is a derived number and can be in
decimals
Calculated as weighted average of
frequency distribution. Weight assigned
in number of people and what is
averaged is the frequency.

Calculate AOTS
A

F 0 22 5
F1 16 26
F2 13 25
F3 9 16
F4 11 9
F5 6 8
F6 5 6
F7 4 5
F8 3 0
F9 3 0
F10 8 0
Total 100 100

CALCULATION
AOTS = 322 /78 = 4.3

EFFECTIVE FREQUENCY
/REACH
Minimum number of times a target
audience needs to be exposed to the
communication so as to create the
desired effect.
Rationale
Divided consumer attention
Competition
Lack of differentiation.
Fragmentation

Exercise
If effective reach is 5, what should
product A and B should do?

Ideal Effective Frequency


Earlier estimate -3
Lot of research being done to
scientifically arrive at the figure
rather than depend on gut feel.

General Rule
High market share /old established brand /
loyal customer base low frequency.
New brand /low market share high
frequency.
Other factors
Multiple creatives /single
Simple, unique message
Multi v/s uni media

Common sense approach /gut feel


/experience.still important.

TV Metrics
Terms used to measure TV
viewership.
Measurement has changed from
Diary System to Peoplemeter.

Diary system
Quarter hour time slots across the
rows and channels across the
columns.
Drawback Reported and not
Recorded behaviour.
Telescope effect.

Peoplemeter
Started in 1996.
Two agencies
TAM - Nielsen and IMRB [7305 Families /
2440 in Metros]
AMAP

More reliable, recorded and not


reported.

Peoplemeter how it works


Two devices
Remote to monitor viewer details.
Buttons for each family member, to log in
and out
Extra buttons for visitors to monitor
secondary viewing.

Channel monitor attached to TV which


records the channel being watched.

Demographic details of viewership


can be obtained.

TRP /TVR Television Rating


Points.
% of Audience who had viewed a certain
program or a timeslot.
Weighs viewing by time spent watching
the program.
If a person watched full 30 min of the
program then only he/she will be
considered as a whole person.
If he switched after watching 10 of the 30
min, he will be counted as 1/3 person.

Calculate TRP Diary /PM


Target Group 10 persons
Bahu Kabhi Saas Hogi -30min
Viewing
P110 min
P224 min
P55 min
P10 6 min

TRP
Diary 4/10 *100
= 40

PM
10/30 + 24/30 + 5/30 + 6/30
*100
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

10
15

Importance
KBC 1 v/s KSBKBT
TRP ?
VIEWRSHIP PROFILE?
Viewer profile [male/female/age]
Kbc 1 v/s Mahabharat ?

Real picture
Kbc 1 and KSBKBT had same TRP at one point of time but
different viewership profile.
KSBKBT had fewer people sampling it but stayed with
program for higher duration as they were following the
storyline very closely.
Kbc1 had large number of people running in but not
staying for longer duration. Resulting in lower weight per
person.
Demographics
Kbc 1 [m /f 55/45, all age groups]
Ksbkbt m/f 20/80, female -40+ 60%]

Kbc 1 cleared the streets like Mahabharat but had lower


TRP than Mahabharat.

Kbc 1 v/s KSBKBT


What would be the media strategy if..
Objective is to reach large number of
audience and product is market leader.
Objective is to change the habit, its a
complex communication [long ad]

Conclusion
TRP not stand alone parameter for
judging a program.
Reach v/s frequency
Study the viewing habit
/demographics, apart from TRP.

Program reach and time


spent
Reach
% of audience or TG which watched the
program at least for 1 min.
4*100 /10 =40

Time spent
Number of min of program watched by target
audience.
Time spent per audience = 45/10 =4.5
Time spent by viewer = 45/4 =11.25
WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT?

Stickiness Index
TRP / REACH *100
The closer an index to 100, the more
committed an audience it has.
A perfect 100 means, all those who
watched the program, watched it for
entire duration.

Ad viewership
Viewership data is calculated at
Minute level. What it means is, if a
person changed 4 channels in a
minute, channel which was viewed
for maximum number of seconds will
be taken as channel viewed during
that second.

Benchmarking Metrics
Share
Its a competitive benchmarking to understand
relative strength.

Example slot 8.30 to 9.00 pm


Channel trp % channel share
Zee 4.5 16
Sony6.8 24
Star 9.2 33
Others 7.3 26
Total 27.8 100

Channel share cant be viewed in


isolation.
8.30 to 9.00 pm

Channel
Zee
Sony
Star
Others
Total

trp %

9.30 to 10.00

trp %

4.5 161.2 23
6.8 240.6 12
9.2 333.35 64
7.3 260.05 1
27.8 100 5.2 100

Profile
Channel or program profile is the
spread of audience across
different demographic classes
for a particular media vehicle.
Shows quality of the audience or
the relevance of the audience.

EXAMPLE
DD
DISCOVERY
VIEWER BASE 40mn
10mn
% SEC A
10
30
% SEC B
15
40
% SEC CDE
75
30

Selectivity Index.

Selectivity Index
= TG TRP /ALL INDIVIDUAL TRP *100
CHANNEL TG TRP ALL TRP SI
DD
7
10
70
ZEE 2
1.5
133
DISCOVERY 0.5
0.1
500

Significance
Our TG is 5 times likely to view
Discovery than the average.
DD will deliver the message to larger
audience but with high wastage.
SI along with Cost and TRP is an
effective way for media selection.

PRINT Metrics
Circulation
Average number of copies of a publication that
are sold. figures available for town, district, state.
Edition wise.
Weekdays v/s Sunday.
Audited by Audit Bureau of Circulation.
400 publications are covered.
Profile of the reader not known

Print order
Average number of copies that are printed.

Average Issue Readership


Number of people who have looked
at or read the publication in the time
span equal to the periodicity of the
publication.
Conducted by National Readership
Survey -NRS

Total Or Claimed readers


Higher the gap between Claimed
Reader and AIR, the less loyal is the
publication base.
Measured for 6 month period.

Sole or Solus Readers


Readers who read only a particular
publication and no other of the same
frequency.
Most loyal, dedicated readers.

Gross Rating Points.


GRP = Total of TRPs in the plan
= % reach * AOTS
500 GRP = 50% REACH * 10 AOTS
= 25% REACH * 20 AOTS

Gross Impressions -GI

SOV Share Of Voice


SOV = GRP /CATEGORY GRP
Indicates Media weight in a
competitive context.
Share of GRP for a Brand within a
particular product category.