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MiCOM P54x Series Suffix K

Current Differential and Distance Protection Relays


Includes relays P543/4/5/6

Protection Products

March 2006

MiCOM P54x Introduction


The MiCOM P543-6 series provides:
High-speed current differential unit
protection
using
a
proven
characteristic comparing differential
current with through current .
Optional high performance
cycle distance protection:

sub

Universal mho characteristics


Quadrilateral

characteristics for
short lines/cables, and where
boosting of resistive fault coverage
is required

Optional phase segregated aided


directional earth fault DEF to
provide high resistance ground fault
detection
3

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MiCOM Protection Portfolio

P900

Frequency Protection Relays

P800

Autoreclose, Breaker Fail ...

P700

Busbar Protection Schemes

P600

Transformer Protection Relays

P500

Line Differential and Distance Relays

P400

Distance Protection Relays

P300

Generator Protection Relays

P200

Universal Motor Protection Relay

P100

Feeder Management Relays

> Title of presentation - Date - References

P54x - suffix
K
4

P54x - Models Available

P543 and P545 : Differential for Plain and Transformer Feeders, 1/3
Pole Autoreclose, with OPTIONAL Distance Protection.
P543 in (60TE /size 1 midos) with 16/14 I/O and
P545 in (80TE /full 19 rack) with 24/32 I/O
P544 and P546 Differential for Mesh Corner/Breaker and a Half
Feeding with OPTIONAL Distance Protection.
P544 in
(60TE /size 1 midos) with 16/14 I/O and
P546 in (80TE / full 19 rack) with 24/32 I/O

If a relay is fitted with OPTIONAL distance, it will


also include phase segregated aided directional
earth fault DEF and teleprotection schemes
5

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P54x suffix K use

If Distance protection is fitted:


Line differential and Distance protection can
independently, as a main 1 or main 2 protection.

work

Alternatively, each zone can be set independently to work in


case of communication failure.
Distance elements may run in parallel with the differential
protection, offering dual main protection.
A phase segregated aided directional earth fault DEF can
also be configured as a main 1 or main 2 or backup
protection to provide high resistance ground fault detection

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Current Differential

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Current Differential Principle


End A

End B

IA

IF

IB
Relay B

Relay A
Communication Link
IA + IB = 0 Healthy
IA + IB 0 (= IF) Fault
8

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Three Ended Line Protection

IA
End A

IC

IF

IB
Relay B

End C
IA + IB + IC = 0 Healthy
IA + IB + IC 0 (= IF faulty)
9

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Current Differential - Advantages

No voltage transformers needed


Good for multi-ended lines
Detect very high resistance faults
Immune to power swings
Uniform trip time
No problems with series compensation
Simple to set with no coordination problems

10

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10

All Digital/Numerical Design

0IIIIII0I0.....0I0IIIIII0
Digital messages
End A

End B

A/D

P
Digital communication interface

11

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11

Main Features of P54x Relay


Current Differential Elements

Fully numerical design


Use standard 56 or 64 kbits/s comms channel
Also work with dedicated optical fibre links
Phase discrimination
Capacitive charging current compensation
Two and three ended feeder protection
Continuous propagation delay time measurement and
compensation
Comprehensive data security checks

12

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12

Current Differential Protection

BENEFITS OFFERED BY DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS


Basic channel bandwidth is 56 or 64 kbits/s

Phase segregated protection


Additional InterMiCOM and permissive intertrip (PIT)
commands transfer

Includes 8 freely-programmable commands (per channel)


and status transfer bits between line ends

Powerful error checking for secure signalling

13

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13

Current Differential

16 bit analogue to digital conversion


Relay samples at 48 samples/cycle. For Differential
protection, re-sampling at 8 samples/cycle

(48 samples/cycle in Disturbance Record)


Current vector extraction using one cycle fourier

Proven best noise immunity in difficult applications


adjacent to HVDC, switching noise, series compensation
etc

Vector transform for time alignment

14

> Title of presentation - Date - References

14

Current Measurement and


Filtering - 1
i(t)
i2
i1

i3
i4

t
i8

i5
i6
2 N-1
I=
i n exp j n t
N
n=1

15

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i7
N No. of samples
= per cycle
15

Current Measurement and


Filtering - 2

N-1

Is = 2
sinn t.in
N n=1
Ic = 2
N
I =

16

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N-1
io
iN
cosn t.in
+
+
2
2 n=1

Is + j I c

16

Differential data message format

Start
flag

17

Address

Data

Frame
check

Timing
data

Status
and
commands

Current
vectors

> Title of presentation - Date - References

End
flag

17

Data Message Format

Start flag (01111110) for message synchronisation


Address
Timing data for propagation delay time measurement
Status and command information
Current vectors (3 phases)
Additional Bias (2nd harmonic P543/P543, Stub bus through
current P544/P546)
Cyclic redundancy frame check
End flag (01111110) for message synchronization

Total 23 Bytes
18

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18

Current Differential Characteristic

IA
Differential current
Idiff =
IA + IB + IC

Is1

IB
IC

c
r
Pe
k1
s
a
i
b
ge
a
t
n
e
Perc

Trip

e
g
ta
n
e

2
k
as
i
b

No trip

Is2
Bias Current
Ibias = (IA + IB + IC )

19

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19

Propagation Delay Problem

Relay B

Relay A
Current at B
Current received from A

Propagation delay

20

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20

Propagation Delay Compensation

Asynchronous sampling (proven in LFCB and P54x)

Continual time difference measurement


Vector transformation in software

Synchronise sampling in both relays

Direct comparison of samples


Synchronising both relays to real time a possibility if GPS
receiver available - what happens for loss of GPS?

21

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21

Propagation Delay Time


Measurement - 1
Relay

Relay

Curr
nt
vecte
ors

tA1
tA2

tp1

tA3
tA4
tA5
22

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Data

mes s

age

tA1

tB1
tB2

tB *

tB3
tB4
tB5
22

Propagation Delay Time


Measurement - 2
Measured sampling time
tp2)
tA1
tA2
tB3 tA3
*
tA4

Curren
t
vector
tp1 s

tA
1

tB1
tB2
td

tp2

tB*

tB3
tB4

n
e
r
r
u
tB5
tA5
C
t
td
r
A
o
t
t
c
tB 1
e
a
t
vDa
s ge
3
essa
m
Propagation delay time tp = tp1 = tp2 = 1/2 (tA* tA1 td)
This calculation is sometimes called ping-pong
method
tA*

23

tB3* = (tA* -

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23

Asynchronous sampling -Time Alignment of


Current Vectors
I (tA4)

I (tB3*)

t = (tA4 - tB3*)
=t
If
sin
then
)

24

> Title of presentation - Date - References

I (tB3*) = I cos + j I
I (tA4)

= I (tB3* ) . (cos + j sin

= I cos ( + ) + j I sin
(+)
24

Transient Change in Propagation Delay (1)

Unequal send (tp1) and receive (tp2) delays result in


incorrect vector alignment and hence incorrect
differential current
Majority of switched communications networks switch
send and receive path simultaneously
Some networks may produce transient period where
send/receive paths differ
Potential for relay maloperation

25

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25

Transient Change in Propagation Delay (2)

Relay continuously measures the propagation delay


Any change in propagation delay greater than settable
value used to raise k1 (initial bias slope) to 200%
(effectively blocking relay for currents less than Is2,
similar to an overcurrent interlock)
Change is maintained for settable time delay (max.
500ms) to overcome transient period after which k1 is
reduced to original value

26

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26

Transient Change in Propagation Delay (3)

Trip
Differential current

Is1

s
a
Bi

Bi
20 as
0%

Idiff =
IA + IB + IC

Bias
k1

k2

No trip
Is2

Bias Current
Ibias = (IA + IB + IC )
27

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27

Protection for SONET/SDH Systems

t3

End B

BUT: For SONET systems, tp1


can be different than tp2

Cur
re

nt v
ec

t1
st d t 3

tors

td

or
vect
rent
Cur

t1

t2

With asynchronous sampling,


using the ping-pong method
is necessary to assume:
tp1 = tp2
In order to realign vectors thus
allowing phase and magnitude
information to be compared at
line ends.

t1

28

tp1

> Title of presentation - Date - References

tp2

t4 End A

28

SONET/SDH Ring
Configuration
Node
2

Node
1

Node
6

Node
3

Standby
path
tp2
Node
5
P545/6
End A

tp1
tp2

Worker path

Node
4

tp1

P545/6
End B
Line

29

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29

One Worker Channel Lost:


Part Routing via Standby Channel
Node
2

Node
1

Node
6

Node
3

Now, tp2 > tp1


tp2
Node
5
P545/6
End A

tp1
tp2

Node
4

tp1

P545/6
End B
Line

30

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30

SONET/SDH Ring
Failure of Comms Path

Normally comms. data is sent via the worker path


If one worker channel is lost, the affected messages are
routed via the standby path
As the worker and standby propagation delays are not
equal, time alignment of vectors could be lost
Error in time alignment gives higher differential current
which may give an unwanted trip
Asynchronous sampling provide stability until both Tx
and Rx channels switch to the protection path
Synchronous sampling may be required where a split
routing can be prolonged
31

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31

SONET/SDH ring
Limitations of asynchronous sampling algorithm

Conventional LFCB/P540 algorithm may not be suitable


for systems where a semi-permanent differential comms.
delay can be present

Operation is not impaired if the propagation time difference


(Standby path - Worker path) is less than 1ms

Operation is not affected if Tx and Rx are both switched to


the protection path in less than 10ms*, or for longer (up to
500ms) when using the transient bias feature

If neither of the above criteria are satisfied, GPS


synchronism must be used

(Key: * = 10ms on 50Hz system, half cycle)


32

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32

MiCOM P594

Incorporates a GPS receiver

Indicates the number of


satellites being tracked

P54x in GPS mode have


fallback strategies in case
of GPS failure

AC/DC auxiliary supply


4 x 850nm outputs to
synchronise up to 4 x P54x
relays
Synchronises differential
every 1 second (1 PPS)
Self monitoring
33

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33

Typical Configuration

P594

P594

1sec

1sec

P591
/P592
/P593

Relay at End A

34

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MUX

MUX

P591
/P592
/P593

Relay at End B

34

MiCOM P594
Synchronising Pulse
200ms
+/- 1ms

Output
Site 1
Light ON

Leading edge is
timing point

Light OFF
Time
Output
Site 2

<100 ns

Light ON

Light OFF
Time

35

> Title of presentation - Date - References

35

MiCOM P594
Calculating Propagation Delay Time

1 PPS from P594

Leading edge is
timing point
Time

Ta1
Ta2
Sample 1
Ta3
Ta4
Ta5
Arrive 1 * Ta6
Ta7

Relay A

tp2
tp1

Tb1
Tb2
Tb3 Sample
1*
Tb4
Tb5
Tb6
Tb7
Tb8
Tb9 = Arrive 1

Relay B
Tp2 = Ta6 - Ta3
36

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Tp1 = Tb9 - Tb3


36

Fallback Technique

ASYNCHRONOUS
MODE (NON GPS)

SYNCHRONOUS MODE (WORKING WITH


GPS),
Besides the calculation of tp1 and tp2, the
relay calculates continuously:

(t4 - t1 - td)
tp = tp1 =tp2=
2

Overall propagation delay time

= tp1 + tp2

If GPS is lost and Overall propagation delay


time doesnt change significantly, this means
comms path has not been switched and relays
keep working with the latest calculated
propagation delay times tp1 and tp2 to align
vectors
If GPS is lost and Overall propagation delay time
has later change, then Current differential
becomes inhibited as is not possible to align
vectors anymore
37

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37

Capacitive Current Compensation


IL

IR

ZL

IchL
VL

IchR
VR

Conventional current differential protection needs to be set above


Ich to avoid tripping for 50/60Hz line charging current
P54x extracts Ich to allow more sensitive current settings to be
applied
Benefit: Resistive fault coverage improved

38

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38

Typical Charging Currents


vs Cable / Line Voltage

A/km

A/km

30

1.2

0.3
11kV

400kV
Line Volts

Underground cables

39

> Title of presentation - Date - References

132kV

400kV
Line Volts

Overhead lines

39

P543/ P545 - Protection


of Transformer Feeders

Power transformer

P54x
Scheme

Ratio
correction
Vectorial
correction

Virtual interposing CT

40

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Virtual interposing CT

40

Vector Group Correction

Dy1 (-30 )

Yy0
0

87

87

Yd11
+30

Yy0, Yd1, Yd5, Yy6, Yd7, Yd11, Ydy0 etc.


0, -30, -150, 180, +150, +30, 0 . etc.

41

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41

Inrush Current - Theory

+ m

Im

Steady state

- m
Im

2 m

42

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Switch on at voltage
zero - No residual flux

42

Stability for Magnetizing Inrush Current

Magnetising inrush current flows into the energised


winding at switch on
This current is not represented at the distant end of the
line
A method of restraint is required to avoid trips on
breaker closure:

Inrush current is rich in harmonics: 2nd, 5th etc..


Increase bias current by adding a multiple of 2nd harmonic
current = RESTRAINT

43

> Title of presentation - Date - References

43

Example MV Application:
Teed Feeder Protection

End A

End B
IF

Differential protection can be IDMT or DT


delayed to discriminate with tapped feed
protection:

44

Fused spurs
Tee-off transformer in-zone
Ring main units (RMU)

> Title of presentation - Date - References

44

Example HV/EHV Application:


CB applications and Stub Bus Protection
Bus A

Bus B

45

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Open
disconnector

P544 and P546 have two


sets of CT making them
suitable
for
CB
applications as each CT
generates its own restrain.

When
disconnector
is
open, diff. protection is
provided for the stub bus
only. In this case neither
current vectors nor diff.
intertrip are transmitted to
the remote end and
currents received from the
remote end are converted
in zero.

45

Current Differential communication


link

46

> Title of presentation - Date - References

46

Direct Optical Fibre Link

OPGW

47

> Title of presentation - Date - References

47

Interfacing to PCM Multiplexers

850nm
multimode
optical fibre

P591/2
interface
Multiplexe
G.703
unit
r
or V.35
electrical
P593
interface
unit

48

> Title of presentation - Date - References

X.21
electrical

ISDN

48

Multiplexed Optical Link

Earth wire optical fibre

Multiplexer

Multiplexer
34 Mbit/s

64k
bits/s

Telephone
Telecontrol
Teleprotection

End A

49

> Title of presentation - Date - References

End B

49

Multiplexed Microwave Link

PCM
Multiplexer

64k
bits/s

PCM
Multiplexer
Telephone
Telecontrol
Teleprotection

End A

50

> Title of presentation - Date - References

End B

50

Interfacing Direct Fibre Optic to Multiplexers


IEEE C37.94

Direct connection - no interface!


Multiplexe
r
850nm
multimode
optical fibre

51

> Title of presentation - Date - References

51

IEEE C37.94 Data Message Format

125s

250s

375s

Time

500s

256bitframe

Header(16bits)
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 y 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
sync

Overhead(48bits)
p p q q r r s s 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 ...

1 0

ChannelData(192bits)
D1 D1 D2 D2 D3 D3 D4 D4 D5 D5 D6 D6 D7 D7 D8 D8 D9 D9

52

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...

D96 D96

52

Choosing IEEE C37.94


(Selection applies for both CH1 and CH2)

53

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53

Optical Budgets for Direct Optical


Connection Between Relays
850nm Multi

1300nm Multi

1300nm Multi

1550nm Single

Mode
-19.8dBm

Mode
-13dBm

Mode
-13dBm

Mode
-13dBm

-25.4dBm

-40dBm

-40dBm

-40dBm

Optical Budget

5.6dB

27.0dB

27.0dB

27.0dB

Less Safety
Margin (3db)*

2.6dB

24.0dB

24.0dB

24.0dB

Typical Cable
Loss

2.6dB/km

0.8dB/km

0.4dB/km

0.3dB/km

Max
Transmission
Distance

1 km

30km

60km

80km

Min Transmit
Output Level
Receiver
Sensitivity

Short Haul

Long Haul

Key: * 3dB allowance for joint loss/ageing


54

> Title of presentation - Date - References

54

Unique Address Function

Avoids maloperation should multiplexers misdirect data


messages
Range of addresses for 2 terminal applications

1A, 1B; 2A, 2B; _ _ _ _ _ 20A, 20B


Range of addresses for 3 terminal applications

1A, 1B, 1C; 2A, 2B, 2C; _ _ _ _ _20A, 20B, 20C

55

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55

Communications Path for


Two Ended Application

Tx
Rx
End A

56

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Rx
CH1

Tx
End B

56

Communications Path for


Three Ended Application
Rx CH1 CH2 Tx
P54x
Tx

Tx
CH2

Rx

End
B

P54x

End
C
CH1
Tx
Rx

57

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Rx
Tx

Note: Full line


protection is
provided even
should one
communications
path fail

E.g. For A-B


channel fail, C
still offers line
protection and
will intertrip to A
and B in the
event of a fault

Rx
CH1

P54x
End
A
CH2
Rx
Tx

57

Dual Redundant Communication


Channels Option

CH1
CH2

Both channels are active - relays automatically select


the correct message should one channel fail
Hot Standby
58

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58

Dual Redundant Communications

Relay A

Relay B

Multiplexer

59

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59

Use of Mixed Comms.


CH1 and CH2 can be selected to operate with different
optical drivers, one 850nm, plus a direct fibre
connection:

CORTEC codes H to R:

60

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60

Dual Redundant Communications


Showing mixed channels CH1 and CH2...

Direct Fibre
Relay B

Relay A

Multiplexer

MUX

61

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61

Be Careful in Triangulated Schemes


with Mixed Comms Channels...
Rx CH1 CH2 Tx
P54x

1300nm

Tx

Tx
CH2

Rx

End
B

P54x

Tx

Rx
CH1

P54x
End
A
CH2
Rx
Tx

End
C
CH1
Tx
Rx

850nm
62

Rx

1300nm

> Title of presentation - Date - References

End C has 850nm


CH1, and 1300nm
CH2

End A has 850nm


CH2, and 1300nm
CH1

CH1 and CH2 can


not be inverted
by settings

RELAY A AND
RELAY C WILL
NOT BE THE
SAME CORTEC
62

Additional Communications
Channel Functions

All models support two terminal (single or dual redundant


channel) or three terminal configurations
Remote terminal(s) current measurements polled on-line,
and stored in fault records
Communication error statistics
Digital signal ( InterMiCOM64 ) over differential
communications to remote end(s) - can be used to
configure distance and/or DEF protection aided schemes
Permissive intertrip

63

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63

InterMiCOM 64
InterMiCOM64 is called in previous versions Intertrip

64

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64

8 Programmable InterMiCOM (IM64)/Control


Commands, End - End
A

52

52

Single or dual fibre optic comms.


850nm
1300nm
1550nm
or MUX

&
> 1

PSL

8
8

&
> 1

PSL

8 digital signals from PSL end A - PSL end B for:


Commands
Distance and DEF aided channel schemes
Breaker fail backtrip to upstream CB
Force remote end A/R for successful local A/R
SCADA for remote end substation
65

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65

InterMiCOM64
Signal selection, one way transmission shown for simplicity

link

LOCAL relay
(sending end)

4
6

Tx

Rx

comms

4
6

link

REMOTE relay
(receiving end)

Simplified example that shows assignment of digital signals 4


and 6 at local relay and their transmission to the remote relay
66

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66

InterMiCOM64

Links in P54x

InterMiCOM64 In

InterMiCOM64 Out

8 In Signals and 8 Out signals are selected


via the toolbar for mapping
67

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67

InterMiCOM64 Bit Setting Modes: Permissive and


Direct Intertrip
Speed
P e r m is s iv e

B lo c k in g

f a s te r

s lo w e r
lo w
h ig h
h ig h

S e c u r ity

D ire c t
In te r tr ip

D e p e n d a b ility

If InterMiCOM64 is used for teleprotection, two modes are


available: Direct trip and Permissive.
Since the uncorrupted message has to be received by the relay over
fiber, there would be no difference between those commands in terms
of speed, dependability or security, were just one message is used. For
extra security, if Intertripping is required, a Direct trip command is valid
after 2 consecutive received.
68

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68

InterMiCOM 64
InterMiCOM64 can work:
With Differential protection or
Standalone
If no differential protection is used, InterMiCOM64 can
be set to work as a standalone feature and it will be
slightly faster compared with the one running along
differential comms and also will offer a pass though
feature explained here after

69

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69

Chain Topology

Pass
Through

Rx CH1 CH2 Tx
P54x
Tx

Tx
CH2

Rx

End
B

P54x

End
C
CH1
Tx

Rx
Tx

Rx
CH1

P54x
End
A
CH2
Rx

When in a
triangulated
scheme with all
links (AB-BC-CA)
configured, the
relays
automatically
failsafe and
provide pass
through of data if
one leg fails.

When a scheme is deliberately intended to be applied in Chain


Topology, alarms for the deleted leg can be suppressed.

70

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70

Differentiating Factor InterMiCOM64

Each programmable bit can be assigned a level of


security, dependability and speed, according
to its intended use.
There is no need to accept a compromise signalling
response of one size fits all.

Market Leading Technology


71

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71

Additional permissive Intertrip


IB
F
Relay B

Relay A

Busbar
Relay
PIT=1

Data Message
-

Example shows interlocked overcurrent protection

72

Feeder fault seen within busbar zone


Remote end trip after set delay for PIT & current > Is1

> Title of presentation - Date - References

72

Distance

73

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73

Subcycle Transmission Network Protection


Subcycle tripping, single pole settable

Trip time includes conventional contact closure time


Full-scheme, non-switched distance protection
Mho and quadrilateral characteristics freely selectable
for phase and ground faults
Setting-free power swing blocking

No blinders or starter zones to set - universal application


InterMiCOM interface for teleprotection:

InterMiCOM64 for 56/64kBits/s digital links over fiber

74

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74

P54x 50Hz, SIR = 5


40
30

Performance:
Subcycle up
to 75% Reach

20
10

75

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50%

70%80%90%

75

P54x 60Hz, SIR = 5

40
Performance:
Subcycle up
to 75% Reach

30
20
10

76

50%

> Title of presentation - Date - References

70% 80% 90%

76

Distance Elements

77

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77

P54x distance protection - Introduction


P54x Use Superimposed Current

Compares pre-faulted system


Acts as a fault detector and faulted phase detector
Can quickly recognize evolving faults and power swings
Provides secure phase selection for complex fault conditions
Sensitive to any fault type

Proven Delta Techniques


78

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78

Faulted = Unfaulted +
Superimposed
Fault

Prefault
Current:i rly

i mem
+
ir

= Superimposed

Proven Delta Techniques


79

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79

Superimposed Components Simple Theory


No
C hange!

AB
C hange!

BC
C hange!

C A
2 cycle window

1 C y c le
C o m p a r is o n

80

> Title of presentation - Date - References

1 C y c le
C o m p a r is o n

G r o u n d F a u lt,
P hase C

80

Distance Zones
Mho Characteristics

Z3
Zp
Z2
Z1

Available for Phase and Ground


Protection (21P and 21G)

Three independent Forward


zones

Z1, Z2, Z3 (Z3 optional


forward/reverse offset)

One Reverse zone


Z4

Programmable Fwd/Rev
zone
Zone p

Z4

81

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81

Distance Protection - the Basics


1) Trip for internal fault
2) Stable for all loading

load import
ZLine

load export

Arc impedance with


Remote end infeed

Z load
R

Load impedance
region
82

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82

Dynamic Rating of Transmission Lines

Main protection such as Distance Zones are designed to respond to FAULTS - response
time circa 15 to 25ms. The zones should not attempt overload protection. Overload
protection is dynamic, with time constants in minutes.
83

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83

Loadability
Protection schemes are essential to detect faults on
transmission systems

Dependability - Must trip for in-zone faults


Must trip quickly to keep system stability, and minimize the
disturbance to the system

The protection must remain stable for out-of-zone


conditions

Security - Do not trip unfaulted circuits


Must remain stable under heavy loading, and defend the
network to prevent instability propagation

Spurious overload trips are not acceptable

84

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84

Use of the Load Blinder to Avoid


Load Encroachment Trips
X

Z
Blinder
Angle

Load Area

Blinder Impedance
Setting

Blinder Allows Stability Notch around Load


85

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85

Removal of Load
Blinder For Faults
X

Characteristic
Expansion

Rf

Load Area

Blinder disappears for volts below V<

Better Resisitive Coverage on Fault Inception


86

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86

Quadrilateral Characteristics
Z3 (reverse offset)

Z2

Available for Phase and Ground


Protection (21P and 21G)

Independently selectable
Z1

eg. Mho phase + quad


ground fault

Zp
(if reverse
looking)
Z4

87

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87

Quadrilateral Elements

jX
Z
Z1

Provides better ground fault


resistive coverage on short
lines (e.g. Arcing)

Load
R
R

F
R

set

Quads available Phase & Ground (21P, G)


88

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88

Positive Sequence Impedance


Plot: Phase-Phase Elements
X
Z3

A
B

Rph

Z2

Fault impedance
Coverage
Z1
Rph/2

Z4

89

> Title of presentation - Date - References

R
Rph is the reach
in the ph-ph loop
PPS sees Rph/2
NPS sees Rph/2

89

Setting Applied for Phase


Fault Detection
A-B Zone 1 shown:

IA - IB

ZS

Z1 Ph
Line Phase Reach

VS

VAB

Xab

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Fault

Z1 ph
Z1
R1ph/2

90

R1 Ph / 2

Positive Sequence Model


Rab

90

Setting Applied for Ground


Fault Detection
A-N Zone 1 shown:

IA

ZS

Z1 Gnd

VA

VS

IA

Line Ground Reach


kZn x Z1 Gnd

IN

R1 Gnd

Fault

Line Residual Reach


Xab

Z1 ph
Group Loop Model

Z1
R1Gnd/(1+Kn)

91

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Rab

91

Positive Sequence Impedance


Plot: Ground Elements
X
Z3

A
B
C

Z2

Fault impedance
Coverage

Z1
RGnd/(1+Kn)

Z4

92

> Title of presentation - Date - References

RGnd

R
RGnd is the reach
in the ph-g loop

92

Negating Under / Overreach


Effects of Infeed
Ground Faults:
During a single phase to ground fault the Negative Phase Sequence current is approximately
in phase with the fault arc current
The reactance line of the Ground Quad Elements is polarized from Negative Sequence
Current
Under and overreach effects are minimized dynamically

A downwards tilt can be implemented on the reactance line

Phase Faults:

Removes the chance of a spurious trip


93

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93

Sequence Diagram for


Resistive Ground Fault
ZS1A ZL1A ZL1B ZS1B
E
A

I1A

I1B

E
B

ZS2A ZL2A ZL2B ZS2B


I2A

I2B

Z2A

Z2B

ZS0A ZL0A ZL0B ZS0B


I0A
Z2A Z2B I 2A =
94

> Title of presentation - Date - References

I2
B

3RF
IF
3

I0B

I F in which case I 2
A

IF
94

Preventing Zone - 1 Overreach


Quadrilateral Characteristic
Prefault power export
B

A
IA
EA

IB
IF

RF
jX
B

EB

RF
X
Allow reactance
line to tilt down

95

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95

Preventing Zone - 2/3 Underreach


Quadrilateral Characteristic
Prefault power import

A
IA

EA

IB
RF

EB

jX
B
X
Allow reactance
line to tilt up

RF
A

96

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96

Easy Setting of Distance Protection


Zones (1)
GROUP 1
LINE PARAMETERS
Line Length

GROUP 1
DISTANCE SETUP
Setting Mode

Line Impedance

Digital Filter

Line Angle

CVT Filters

Residual Comp

SIR Setting

Residual Angle

Load Blinders

Mutual Comp

Load/ B Angle

Mutual cut-off (k)

Load Blinder V<

Trip Mode

> Title of presentation - Date - References

ABC
CBA

CVT and
high SIR?

Load/ B Impedance

Mutual Angle

Phase Rotation

97

Protected
Line

Long Line?

Distance Polarising

% Memory?

97

Easy Setting of Distance Protection


Zones (2)
GROUP 1
LINE PARAMETERS
Line Length

GROUP 1
DISTANCE ELEMENTS
PHASE DISTANCE

Line Impedance

Z1 Phase Reach

Line Angle

Z1 Phase Angle

Residual Comp

GROUND DISTANCE

Residual Angle

Z1 Ground Reach

Mutual Comp

Z1 Ground Angle

Mutual Angle
Mutual cut-off (k)
Phase Rotation

%
Easy Set Mode:
Automatic Reach
Conversion

Z1 Residual Comp
Z1 Residual Angle

Trip Mode

98

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98

Differentiating Factor P54x- CVT


Transient Filter

It is easy to design a relay that is subcycle without


CVTs, and then to add in a CVT filter that renders
it slower for most EHV applications.
The P54x CVT transient filter is only active when
the infeed is weak and the SIR is high. It is NOT a
permanent delay for the majority of faults, which
demand, AND GET subcycle clearance.
Open book policy: We are honest about trip times !

Market Leading Technology


99

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99

Distance Polarizing

100

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100

LFZP Optimho and SHNB Micromho


Approximate Expansion of Shield
X

SIR = Zs/ZL
Source to line impedance ratio

SIR = 0

10

Rf
0.6Z

R
Z

Line
Length

1.7Z
< 0.5

0.5 - 4

4 - 30

Long ..

Medium ..

Short

Rf, Resistive Fault Coverage varies with SIR


101

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101

P54x Best Settings for Short Lines to


Mimic LFZP Mho or Quadrilateral
X

SIR = Zs/ZL
Assumed = 10

Z
SIR

Typical
resistive
reach up
to 7 x Z

5
10
Rf
0.6Z
Line
Length

1.7Z
< 0.5
Long ..

0.5 - 4

4 - 30

Medium .. Short

Short Lines - Quadrilateral Characteristics Ideal


102

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102

Quadrilateral Characteristic
Best for Cable Feeders
Self Polarized Mho

Z
R

Self polarizing gives


insufficient expansion
Memory polarizing would
push fault impedances
off-angle

- Zs

Memory
polarized
Mho

Quadrilateral the best


option

Quadrilaterals Good for Any Short Feeders (Line or Cable)


103

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103

Best Settings for Medium Lines to


Mimic LFZP Mho or Quadrilateral
X

SIR = Zs/ZL
Assumed = 3

SIR

5
10

Rf

0.6Z
Line
Length

Rf
Z

1.7Z
< 0.5
Long ..

0.5 - 4
Medium ..

4 - 30
Short

Polarizing: Ratio 1x Memory to 1 x Self


104

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104

Best Settings for Long Lines


to Mimic LFZP or SHNB Mho
X

SIR = Zs/ZL
Assumed = 0.5

SIR = 0

5
10
Rf

Rf
0.6Z
Line
Length

1.7Z
< 0.5
Long ..

0.5 - 4
Medium .

4 - 30
. Short

Polarizing: Ratio 1x Memory to 1 x Self


105

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105

Full Applicability to
Series Compensated Lines (1)
-jX

Z
S

R
F

-jX

Capacitor in Front
of Relay Location
Ratio 5 Mem : 1 Self

X
Z1

R
F
- 83% Z S

106

> Title of presentation - Date - References

Mho expansion
covers 83% source
impedance
Forward fault still
correctly detected
forward

106

Full Applicability to
Series Compensated Lines (2)
-jX

Z
S

R
F

-jX

Capacitor Behind
the Relay Location
Ratio 5 Mem : 1 Self

X
Z1

- 83% Z S

107

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Mho expansion
covers 83% source
impedance
Forward fault still
correctly detected
forward

107

Distance Polarizing
A distance relay needs secure voltage polarizing to
ensure:

Immunity to CVT transient effects - correct forward/reverse


reaction for close-in faults

Characteristic expansion for mho elements to boost


resistive fault coverage

Cross-polarizing from unfaulted phases where memory is


unavailable

Maintained optimum polarizing, even throughout power


swings

Open book policy:


The P54x meets all of these stringent requirements
No gimmicks, no trademarks, we just do it !
Fine tuned from in-house and customer simulator experience
108

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108

Power Swing Blocking

109

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109

Differentiating Factor - PSB (1)

Will detect ALL power swings whether fast or slow,


and ensure correct blocking of zones. Detects, and
remains stable for 3 and 2 phase swings - the
latter is especially important for the resulting
2 phase swing during single pole autoreclose!

Market Leading Technology


110

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110

Differentiating Factor - PSB (2)

The trip time for any fault occurring during a


power swing is exactly the same as had the
swing not been present.
No unblocking delay, no compromise.
Always a sub-cycle distance trip.

Market Leading Technology


111

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111

Power Swing Blocking

A power swing will result in continuous change of


current
Continuous output from the relay superimposed current
element can be used to block for a power swing
Using this method the relay is able to operate for faults
occurring during a power swing
All detection relies on delta elements with adaptive
thresholds - nothing for the user to set!

Setting-Free Power Swing / Out of Step


112

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112

Power Swing Blocking


(Fault Condition)

PH1 :

Phase selector 1, starts PH2 and


activates PSB. Compares current
value with previous 2 cycles

PH2 :

Phase selector 2, enables distance


elements. Compares current value with
pre-fault value.

Power Swing / Out of Step


113

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113

Phase Selector Operations:


Load + Fault Condition
Fault

PH1

PH2

114

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114

Power Swing Blocking


(Power Swing and Fault)
Fault

Power
swing

3cycles
PH1

PH2

115

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PSB active
& minimum
threshold
increased

PSB removed
Including 3 ph faults

115

Power Swing, Summary (1)


Locus of
power
swing
Load area
I

Power swings are detected by continuous superimposed


current presence - I.
Swings are detected much earlier than for conventional
devices - where the locus must cross into a band which
surrounds the trip characteristics.
No PSB start-up zone, no blinders (or load encroachment
issues), no timers to set setting-free.
Setting-Free Power Swing / Out of Step
116

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116

Power Swing, Summary (2)

Fault
Inception

Continuous I
During Swing

Large I
Present

Relay trips for all faults occurring during a power swing


based on increased threshold of phase selector to 2 x
superimposed current in swing.
The power swing block is only removed for zones that
start within 2 cycles of fault detection to improve stability
for external faults.
117

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117

Pilot / Aided Schemes

118

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118

Channel Options for Aided Schemes,


Permissive and Blocking
GROUP 1
DIRECTIONAL FN
DEF SETTINGS

GROUP 1
DISTANCE SCHEMES
AIDED SCHEME 1

DEF Polarising

Aided 1 Dist dly

DEF Char Angle

tReversal Guard

DEF VNpol Set

WI Single Pole Trip

DEF V2pol Set

WI V< Threshold

DEF Threshold

WI Trip Delay

Directional
Ground 67N
IN> faults
Sensitive

Distance
Aided 21PILOT
PUR.. POR
WI.. block

All IEC and ANSI/IEEE Scheme Types


119

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119

Switch on to Fault and


Trip on Reclose

120

TOR:
Enhanced protection on
Autoreclosure
In service 200ms after CB
open
> Title of presentation - Date - References

SOTF (Line Check):


Enhanced protection for
Manual Closing
In service when CB open
for longer than a set tdelay or
after a settable pulse
120

Easy Set, and Easy Test:


Static Test Commissioning Setting
Many secondary injection test sets are not
designed to simulate a real dynamic fault.
To allow all test sets to be used with the relay there
is a Static Test Mode in the commissioning menu

Bypasses delta phase selection


Reverts to simple (non-delta) directional line
Cross polarizing replaces memory

No need to change test sets


121

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121

Directional Earth Fault

122

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122

Directional Earth Fault


Protection (DEF)
High resistance ground faults
Instantaneous or time delayed
IEC and IEEE curves
Single or three pole tripping in aided scheme

ZA0398
123

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123

DEF Directional Security

Negative Sequence polarizing not affected by:

Zero sequence mutual coupling


Standing zero sequence
May be used in parallel line applications
Use of Healthy Phase polarizing is very secure:

Calculates -3V0 direction from the two unfaulted phases


No need for current polarizing even when 3V0 or V2 are
negligible

Virtual Current Polarizing


124

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124

Differentiating Factor Virtual Current Polarizing of Aided DEF

All traditional DEF protection (ground fault pilot


protection scheme) relied on sufficient polarizing
voltage to make a directional decision. If this were
not available, current polarizing from an extra
CT input would be needed.
Virtual Current Polarizing ensures correct
directional polarizing, even with no residual voltage
generated, and without an extra CT input.

Market Leading Technology


125

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125

Healthy Phase (Zero Sequence)


Polarizing
A
FAULT

Va
Va

Vc

Vb

Vb

(P443/P445 and LFZR)


Can cover faults with no Vres
Phase selector removes Va
Residual = Vb + Vc
Always a voltage -Vres

Ia

Vb
Voltage set:
No fault

(All relays pre-LFZR)


Typical A-N fault:
A phase voltage falls
Result Vres
-Vres is OK to directionalize

Vc

Vres
Va
Ia

Vc
V residual

Virtual Current: to Calculate a pseudo (-Vres)


126

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126

Aided Channel DEF Summary


Virtual current polarizing (VCP) ensures directionality,
even when a traditional polarizing voltage would be weak
or unreliable:

For series compensated lines, capacitor effects can cause


voltage inversion on the faulted phase. VCP uses voltages
from unfaulted phases, and will be unaffected.

For high resistive faults with weak zero sequence infeed, the
traditional 3.Vo polarizing voltage (and negative sequence V2
too) can be minimal, and risk being swamped by induced
noise on wiring. VCP uses voltages from unfaulted phases,
which will always be large enough for exact directionality.

Capacitor voltage transformer (CCVT) transient effects can


cause errors in faulted phase voltage. VCP uses voltages
from unfaulted phases, and will be unaffected.

Virtual Current Polarizing - a significant application advantage


127

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127

Backup Protection

128

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128

DEF Backup Overcurrent Protection


51P/51N/67
Four stages of directional/non-directional phase
overcurrent protection

I>1 and I>2 IDMT or definite time


I>3 and I>4 definite time (t=0, instantaneous)
Four stages of directional/non-directional earth fault
protection

IN>1 and IN>2 IDMT or definite time


IN>3 and IN>4 definite time (t=0, instantaneous)
Directional decision polarized from VN or V 2, allowing use
of open delta VTs

I> and IN> elements can be enabled permanently, or on


channel failure

129

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129

SEF Backup Sensitive Earth Fault


51N/67N

Four stages of directional/non-directional sensitive earth


fault protection or wattimetric SEF

ISEF>1 and ISEF>2 IDMT or definite time


ISEF>3 and ISEF>4 definite time (t=0, instantaneous)

130

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130

Backup Overcurrent Protection


51P/51N/67 IDMT Curves
IEC Curves
Operating Time (s)
1000

100

IEC SI
IEC VI
IEC EI
IEC LTS

IEEE Curves
Operating Time (s)
100

US MI
US VI
US EI
US I
US SI

10
10
1
1

0.1

0.1
1
10
100
Current (Multiples of Is)
131

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1
10
100
Current (Multiples of Is)
131

Circuit Breaker Failure

Backtrip

Retrip
Trip

Two stage
Fast reset (12ms)
External initiation
One timer per
phase

BF
INIT
From other device
P544 and P546 models include one CB failure per each
circuit breaker
132

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132

P54x Protection
Thermal Overload
I2t - Current-Based Thermal Image
I/IB

Typical Time
Constants

Step-Response:

Time

0 .8

Plant type

0 .4

Dry-type Tx
40-90
Overhead line 5 - 10
Busbars
60
Cables, jumpers 10-90

(t)

30

60

90

t/m in

100 %

64 %

Flexible characteristics
= 3 0 m in

Reset facility

16 %
0

133

30

> Title of presentation - Date - References

60

90

t/m in

Non-volatile

133

Broken Conductor Protection (1)

Majority of system faults are a result of short circuits

Easily detectable
Possibility of open circuit faults exist

Difficult to detect with conventional protection

134

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134

Broken Conductor Detection (2)

Existing detection methods;

Combination of under/overcurrent logic


Negative phase sequence overcurrent

Consider suitability for all load conditions

Px40 uses a ratio technique:

I2 / I1 is high for open circuit fault condition


Benefit: Load conditions have minimal effect

P54x: Reliable to Detect Short AND Open Ccts.


135

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135

Voltage Protection
Reasons for voltage deviations
Regulation problems
Load variation
Fault conditions

Requirements of protection depends upon application


Line or phase voltage measurement
Operation for all or any phase
Alarm/Trip

Relay offers: Two stage V>, Two stage V<, Two stage VN>

Phase/Line and Residual Voltage


136

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136

Residual Voltage Protection, VN>


Helps to trip the tee-feed breaker

Vres

Weak backfeed of I1PPS, I2NPS,


but no residual current infeed
Delta tee-off transformers trap Iresidual
137

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137

VT and CT Supervision

138

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138

MiCOM Differential
CT Supervision (CTS)

139

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139

MiCOM Differential CTS

Suitable for all differential applications


Operates without the need for VT information
Operates on all system configurations
No special relay hardware required
Operates for 1 or 2 phase CT problems and identifies which set of CT s is affected
No settings required

Differential CTS
Useful Innovation

140

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140

Conventional CTS Schemes

Presence of IO without VO

Used on many MiCOM devices (P14x, P34x, P44x)


Relies on suitable VT s being available
Persistent IDIFF for a given time delay

Traditional approach used on busbar protections


Relies on dual algorithm or CT s to prevent maloperations until time delay expires

Conventional CTS not suitable


for all applications

141

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141

Differential CTS - Principles (1)

Ratio of Negative to Positive sequence current is measured at each CT set

If ratio is zero (or small) either unloaded, balanced load, three phase fault or
three phase CT problem

If ratio is non-zero, either asymmetric fault or CT problem


Ratio calculated at all CT ends

If ratio is non-zero at two (or more ends) simultaneously, it is almost certainly a


genuine fault condition & unlikely to be a CT problem

142

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142

Differential CTS - Principles (2)

Ratio of Negative to Positive sequence current cannot distinguish between genuine faults and
CT problems
Additional criteria is positive sequence (load) current,

I1

Better detection criteria than phase currents


Considering a situation where the ratio is non-zero at one end only

If I1 only detected at one end, system is unloaded and therefore calculated non-zero ratio is due to a
single-end fed fault or inrush condition

If I1 detected at two (or more) ends, this is a CT problem or sympathetic inrush on parallel transformers

143

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143

Differential CTS - Principles (3)


Simplified Logic Diagram (1)

I1 End X
I1 End Y
I1 End Z

2
OR

Inrush Detector
Inhibit CTS

OR

I2/I1 End X

40%

I2/I1 End Y

5%

I2/I1 End Z

5%

CTS Condition Detected


(see next page)

&

&

Timer

CTS End X

&

&

Timer

CTS End Y

&

&

Timer

CTS End Z

5%
40%
5%
5%
5%
40%

144

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144

Differential CTS - Principles (4)


Simplified Logic Diagram (2)

CTS Condition Detected


(from previous page)

Timer
CTS Reset Input

S
Q

Activate

CTS Oper.
(Latched)

Idiff> (CTS)

OR

R
CTS Oper.
(Self Reset)

&

145

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145

Differential CTS - Principles (5)


Differential characteristic shift
I diff

Trip

No trip
Idiff> (CTS)
I bias

Idiff>

146

Alarm mode:

set Idiff> (CTS) = Idiff>

Restrain Mode:

set Idiff> (CTS) > Max phase load current

> Title of presentation - Date - References

146

MiCOM Differential CTS - Summary

Suitable for all differential applications


Operates without the need for VT information
Operates on all system configurations
No special relay hardware required
Operates for 1 or 2 phase CT problems and identifies which set of CT s is effected
No settings required

Differential CTS
Useful Innovation

147

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147

VT Supervision (1)
A
B
C
1 and 2
logic
3 on load
logic
3 on
energisation
logic

Alarms

VTS

Event record
Blocking
Adaptive setting

MCB digital
input

P54x detects all VT circuit problems: 1ph, 2ph or 3ph.


148

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148

VT Supervision (2)

Loss of all 3 phase voltages


under load

P54x

I
&
Voltage
collapse

VTS alarm
VTS block
LCD
Event records

P54x detects all VT circuit problems: 1ph, 2ph or 3ph.


149

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149

VT Supervision (3)

Loss of all 3 phase voltages


upon line energization

P54x
VTS I>
Inhibit

&
No
Voltage

VTS alarm
VTS block
LCD
Event records

P54x detects lack of fuselinks/open MCB on CB closure too


150

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150

Autoreclose and Check Synchronism

151

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151

Integrated Autorecloser with


Check Synchronism (modelsP543 and P545)

Up to four reclose shots:

First high speed shot can be single pole


Three delayed AR shots
Selection of elements to initiate or block AR
Check synchronism function allows:

Live line/live bus in synchronism AR


Live line/dead bus AR
Dead line/live bus AR
Safety checking prior to manual CB close authorization

152

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152

P54x CT connections

153

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153

P54x CT connections
All models support ABC and ACB phase rotation
A

Standard and Inverted CT polarity setting for each set of CTs in


the relay

154

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154

Platform Functions

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Alternative Setting Groups


for Switched Feeding

Setting selection
inputs
Active
group

SETTING GROUP 4
SETTING GROUP 3
SETTING
GROUP
2 1
SETTING
GROUP
Setting O/C elements
Range
Setting O/C elements
Range

...

Step size
Step size

Four setting groups


are available

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Spare Line Relay Applications

SCADA

RLY

(RLY)

F1

F2

RLY

F3

F1 Breaker is
bypass fed
SCADA selects F1
settings group
Relay protects F1

Switched Feeding Needs Alternative Group


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Fault and Disturbance Records

Prefault

Postfault

Analog channels
Digital channels
Sample 48 times per cycle
2.4kHz Resolution at 50Hz

MiCOM

S1 saves file in the


COMTRADE format for advanced fault diagnostics

Fault location:

Distance to fault
V and I measurements

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Distance to Fault Locator


P54x Offers additional Mutual
Current Compensation

16km
10mil

16%3.8

es
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Bay Monitoring

CB state/discrepancy monitoring
CB condition monitoring:

Number of Trip operations


Sum of broken current; Ix
(1.0 <= x <= 2.0)

CB operating time
CB operations during period
Condition based maintenance

Extends Monitoring Outside the Relay


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Programmable Scheme Logic


Px40 relays contain powerful PSL, for customizing
protection and control functionality where required

An internal programmable logic controller, set via MiCOM


S1

Comprises AND, OR, PROGRAMMABLE, MAJORITY, NOT,


NAND and NOR gate functions.

Internal timers for sequencing, and general delays


Permits latching of output contacts and LEDs
Use for extra protection functions such as Trip Circuit
Supervision, and customized control (eg. Interlocking).

No inherent delay, designed to avoid race problems


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Remote Communication

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Remote Communications

Courier
IEC 60870-5-103
DNP3.0

Digital Control
Systems

IEC61850 (Soon)

(MODBUS not planned)


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MiCOM Px4x Platform


Communication Interface
Scope of Communication Interfaces
(June 2006)

Courier
Measurements
Status
Controls
Records
Fault Location
Disturbances
Settings
Peer - Peer

DNP3

X
X

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IEC103 61850

X
X

Public
Private
Not supported by protocol
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Ethernet Interface (P*40)


Ethernet + IRIG-B card options will be as follows:
- 100Mb Fiber Optic (ST type) + 10/100Mb
Copper (RJ45 type)
- 100Mb Fiber Optic (ST type) + 10/100Mb
Copper (RJ45 type) + modulated IRIG-B
- 100Mb Fiber Optic (ST type) + 10/100Mb
Copper (RJ45 type) + un-modulated IRIG-B

Modulated or demodulated IRIGB


10 Base-T/100Base-TX (RJ45)
100 Base-FX (ST type)
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Typical Example Showing Use of


Two Rear Comm. Ports

Modem

CK222
RS232

MiCOM S1 software

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

RS232

Modem

POWER SUPPLY

R.T.U.

RS485
Multiple rear ports

Com 1

RS232 Front
port connection

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Com 2

CK222

RS485

CK222 not needed where


either MODEM or RTU
accept RS485 directly

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Hotkeys

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Example use of Hotkeys for


Switching Functions In/Out of Service
1) Enable Hotkeys

2) Select Response and Text Label

3) Map in the PSL

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Function keys

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P54x Features
Function Key-Settings
Setting

Function Keys
FUNCTION KEYS
Fn Key Status
Fn Key 1
Fn Key 1 Mode
Fn Key 1 Label
Fn Key 2
Fn Key 2 Mode
Fn Key 2 Label
Up to
Fn Key 10
Fn Key 10 Mode
Fn Key 10 Label
LED Status Red
LED Status Green

Range

Default Value

Visible / Invisible
Column Heading
1111111111
Locked / Unlocked /
Disabled
Normal / Toggled
16 Characters
Locked / Unlocked /
Disabled
Normal / Toggled
16 Characters

Enable

Locked / Unlocked /
Disabled
Normal / Toggled
16 Characters
111111111111111111
111111111111111111

Unlocked

Data
Unlocked
Normal
Function Key 1
Unlocked
Normal
Function Key 2

Normal
Function Key 10
Data
Data

P54x Features
P54x PSL - Function Keys + Tri-Color LEDS

Function Keys
Tri-colour LEDs

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Backwards compatibility
Relay Type : P543, P544, P545 and P546 Hardware
Relay
Suffix

Software
Compatibility

S1 Version
Compatibility

05x

2.00 or later

B,G,J and K

11x

2.03 or later

12x,13x

2.05 or later

B,G,J and K

20x

2.09 or later

B,G,J and K

30x

2.11 or later

B,G,J and K

40x and 50x

2.12 or later

With x = letter indicating minor software change


If a relay suffix K is talking with a relay suffix B,G or J, a monitor bit
labelled H/W B to J mode in Measurement 4/Channel status will
become 1
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P54x Main Protection


Unit Protection Relays
Main Protection

21/21G

Trafos

A/R

25SC

1.5 CB

I/O

optional in zone
P543

Current Differential

16/14

P544

Current Differential

16/14

P545

Current Differential

24/32

P546

Current Differential

24/32

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Distance is an option in all models


P543 and P545 are suitable for transformer in zone applications
P544 and P546 are suitable for mesh corner or CB applications
All models may also be used in conventional non-SDH

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MiCOM P54x Series


Summary
The flexible combination of a current differential unit , a full scheme
distance and a phase segregated aided directional earth fault protection,
provides a COMPLETE SOLUTION FOR ANY TYPE OF FAULT ON THE
POWER SYSTEM.
This relay could becomes the standard in all HV, EHV and UHV line
protection applications, duplicated where dual redundant main
protection is demanded.
The Differential protection gives high sensitivity and phase selectivity
The high performance distance protection with mho and quadrilateral
characteristics makes the relay suitable for all sort of lines; cables,
lines, short or longs.
Comprehensive aided DEF schemes , backup protections, AR etc
No need for panel mounted instruments
NO and NC contacts along with graphical PSL allow interlocking
schemes etc to be configured
Self monitoring removes the need for extensive periodic injection testing
Condition monitoring of CB bay aids maintenance scheduling
Hotkeys and function keys for easy trip/close commands, and in/out
on/off switching of control functions

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