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BEC 206/CIVE 2502

Lecturers Name :
Dyg. Siti Quraisyah Bt. Abg. Adenan



provide power to individual consumer premises. Distribution of electric power to different consumers is done with much low voltage level.


systems that are most appropriate for a specific building depend on the size of the building and the characteristics of the predominant loads, such as power ratings of the equipment (HP or kW),
voltages, and phases.


is another important characteristics of a power systems.


Common Distribution Systems


Simple radial system


Distributed radial system


Secondary loop system


Primary and secondary loop






Common Distribution Systems

1) Simple radial system
The simplest distribution system.
It usually contains a single step-down transformer that transform
the primary voltage to a secondary voltage.
Typical application (Small offices

buildings, stores, and large

Common Distribution Systems

2) Distributed radial system
Consists of multiples of simple secondary radial systems.
Typical application (Shopping centers, apartment complexes, large
department stores, schools and institutional buildings)

Common Distribution Systems

3) Secondary loop system
Consists of several simple secondary radial distribution systems
having the primary feeders connected in a loop.
Typical application (Industrial plant or campus type facilities)

Common Distribution Systems

4) Primary and secondary loop systems
Consists of dual primary feeders to each transformer substation.
Typical application (High-rise buildings, hospitals and research

Common Distribution Systems

5) Primary selective system
Consists of a primary loop and interconnected secondary feeders
between adjacent power distribution centers so that loads served by
one distribution center may be back-fed from another center.
Typical application (Hospitals, research centers and computers

Voltage Spread and Profile

Voltage Spread
Voltage spread is the difference between the maximum and
minimum voltages of the system under no-load and full-load
conditions, respectively.
Voltage spread accounts for the voltage drop through the
transformers, distribution equipment, feeders and branch circuits.
For example,
If the voltage drop through the transformer of a 240-volt system is
6 volts between no load and full-load, and the voltage drops
through the feeder and branch circuits supplying the load are 2
and 4 volts, respectively, then the voltage spread at the load will
be (6+2+4)= 12 volts. The total voltage spread is (100x12/240), or
5 percent.

Voltage Spread and Profile

Voltage Profile
Voltage profile is the cumulative effect of utility voltage
fluctuations and the voltage drop within the building distribution
system may subject the load equipment to an overvoltage when
the system is lightly loaded, such as at night or on weekends, and
an undervoltage at full- load conditions.
For example,
In the case of incandescent lamps, a 5 percent voltage drop
below their rated voltage will reduce the light output (lumens) by
nearly 20 percent. For this reason, it is imperative to minimize the
voltage spread within the building distribution system.


Grounding System
When an electrical system is connected to the earth,
either intentionally or accidentally, it is said to be
grounded. All building electrical systems are intentionally
grounded at the point where the voltage to the ground is
the lowest.

There are several reasons for grounding:
1)Grounding protects the system and equipment from overvoltage due to
accidental contact with higher voltage sources, such as the primary voltage side
of distribution system, which may exceed several hundred thousand volts.
2)When lightning strikes a building and its electrical system, the electrical
wiring and insulation on equipment may break down, and lightning current will
follow a direct path to the ground, by passing the feeders and equipment.
3)Grounding protect people from heavy electrical shock. If the system and
equipment are grounded and the electrical circuit is accidentally shorted to the
equipment, the circuit protection device (fuses or circuit breakers) should trip and
cut off the circuit. If the system is not grounded, then any accidental grounding of
the wire through the equipment may pass through a person who happens to be
touching the equipment.
4)A grounded system is more economical than an ungrounded one. The
grounded side of a circuit must not be switched. Thus on a single-phase circuit,
only a single-pole switch must be used on an ungrounded single phase system.

Power Equipment
1.Service entrance
5.Motors and starters

Power Equipment
1.Service entrance
Utility power may enter a building through an overhead
service drop for small systems or underground duct banks
for large systems.
The service entrance power may be at the building
utilization voltage such as 120/240 volts or 120/208 volts, or
at a higher voltage, which is then reduced to the utilization
voltage through step-down transformers.

Power Equipment
Switchboards is an assembly of switches and
circuit protection devices from which power is
The switchboard serves as the main distribution
center of a small system or as a portion of the
distribution center of a large system.

Panelboard is an assembly of switches and
circuit protection devices as the final serving point
of the power distribution system.

Power Equipment
Transformers are power transmission equipment primarily
intended to convert a systems voltage from one level to
All tranformers operate on the principle of magnetic

Power Equipment
5.Motors and starters
Motors are used in any equipment requiring motion
(Pump, elevator, fan, air conditioner, or even equipment as
small as an electric clock.)
When motor starts-up, its current is many times higher
than its normal full-load current for several seconds.
Motor starters may be individually mounted or
preassembled as a motor control center to facilitate in
interlocking control wiring in large systems.

A conductor is an electrical component that conducts and confines
the flow of electrical current within itself.
Conductor a made of high-conductivity (low resistivity) material to
minimize the loss of power and drop in voltage.
Normally, they are made in cylindrical form as wires, but they are also
made in square or rectangular section.
Conductors are classified according to the following characteristics;
1). Material (Copper, aluminium, etc)

2). Form (Wire, cable, bus, bus-duct,etc)

3). Composition (Solid, stranded, etc)
4). Voltage class (100 volts, 300 volts, 600 volts, 5000 volts, etc)
5). Insulation (Rubber, thermoplastic, asbestos, etc)
6).Covering (Lead, aluminium, nonmetallic, crosslinked polymer, etc)
7). Temperature rating (60C, 75C, 90C, 250C, etc)


Wiring Methods
1) Electrical metallic tubing (EMT)
Commonly referred to as thin-wall conduit. EMT is the wiring method most
commonly used for all buildings, except in locations where wiring must be
watertight, or explosion-proof.

2) Rigid conduit
Similar to EMT, except that is uses threaded couplings. It used for all
applications including wet location and explosive.

3) Wireways
Used to enclose a large number of wires. They are usually in 3 in. to 8 in. in
size, contain tens or hundreds of wire.

4) Bus ducts
Used for feeding large power distribution systems. They come with a
feeder or plug-in design.

Wiring Methods
5) Underfloor ducts
Raceways cast into a poured slab for the purpose of supplying electrical
wiring to the center of large rooms.

6) Cellular floor
Combine structural floor and electrical raceway system for a modern office
or research building where electrical power is required through out the floor

7) Raised floor
Installed above the structural floor creates space between the two floors to
run wiring with or without additional raceways. Raised floors are commonly
used for computer mainframe space and spaces with a concentration of
electrical equipment. A raised floor is flexible but costly.

Switch is a device for making, breaking, or changing the
connections in an electric circuit.
break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it
from one conductor to another.

Circuit Breakers
A circuit breaker (CB) is defined in NEMA standards as a device designed
to open and close a circuit by non-automatic means, and to open the circuit
automatically on a predetermined overcurrent, without damage when
properly applied within its rating.
There are three types of circuit breakers:
1)Molded-case circuit breakers (MCCB). The current carrying parts,
mechanisms, and trip devices are completely contained within a molded
case of insulating material. The frame size from 30 A to 800 A, and with trip
sizes from 15 A to 800 A.
2)Low-voltage power circuit breakers (LVPCB). These circuit breakers
known as air breakers which is normally used in drawout switchgear
construction. The frame size from 600 A to 4000 A.
3)Insulated-case circuit breakers (ICCB). These have the construction
characteristics of both MCCBs and LVPCBs, and are used primarily in fixed
mounted switchboards but also available in drawout configurations.

Advantages of Circuit Breakers

The advantages of circuit breakers are;
1)Easily resettable when the system is tripped.
2)More compact.
3)Adaptable for remote control and electrical interlock with
other equipment.
4)Can serve as disconnect switch (although should not be
used as an operating switch)

A fuse is an electrical protective device
that melts upon sensing an abnormal
current and opens the circuit in which it
installed. It is a self-destructive device.

Electric layout - Electrical symbols and specifications

Electrical symbols and specifications

End of lectures. ;)