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BASIC

FIRST
AID

First Aid?
Is the immediate assistance or
treatment
given to someone before the arrival of
medical staff/ ambulance

Qualities
First
Aid? of a first
aide:
~ Calm
~ Confident
~ Willing to offer assistance
whenever necessary
~ Patience

Aims of a first aide:


3 Ps:
Preserve life

3Ps

Prevent injuries/conditi
from worsening
Promote recovery

Preserve Life

Not only the


casualty's life,
but your own as
well

Prevent the situation from


Worsening

e.g. removing dangers such


as traffic or fumes
acting to prevent the
casualty's condition from
deteriorating.

Promote Recovery
The actions of a first aider
should, after preventing
things from getting worse,
help the casualty to
recover from their illness
or injury.

Nose bleed

The Dos & Donts for First Aid Treatments


Diagnosis
Nosebleed

Do not lean back.


Learning

back can be
harmful as the blood
could
get
into
the
windpipe, blocking the
airway.

Sit

in a comfortable
upright position and lean
forward slightly.

Then

pinch your nose


just below the bony
bridge and above the
fleshy lobes of the
nostrils
until
the
bleeding is stemmed.

Aftercare:
Once
the
bleeding is controlled,
do not blow your nose
as this might dislodge
the clot and make you
bleed again.

Burns

BURNS

Do you how many degree of burns are there?

BURNS

Guess what degree of burn has the person suffered?

The Dos & Donts for First Aid Treatments


Diagnosis
Burns

Never

put ice on the


burn,
as
itll
delay
healing or cause extra
damage (think frostbite).
Also, leave the butter in
the kitchen, unless you
want to make it worse.
Do not break blisters
and attempt to remove
the skin, as it can cause
infection

1st Degree burn

Put the burned part in


cold water.

2nd Degree Burn


Put the burned part in
cold water.
Put cold, wet dressing on
burn. Cover the burn
with a loose bandage (or
clean washed cotton
sheet for a larger area)
and go to the doctor.

3rd Degree Burn


Leave burned clothes on
the skin
If face is burned, keep

The Dos & Donts for First Aid Treatments


Diagnosis
Burns

Chemical Burn
Immediately help a victim
who
suffered
from Remove the chemical
electrical
burn
without
causing burn by washing
looking out if the victim still
the skin under cool running
be in contact with it.
water for at least 20
minutes.
Remove all clothing or
jewellery that may be
contaminated
by
the
chemical.
After washing, apply a cool,
wet cloth on the burn to
relieve pain
Over this, loosely wrap a
dry sterile dressing or clean
cloth.
Electrical Burn
Call for an
immediately

ambulance

BLEEDING
Apply direct pressure to
the wound (at this time a
direct pressure bandage
may be used)
Elevate (do not further
harm)
Pressure Point
additional pressure may be
applied to a pressure point
to help reduce bleeding.

FIRST AID FOR SPRAINS AND


STRAINS

I-C-E

I - Ice, apply a cold


pack. Do not apply ice
directly to skin.

C - Compress, use
an elastic or
conforming wrap - not
too tight.

E - Elevate, above
heart level to control
internal bleeding.

CPR

New CPR Sequence

Compressions
A compression is the act of pushing on the
chest
People often dont push hard enough
because theyre afraid of hurting the victim
An injury is unlikely, but it is better than
death
It is better to push too hard than not hard
enough

Compressions

Give Breaths
Compressions are the most important
part of CPR
If you are also able to give breaths, you
will help even more
Your breaths need to make the chest
rise
When the chest rises, you know the
person has taken in enough air

Open the Airway

Give Breaths