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Fredrick Wilson Taylor (1856-1915)

farther of scientific management

Born March 20, 1856, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.died March 21, 1915, Philadelphia)


inventor and engineer who is known as the father of scientific management.


of a lawyer. Prepared for college at Philips Academy in Exeter, in 1872, N.H., and was accepted at


to abandon plans for matriculation, as his eyesight had deteriorated from night study. With eyesight
restored in 1875, he was apprenticed to learn the trades of patternmaker and machinist at the Enterprise
Hydraulic Works in Philadelphia.


Machine labourer at Midvale Steel Works.

1881, at 25, he introduced time study at the Midvale plant.


at night, Taylor earned a degree in mechanical engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology in


general manager of the Manufacturing Investment Company (189093), which in turn led him to
develop a new profession, that of consulting engineer in management.


served a long list of prominent firms ending with the Bethlehem Steel Corporation; while at Bethlehem,
he developed high-speed steel and performed notable experiments in shoveling and pig-iron handling .


1909 Taylor published The Principles of Sciefintic Management. In this he proposed by optimizing and
simplifying jobs, productivity would increase.

Midvale experience

At Midvale Steel Company, he found that

individual workers had their own notions about
work and different workers performed the
same task in different ways

He realized that greater output was possible on

the part of the workers but most of them were
engaged in what he called systematic

The first task of management was to know

what constituted a proper days work

He conducted time studies at Midvale Steel

Company which proved of immense use to him

Bethlehem Experiments
Pig-Iron Handling

Taylor was hired by the Bethlehem Steel

Company to increase the output of one of the
larger machine shops which had been a
serious production bottleneck

Periodic rests enabled a worker to produce

more than continuous work. By a systematic
resting time and improved methods average
productivity was raised from 12.5 tons to
47.5 tons per day.

Taylor began selecting workers and training

them in handling pig-iron

The original crew was 75, this reduced


The earnings of the crew increased from

USD1.15 to USD 1.85 per man per day.

Scientific management

Scientific management is the art of knowing exactly what you want your men to do and then seeing
that they do it in the best and cheapest way

The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the one best way for a job to be done

Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training
them to do it precisely in the one best way.

To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans.

Separated managerial work from operative work

Taylor believed that workers were motivated by money so he promoted the idea of a fair days pay for a
fair days work.

He also advanced the idea that workers and managers needed to cooperate with one another.

To scientifically determine the optimal to perform a job, Taylor perfomed experiments he called time studies(also known as
time and motion studies). The purpose of this study was to eliminate useless motions and determine the best way of doing
a job

Motion study increased the efficiency and productivity of workers by cutting down all wasteful motions.
These studies were characterized by the use of a stop watch to time a workers sequence of motions with the goal of
determining ones best way to perfom a goal.

Four principles of scientific management

Taking what he learned from these workplace experiments, Taylor developed four principles of scientific


Replace working by rule of thumb (general guide line) or simple habit and common sense, and
instead use the scientific method to study the work and determine the most efficient way to perfom
specific tasks.


Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, math workers to their jobs based on capability and
motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency.


Monitor work performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they are using the
most efficient ways of working.


Allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and
training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently.

Henry Ford 1863- 1947


was born on 30 July 1863 on his fathers farm in what is now called Michigan.
As a child he learnt how to fix watches and was intrigued with how steam engines work
He used the watches to learn about the rudiments of machine design and he befriended people who ran steam engines.
At the age age of 16 he left the farm to become an apprentice at a car company called the Michigan car company.
He spent 2 and a half years working as an apprentice often moving onto other companies working similar positions as
he thought he would learn more elsewhere
After 3 years he returned home where he still continued to work on steam engines doing occasional work stints in
Ford married Clara Bryant in 1891 and moved to Detroit where he worked as a night engineer at the Electric
Illuminating Company.
By 1896 Ford had risen up in the ranks and was now the chief engineer at the company.
He started spending irregular work hours at work and aided by a team of friends his efforts to build a gasolinepowered horseless carriage were complete as he completed what he called the Quadricycle.
The Quadricycle consisted of 4 wire wheels that looked like heavy bicycle wheels , was steered with a tiller and had
only 2 forward speeds no reverse.

Ford Motor Company and Industrial

Developments Implemented

Following his Breakthrough with his Quadricycle, Henry Ford hired core young able men and would go on to start his company.

The companys first car was the model A followed by a variety of other improved models there after.

They designed the model N which then became the highest selling car in the country.

Henry Ford still believed he would create a better, cheaper and more efficient motorcar so the company then came up with the model
T introduced on October 1 1908.

This model was easy to operate, maintain, handle on rough roads and most importantly affordable.

In 1910 the company moved to a huge plant and by 1913 they had developed a moving assembly line for.

With the addition of the first automatic conveyor belt, Henry Fords factory of Michigan was soon producing a car every 93 minutes
instead of the 14 hours it previously took.

Turnover was so high that the company had to hire more workers because there was more demand for the model T in the country and
by 1918 half of the cars in America were model Ts.

Ford continued to make the model T despite the peoples demand of expensive yet stylish and comfortable cars (Chevrolet) and by the
late 1920s the sales figures of the model T declined drastically Ford could no longer ignore the fact .


to the ever increasing repetitive work, most workers were against the idea and Ford in 1914 doubled all
worker wages to $5 per day ($110 in 2011) and was able to keep his best workers due to this bold move.
There was a reduction in work hours from 9 hour working days to 8 hours and a five day working week.
Division of labour allowed cars to be produced both more quickly and efficiently.
In 1919 Henry Ford decided to buy out all the other investors in the company to become the sole owner because
he was tired of all the interference by the investors. He named his 26 year old son as the President of the

production of the model T was shut down and design of an all new car began. In 1927 they released their
new model the model A.
This was after they had moved to a bigger plant along the banks of river rogue in Dearborn,

that included a glass factory, steel mill and an assembly line . All steps in the manufacturing process
from refining raw materials to final assembly of the automobile could be done there and it became the largest
factory in the world.
The model A was only competitive for 4 years and was replaced with the new introduction of the V8
engine in 1932.


The one-man control decision really affected the company and the company declined. By 1936 they declined to
third on the US market behind General Motors and Chrysler.

There were more troubles in the company as Ford was forced to reduce worker wages and fire other workers
due to the great depression which heavily affected his mass production line.

Ford also faced another challenge with the United Automobile Workers (UAW) for he was refusing to come to
term with them despite his competitors did so.

He fought back with violence and his security staff clashed with the UAW workers in the Battle of the
overpass but eventually he was forced to sign a union contract in 1941.

When the World war started Ford was against America taking sides and tried to stop that by attempting to
become a senator but failed to win because of his personal attacks on the opponent.

But after the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbour Ford Motor Company, Ford signed a military contract with the
US in which he supplied airplanes, jeeps, tanks and engines.

Edsel Ford, his son died in 1943 and Henry Ford took back the presidency briefly before handing it over to his
grandson Henry Ford the second in 1945.

Henry Ford died 2 years later at the age of 83


conclusion Taylors scientific management resulted

Greater cooperation between management and workers with a consistent application of Taylor theory of
The principles increased productivity and had a substantial impact on industry and they also increased the
monotony of work
Despite the controversy, it changed the way work was done

Ford revolutionised the industrial factor in many ways which benefitted the production sector
By implementing the moving assembly line he increased mass production for cars were being produced at a
faster rate also lowering the production costs.
By increasing the workers wages it ensured that there was efficient work and quicker production for the
workers were satisfied with how much they were working for. Also it ensured that his best people never left the
company for other job offers.
Henry Ford then introduced a 8 hour day and 5 day week which made it more flexible for workers to work and
to be able to enjoy more time with their families.
Also the division of labour also increased the rate of production and efficiency of the product.


Henry ford References

Fredrick Taylor References

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