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Diseases of neonates in Equines

(foals)

SUBMITTED TO :
DR.
R.B.KUSHWAHA
SUBMITTED BY: HANSMEET
KOUR
REGD NO. : J-12-BV-713

INTRODUCTION
What is the actual
meaning of
neonate?
As per WHO, a young
one of less than 28
days of age is a
NEONATE...

Why neonatal diseases


are studied separately?
Immunologically
incompetent.
Total dependence on
colostrum.
Dependence on readily
available CHO.
Insufficient
thermoregulation.
Congenital defects

HYPOTHER
MIA

Most common cause of


mortality in neonates

Disturbance in thermoregulation accompanied

byShivering
drop in bodyand
temp.
below
normal levels.
v.c.
Responses
are

not +nt until about a week of age.


Normal central thermoregulation
doesnot fully develop until 28 days of
age.
Neonates lack insulating fat.
High surface area to volume ratio
Evaporative heat loss (wet with
amniotic fluid).

1.more heat loss

Control and Treatment


Hypothermia can be prevented by
immediately drying and then swaddling the
neonate (including the head) in a warm
blanket to prevent evaporative, conductive,
and convective losses.
Providing warm environment.
Colostrum feeding
Fluid therapy(dextrose)
Ringer lactate should be avoided.
corticosteroids

HYPOGLYCEMIA
Hypoglycemia is the state of having
a blood glucose (also known as blood
sugar) level that is too low to
effectively fuel the body's cells.
Causes
Lack of adequate glycogen stores.
Immaturity of gluconeogenic
pathway.
Immature pancreatic activity
Delay in colostrum and milk feeding.

Clinical signs

Non specific signs


Weakness and lethargy
Collapse
Poor suckle
Inappetance
Seizures

Treatment
CRI of dextrose at 4-8 mg/kg/min.
Dextrose can be diluted in isotonic
crystalloids to 2.5-5%,
Severe hypoglycemia (< 40 mg/dL) can
be acutely managed by administration
of 10 mL/kg of 10% dextrose solution
over 15-30 minutes, followed by
maintenance therapy with a 5%
dextrose solution.

Naval ill
Navel ill, or omphalitis, is the term
given to an infection of any or all of
the structures of the umbilical stump.
Shortly after birth, the umbilical cord
breaks. The umbilical stump remains.
Because the umbilicus is made of
urachus, a vein and two arteries,
navel infections can travel up the
stump and enter the bloodstream
leading to septicemia, potential
growth plate and joint infections and
possibly death.
Causes of equine Navel ill
Lack of cleanliness during foaling
causes equine navel ill.
Inadequate colostrum feeding.

Symptoms of equine
Navel ill;
Local:

umbilical swelling,
purulent (pus-like) discharge,
swelling along the lower abdomen,

Systemic (septic):

fever (greater than 102.5 F),


depression, recumbency,
inappetance/loss of suckle,
(increased respiration, difficulty
breathing,)
Treatment
diarrhea, colic,
The danger time for development of
swollen joints, lameness.
equine navel ill is just after birth
before the umbilical cord has dried .
dipping the umbilicus with a dilute
antiseptic solution(Chlorhexidine)
solution as soon as possible after
birth and then 3 times daily for the
first 2-3 days of the foals life
Antibiotics

use intravenous therapy with either


fresh plasma, frozen hyperimmune
plasma, or IgG concentrates.
PRODUCTION FAILURE
Serum IgG Levels below 400
mg/dL represent failure of
passive transfer.

Neonatal Isoerythrolysis
It is an immune
mediated hemolytic
disease in which
maternal antibodies are
made against foals RBC
and when these
antibodies through
colostrum are ingested
by foal results in
destruction of foals
RBCs.
Foals are generally
normal at birth and
signs are shown after
ingestion of colostrum.

Pathogenesis

Clinical signs

Foal is normal at birth.


Signs are seen after ingestion of
colostrum.
Signs may be developed as
early as 12 hrs of age or 4-5
days later

Clinical signs depend upon:


Antigen involved(Qa &Aa).
Concentration of alloantibodies
in colostrum.
Amount of colustrum intake.
Timing of colostrum
administration.

Weakness and
lethargy
Loss of suckle
response
Sudden collapse
Tachycardia
Rapid ,shallow
breathing
May lead to laboured
breathing
Hemoglobinuria

Red-coloured urine, due to


haemoglobinuria, is being
collected from a foal with

Clinical signs
Hemoglobinemia
Neurological
abnormalities
Seizures.
Mucous
membrane: pale
and later icteric.

Diagnosis
JAUNDICED FOAL AGGLUTINATION TEST

COOMBS TEST

Haematological examination:
Hb ,PCV,TEC decrease
Presence of nucleated RBC
BILIRUBIN - increase

Treatment and control


Prevention is the most imp aspect of
management.
Horses should be blood typed before
breeding.
Mare should be tested at end of
gestation for antibodies.
Mixing of blood from umblical cord and
colostrum should be checked for
agglutination.

Treatment
Colostrum from mare should be
discarded.
Should consult vet. As soon as possible.
When PCV<15% ....... Go for transfusion

Treatment of anaemia
Turning off of immune
system by steroids
Antibiotics .
Oxygen therapy.
Humidified oxygen is being
administered intranasally via a
Ryles tube connected by oxygen
tubing to an oxygen tank.

Separation of dam
and offspring should
not be recommended
instead foal should be
muzzled for 48 hrs.

NEONATAL MALADJUSTMENT
SYNDROME
Also known as neonatal
encephalopathy/dummy
foal/barker foal/wanderer
foal/ischemic
encephalopathy.
It is a multisystemic
disease affecting
NS,CVS,GIT,RS. It appears
to be related to CNS
dysfunction and may be
induced by birth asphyxia
or intra cranial
haemorrhage.

The syndrome is believed to


be caused by central
nervous systemasphyxia
(lack of oxygen) before,
during or after delivery.

Clinical signs
Foal able
Looses
Loses
and
Not
Inert
Begin
Brain
Tachycardia
Death
walks
normal
and
swelling;
its
tointerest
start
to
suckle
unresponsive(DUMMY
aimlessly(WANDERER
stand
at
, vocalizing(BARKER
birth
involvement
in
reflex
and
dambegin of
to other
have
FOAL)
FOAL)
FOAL)
seizures
organs

PATHOGENESIS
SHUNTING
CONTINUED
CEREBRAL
BRAIN
GLUTAMATE
ACCUMULATION
OVER
FLUID
ABNORMAL
WHEMING
AND
STORE
ISCHEMIA
AWAY
ELECTROLYTE
ACID
UPTAKE
ASPHYXIA
OFAND
OF
BLOOD
GLUCOSE
BASE
SCAVANGING
IMPAIRED
OVER
BALANCE
FROM
IMBALANCE
DEPLETED
STIMULATION
NON
SYSTEM
VITALOF
TORECEPTORS
VITAL ORGANS

DIAGNOSIS AND
TREATMENT
DIAGNOSIS is
based on history
and clinical signs.
No separate test.

Prognosis is usually good


except for the foals with
concurrent septicemia.

TREATMENT
Intensive supportive care is critical.
Foals that are not able to suckle should be given
mare's colostrum by nasopharyngeal catheter
within 18 hours of birth.
Isotonic fluids with added glucose
Seizure control diazepam should be
administered if needed, with long term control
using phenobarbital.
Respiratory support with flow-by oxygen, or
positive-pressure ventilation if necessary.
Cardiac dysfunction dopamine to increase
cardiac output, and diuretics to reduce oedema.
Renal dysfunction should be treated with
dopamine infusions to increase renal blood flow
and urine output.
General supportive care :
Antibiotic therapy - broad-spectrum
antibiotics.
Anti-ulcer medication such as ranitidine and
sucralfate are recommended .
Prevention of further self-trauma by placing a
padded head-collar.

Respiratory problems
Failure of lungs to
make a transition from
a collapsed, fluid filled
structure to an air
filled structure.
Lung pathology.
Inadequate colostrum
intake & serum IgG
levels
Hypothermia
Aspiration

Diagnosis is quite difficult:


Cough is rarely observed.
(post natal delay in
maturation of irritant
receptors within airways)
Onset of laryngopharangeal reflex is
delayed.(detection of milk
aspiration difficult)
Rate of ventilation is
unreliable factor(ass. With
extra pulmonary factors)

Aspiration pneumonia in neonatal


foals
Meconium aspiration
fetal stress or
asphyxia (dystocia)
voiding of
meconium inutero
aspiration
rapidly becomes
secondarily infected
a
neonatal bacterial
pneumonia.

Diagnosis and
treatment:

History of meconium
contaminated amniotic
fluid
Meconium stained new
born.
Radiograph shows ventro
cranial distribution of
pulmonary infiltrate.
Clear , brownish fluid may
drip from nose.
Treatment
Broad spectrum antibiotics
Ventilatory support.

MILK ASPIRATION
SIGNS AND

CAUSES

Due to cleft palate


Due to pharangeal
dysfunction
When sucking
from the dam,
the foal
constantly
loses milk
through both
nostrils. The
foal appears
otherwise to be
clinically
normal

TREATMENT

Absence of lung sounds over a


specific area of the lung field on
auscultation.
Tachypnea.
Crackling or wheezing on
auscultation of the thorax.
Dullness, lethargy and a reduced
sucking reflex.
Dyspnea with flaring of the
nostrils and exaggerated thoracic
and abdominal movements.
Pyrexia.

Respiratory
distress
syndrome
Caused by pulmonary
surfactant deficiency in the
lungs of neonates.(premature
birth or infection)
Signs : tachypnea, nostril
flaring, increased breathing
effort, grunting and pale or
cyanotic mucous membranes.
Diagnosis :history ,clinical
signs, radiography , arterial
blood gas analysis.
Treatment : sternal
recumbency
Oxygen therapy
+ve airway pressure
Mechanical ventilation.

Meconium impaction
It's one of the most common causes of colic in the newborn
foal.
Meconium impaction implies failure to evacuate sufficient
quantities of meconium the first faeces- that is composed
of intestinal secretions, swallowed amniotic fluid and cellular
debris.
Most foals will start to evacuate meconium within one to two
hours after birth, shortly after the ingestion of colostrum that
acts both as a laxative and stimulator of the gastrocolonic
reflex
But evacuation of meconium may be delayed (meconium
retention) as the result of ileus secondary to another primary
disease, such as septicemia or neonatal encephalopathy.

Clinical signs

Abdomen pain
Restlessness, tail
switching/flagging,
straining to
defecate ,
leading to lying
down, rolling ,
lying upside down.
Tachycardia .
Tachypnea.
Patchy sweating
Lack of passage of
all meconium .
Lack of passage of
yellowish soft 'milk'
stool that follows
meconium.
Dehydration.
Decreased
borborygmi.

Photo 1: This is the typical stance of a


foal that is straining to defecate.

Diagnosis and
treatment

Radiographs may be taken


with the foal either standing
or in lateral recumbency
Trans abdominal
ultrasonography
Low doses of flunixin
meglumine (0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg
IV q 12 hours)
Other shorter-acting
sedatives or analgesics that
can be used in the foal
include diazepam (0.05-0.2
mg/kg IV)
Mineral oil (4 to 8 ounces
given via a nasogastric tube)

Photo 2: These abdominal


radiographs were taken on a foal with
a meconium impaction.

Photo : Transabdominal
ultrasonographic appearance of
four "balls" of meconium
impacted in the small colon that
is displaced dependently in the
left caudoventral abdomen of a
foal.

Diarrhoea
Infectious causes:
Viral infections

Non-infectious cause:
Foal heat diarrhoea-(7to10 days)