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# An unstable particle at rest breaks into two

## fragments of unequal mass. The mass of the

first fragment is 2.50 1028 kg, and that of
the other is 1.67 1027 kg. If the lighter
fragment has a speed of 0.893c after the
breakup, what is the speed of the heavier
fragment?

## An unstable particle at rest breaks into two fragments

of unequal mass. The mass of the first fragment is
2.50 1028 kg, and that of the other is 1.67 1027
kg. If the lighter fragment has a speed of 0.893c after
the breakup, what is the speed of the heavier
fragment?

## Relativistic momentum of the system of fragments must be

conserved. For total momentum to be zero after as it was before,
we must have, with subscript 2 referring to the heavier fragment,
and subscript 1 to the lighter,

p2 p1

2.50 10 28 kg

2 m2 u2 1 m1u1

1.67 10 27 kg u2
1 u2 c

1 0.893

4.960 10 28 kg c

0.893c

## An unstable particle at rest breaks into two fragments

of unequal mass. The mass of the first fragment is
2.50 1028 kg, and that of the other is 1.67 1027
kg. If the lighter fragment has a speed of 0.893c after
the breakup, what is the speed of the heavier
fragment?
2

27
1.67 10
u2
u22
1 2

28
c
c
4.960 10

12.3

u22
c

u2 0.285c

## An unstable particle with a mass of 3.34 10

27
kg is initially at rest. The particle decays into
two fragments that fly off along the x axis with
velocity components 0.987c and 0.868c. Find
the masses of the fragments. (Suggestion:
Conserve both energy and momentum.)

## An unstable particle with a mass of 3.34 10

27
kg is initially at rest. The particle decays into
two fragments that fly off along the x axis with
velocity components 0.987c and 0.868c. Find
the masses of the fragments. (Suggestion:
1
Conserve both energy 1and
momentum.)

2.01
1 0.868

1
1 0.987

6.22

E1 E2 Etotal
1m1c 2 2 m2 c 2 mtotal c 2

## An unstable particle with a mass of 3.34 10

27
kg is initially at rest. The particle decays into
two fragments that fly off along the x axis with
velocity components 0.987c and 0.868c. Find
the masses of the fragments. (Suggestion:
Conserve both energy and momentum.)
2.01m1 6.22m2 3.34 10 27 kg
This reduces to:

m1 3.09m2 1.66 10 27 kg
p1 p2
1m1u1 2 m2 u2

m1 3.52m2

m1 8.84 10 28 kg

m2 2.51 10 28 kg

## Suppose a heat engine is connected to two energy

reservoirs, one a pool of molten aluminum (660C)
and the other a block of solid mercury (38.9C).
The engine runs by freezing 1.00 g of aluminum and
melting 15.0 g of mercury during each cycle. The
heat of fusion of aluminum is 3.97 105 J/kg; the
heat of fusion of mercury is 1.18 104 J/kg. What
is the efficiency of this engine?

## Suppose a heat engine is connected to two energy reservoirs,

one a pool of molten aluminum (660C) and the other a block
of solid mercury (38.9C). The engine runs by freezing 1.00 g
of aluminum and melting 15.0 g of mercury during each cycle.
The heat of fusion of aluminum is 3.97 105 J/kg; the heat of
fusion of mercury is 1.18 104 J/kg. What is the efficiency of
this engine?
The heat to melt 15.0 g of Hg is:

Qc mL f 15 10 3 kg 1.18 10 4 J kg 177 J
The energy absorbed to freeze 1.00 g of aluminum is:

## Qh mL f 10 3 kg 3.97 10 5 J/kg 397 J

and the work output is:

Weng
Qh

220 J
0.554
397 J

Weng Qh Qc 220 J
or

55.4%

## 2. (a) Find the rest energy of a proton in

electron volts; (b) If the total energy of a
proton is three times its rest energy, what is
the speed of the proton?
(c) Determine the
kinetic energy of the proton in electron volts.

2. (a) Find the rest energy of a proton in electron volts; (b) If the
total energy of a proton is three times its rest energy, what is the
speed of the proton? (c) Determine the kinetic energy of the
proton in electron volts.
(a)Rest energy:
E0=mpc2 = (1.67 x 10-27kg) x (3 x 108m/s)2 = 1.5 x 10-10J x (1eV / 1.6 x 10-19J)
= 938 MeV
(b) The total energy
2
m
c
p
Etot 3E0 3m p c 2
u2
1 2
c

1
u2
1 2
c

u2 1
1 2
c 9

u2 8

2
c
9

8
c 0.943c 2.83 108 m / s
3

## (c) Kinetic energy:

K = Etot E0 = 3mpc2 mpc2 = 2mpc2 = 2 x (938 MeV) = 1876 MeV

## A proton in high-energy accelerator

moves with a speed c/2. Use the work
kinetic energy theorem to find the work
required to increase the speed to (a)
0.750c and (b) 0.995c.

## An experimenter arranges to trigger two

flashbulbs simultaneously, a blue flush located at
the origin of his reference frame and a red flush
at x = 30.4 km. A second observer, moving at
speed 0.247c in the direction of increasing x,
also views the flushes.
(a) What time interval between them does she
find?
(b) Which flush does she say occurs first?

## An experimenter arranges to trigger two flashbulbs

simultaneously, a blue flush located at the origin of
his reference frame and a red flush at x = 30.4 km.
A second observer, moving at speed 0.247c in the
direction of increasing x, also views the flushes.
(a) What time interval between them does she find?
(b) Which flush does she say occurs first?
Solution:
We use Lorentz transformation equation in the interval form:
'

ux

t t 2
c

First, evaluate :

u
1
c

1
1 0.247 2

1.032

## An experimenter arranges to trigger two flashbulbs

simultaneously, a blue flush located at the origin of
his reference frame and a red flush at x = 30.4 km.
A second observer, moving at speed 0.247c in the
direction of increasing x, also views the flushes.
(a) What time interval between them does she find?
(b) Which flush does she say occurs first?
We also have:

x xr xb 30.4 0 30.4km
t tr tb 0

so,

tr tb

## An experimenter arranges to trigger two flashbulbs

simultaneously, a blue flush located at the origin of
his reference frame and a red flush at x = 30.4 km.
A second observer, moving at speed 0.247c in the
direction of increasing x, also views the flushes.
(a) What time interval between them does she find?
(b) Which flush does she say occurs first?
'

ux

t t 2 (1.032) 0
c

We got

t tr tb

(0.247)(30.4 103 m)
3 108 m / s

5
2.58 10 s 25.8s

## and therefore t ' tr' tb'

since t< 0, we have tb > tr. Hence, the red flush is seen
first.

r1m
l
tE
F
:eeeV
o
e
c
r
o
n

3
1
.0,r.52st1

9
1(

0
k
g
8
2

1
4
1
)
(
3

1
0
m
/
s
)

8
.
2

1
0
J
9
6m
20c62e
J
14e
(V
8.205M
JV
(.619/eV
)
For proton :

m p 1.673 10 27 kg

## E p ,rest (1.51 10 10 J ) /(1.602 10 19 J / eV ) 0.938.6 109 eV

938.6 MeV

SUMMARY
1. Einsteins Postulates:
Postulate 1: Absolute uniform
motion can not be detected.
Postulate 2: The speed of light is
independent of the motion of the
source.

SUMMARY
2. The Lorentz Transformation:

x' x ut
y' y
z' z
xu

t' t 2
c

SUMMARY
6. The Velocity Transformation:

'
vx u
vx
'
uv x
1 2
c

u
v'x x
uv
1 x
2
c

SUMMARY

3. Time Dilation:

To
u

T0

4. Length
Contraction:

5. The Relativistic
Doppler Effect:

L0
L'

cu
f '
f0
cu

approaching

cu
f '
f0
cu

receding

SUMMARY
p

7. Relativistic Momentum:

8. Relativistic Energy:

mu
u2
1 2
c

E mc 2 K mc 2

mc 2
1

9. Rest Energy:

## 10. Kinetic Energy

u2
c

E0 mc 2
K

mc 2
u2
1 2
c

mc 2 mc2 ( 1)

SUMMARY
10. Useful Formulas for Speed, Energy, and
Momentum:

E p c mc
2

E pc

2 2

2 2

for

E mc

u pc

c E

Specific Heat:

Latent Heat:

Q
c
mT

Q
L
m

Work done by
engine:

Q mcT

Q Lm

Wengine Qnet Qh Qc
Qh Qc
Qc
e

1
Qh
Qh
Qh
Weng

Thermal Efficiency: