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BIOL190: Introduction to

Evolution
Final Exam Review

This is far from comprehensive, but if


you want it, you can have it. I really
suggest looking over all of the
lectures slides, as well as reviewing
both of your previous midterms, and
watching the online videos and
animations on MasteringBiology, not
to mention reading all of the assigned
textbook sections...

On the Origin of Species by Natural


Selection, or the Preservation of
Favored Races in the Struggle for Life

1 Population

with varied
inherited
traits

2 Elimination

of individuals
with certain
traits

3 Reproduction

of survivors

4 Increasing

frequency
of traits that
enhance
survival

Darwins Four Postulates Necessary


for Evolution by Natural Selection
More offspring are born than can survive
Individuals vary in traits
Those traits are heritable
Variation in those heritable traits causes
some individuals to experience higher
survival and reproductive success
(fitness)

Using Darwins
theory of
evolution by
natural selection,
how the geckos
coloration might
have evolved.
Population of organisms

Hereditary
variations

Overproduction of offspring and competition


Environmental
factors

Differences in reproductive success


of individuals

Evolution of adaptations in the population

Four Levels of Structure


Each subsequent level of structure is
guided by the preceding level

What is a Genome?
All the DNA in a cell
constitutes the
cells genome

There are about 2 meters of DNA


in each of your cells!

A genome can
consist of a single
DNA molecule
(common in
prokaryotic cells) or
a number of DNA
molecules
(common in
eukaryotic cells)
DNA molecules in a
cell are packaged
into
chromosomes

Hundreds to thousands of genes


on each chromosome!

G1
Cytokinesis
G2

Mitosis
MITOTIC (M)
PHASE

Prophase
Telophase
and
Cytokinesis

Prometaphase

Anaphase
Metaphase

Cell Cycle Clock


G1 checkpoint

The sequential events of


the cell cycle are directed
by a distinct cell cycle
control system, which is
similar to a clock

G1

The cell cycle control


system is regulated by
both internal and external
controls
The clock has specific
checkpoints where the
cell cycle stops until a goahead signal is received

Control
system

G2

M checkpoint
G2 checkpoint

Cell Cycle Clock


G1 checkpoint

The sequential events of


the cell cycle are directed
by a distinct cell cycle
control system, which is
similar to a clock

G1

The cell cycle control


system is regulated by
both internal and external
controls
The clock has specific
checkpoints where the
cell cycle stops until a goahead signal is received

Control
system

G2

M checkpoint
G2 checkpoint

Key

Haploid gametes (n = 23)


Haploid (n)
Egg (n)
Diploid (2n)

Gametes are the only


types of human cells
produced by meiosis,
rather than mitosis
Meiosis results in one
set of chromosomes in
each gamete

Sperm (n)
MEIOSIS

Ovary

FERTILIZATION

Testis

Fertilization and
meiosis alternate in
sexual life cycles to
maintain chromosome
number

Diploid
zygote
(2n = 46)
Mitosis and
development
Multicellular diploid
adults (2n = 46)

Meiosis I & Meiosis II


MEIOSIS I: Separates
MEIOSISchromosomes
I: Separates
homologous
homologous chromosomes
Prophase I
Metaphase I Anaphase I
Prophase I
Metaphase I Anaphase I

Centrosome
(with
centriole
Sister pair)
chroma- Chiasmata
tids
Spindle

MEIOSIS II: Separates


MEIOSIS
II: Separates
sister chromatids
sister chromatids

Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II


and
Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II
Cytokinesis

Telophase II
and
Cytokinesis

Centromere
(with
Sister
kinetochromatids
chore)
remain
Meta- attached
phase
plate

Homologous Cleavage
Homochromofurrow
logous
somes
chromoseparate
somes Fragments
of nuclear Microtubules
envelope attached to kinetochore

Sister
chromatids
separate

Haploid
daughter
cells
forming

Meiosis I is called the reductional division because it reduces the


number of chromosomes per cell

Experiment
P Generation
(true-breeding
Purple
flowers

parents)

White
flowers

F1 Generation
(hybrids)

All plants had purple flowers

Self- or cross-pollination

F2 Generation

705 purple-flowered
plants

224 white-flowered
plants

A pedigree is a family tree that describes the interrelationships of


parents and children across generations
Inheritance patterns of particular traits can be traced and
described using pedigrees

George

Sandra

Tom

Arlene

Sam

Wilma

Ann

Michael

Carla
Daniel

Alan

Tina

Christopher

Figure 16.7

C
C

5 end

Hydrogen bond

3.4 nm

1 nm

C
A

G
T

3 end

A
T

T
A

3 end

T
A

(a) Key features of


DNA structure

0.34 nm

5 end
(b) Partial chemical structure

(c) Space-filling
model

DNA Replication
Overview
Origin of replication

Leading strand

5 3
5
3

3
5

Primer
3

5 3
5

53

53

3 5

Lagging strand
Overall directions
of replication

Lagging strand
5
3

3
5

Leading strand

Along one template strand of DNA, the DNA polymerase


synthesizes a leading strand continuously, moving toward the
replication fork
To elongate the other new strand, called the lagging strand,
DNA polymerase must work in the direction away from the
replication fork
The lagging strand is synthesized as a series of segments
called Okazaki fragments, which are joined together by DNA
ligase

Transcription & Translation


Transcription is
the synthesis of
RNA using
information in DNA

produces
messenger RNA
(mRNA)

Translation is the
synthesis of a
polypeptide, using
information in the
mRNA
Ribosomes are
the sites of
translation

DNA
template
strand

A C C A A A C C G A G T
T G G T T T G G C T C A

TRANSCRIPTION

mRNA

U G G U U U G G C U C A
Codon

TRANSLATION

Protein

Trp
Amino acid

Phe

Gly

Ser

Bridge Between Genes and Proteins


RNA is the bridge between
genes and the proteins for
which they code
In eukaryotes, the nuclear
envelop separates the
processes of transcription and
translation

RNA undergoes processes before


leaving the nucleus

Nuclear
envelope

TRANSCRIPTION

RNA PROCESSING
NUCLEUS

TRANSCRIPTION
CYTOPLASM

DNA
mRNA
Ribosome

DNA
Pre-mRNA

mRNA

CYTOPLASM
TRANSLATION

Ribosome

TRANSLATION
Polypeptide

Polypeptide
(a) Bacterial cell

(b) Eukaryotic cell

Three Stages of Transcription

The promoter is where RNA


polymerase attaches

Reads the DNA template


strand from the 3 5 direction

The RNA is complementary to


the DNA template strand

Promoter

RNA polymerase pries the DNA


strands apart and joins together
the RNA nucleotides to perform
mRNA synthesis

RNA synthesis follows the same


base-pairing rules as DNA,
except that uracil substitutes for
thymine
The transcription unit is the
stretch of DNA that is
transcribed

Transcription unit
3
5

5
3

1 Initiation

Start point
RNA polymerase
3
5

5
3

Unwound
DNA
2 Elongation
5
3

Template strand of DNA


RNA
transcript
Rewound
DNA
5

RNA
transcript

3 Termination

3
5

Direction of
transcription
(downstream)
3
5

5
3
5

Completed RNA transcript

mRNA Processing
50250 adenine
nucleotides added
to the 3 end

A modifed guanine
nucleotide added to
the 5 end

5
G

Region that includes


protein-coding segments

Polyadenylation
signal

P P P

AAUAAA

Start
codon

5 Cap 5 UTR

Pre-mRNA Intron

Stop
codon

3 UTR

AAAAAA

Poly-A tail

Intron

5 Cap

Poly-A tail

130

31104

Introns cut out


and exons
spliced together

mRNA
5 Cap

5 UTR

Poly-A tail

1146
Coding
segment

3 UTR

105146

DNA

TRANSCRIPTION

3
5

RNA
polymerase

RNA
transcript

Exon

RNA
PROCESSING

RNA transcript
(pre-mRNA)
Intron

Aminoacyl-tRNA
synthetase

NUCLEUS

Process by
which genetic
information
flows from
mRNA to protein

Ribosomes

Amino
acid

tRNA
mRNA

Amino
acid

CYTOPLASM

Translation

Amino
acid

Polypeptide
3

tRNA with
amino acid
attached

Ribosomal
subunits

TRANSLATION
E

A A A
UG G U U U A U G

Codon
Ribosome

Anticodon

Translate an
mRNA message
into protein with
the help of
transfer RNA
(tRNA) to
transfer amino
acids to the
growing
polypeptide

Mutations
Wild type

DNA template strand 3

T A C T T C A A A C C G A T T 5
5 A T G A A G T T T G G C T A A 3

mRNA 5
Protein
Amino end

A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A 3

Met

Lys

(a) Nucleotide-pair substitution


A instead of G
3 T A C T T C A A A C C A A T T 5
5 A T G A A G T T T G G T T A A 3

U instead of C
5 A U G A A G U U U G G U U A A 3
Met
Lys
Phe
Gly
Stop

Silent

Phe

Gly

Stop
Carboxyl end

(b) Nucleotide-pair insertion or deletion


Extra A
3 T A C A T T C A A A C C G A T T 5
5 A T G T A A G T T T G G C T A A 3

Extra U
5 A U G U A A G U U U G G C U A A 3
Met
Stop

Frameshift (1 nucleotide-pair insertion)

T instead of C
3 T A C T T C A A A T C G A T T 5
5 A T G A A G T T T A G C T A A 3

3 T A C T T C A A C C G A T T 5
5 A T G A A G T T G G C T A A 3

A instead of G
5 A U G A A G U U U A G C U A A 3
Met
Lys
Phe
Ser
Stop

Missense
A instead of T
3 T A C A T C A A A C C G A T T 5
5 A T G T A G T T T G G C T A A 3

U instead of A
5 A U G U A G U U U G G U U A A 3
Met
Stop

Nonsense

missing

missing

5 A U G A A G U U G G C U A A
Lys
Leu
Ala
Met

Frameshift (1 nucleotide-pair deletion)


T T C

missing

3 T A C A A A C C G A T T 5
5 A T G T T T G G C T A A 3
A A G

missing

5 A U G U U U G G C U A A 3
Phe
Gly
Met
Stop

3 nucleotide-pair deletion

Operons
Operon
Promoter

Genes
A

Operator
RNA
polymerase
A

Polypeptides

A cluster of functionally related genes can be


coordinately controlled by a single on-off switch
The switch is a segment of DNA called an operator
usually positioned within the promoter
An operon is the entire stretch of DNA that includes the
operator, the promoter, and the genes that they control

Repressible Operons
Repressible operon:
Genes expressed

Genes not expressed

Promoter
Genes
Operator
Inactive repressor:
no corepressor present

Active repressor:
corepressor bound
Corepressor

A repressible operon is one that is


usually on; binding of a repressor to the
operator shuts off transcription

Inducible Operons
Inducible operon:
Genes not expressed
Promoter
Operator

Genes expressed

Genes

Active repressor:
no inducer present

Inducer

Inactive repressor:
inducer bound

An inducible operon is one that is usually


off;
a molecule called an inducer inactivates the
repressor and turns on transcription

Epigenetics
Histone
tails

DNA double
helix

In histone
acetylation,
acetyl groups
are attached
to positively
charged
histone tails

This loosens
chromatin
structure,
thereby
promoting
the initiation
of

Amino acids
available
for chemical
modifcation
Nucleosome
(end view)
(a) Histone tails protrude outward from a nucleosome
Acetyl
groups

Unacetylated histones
(side view)

DNA

Acetylated histones

(b) Acetylation of histone tails promotes loose chromatin


structure that permits transcription

Genomes Across Domains


Archaea

Bacteria
Genome
size
Number of
genes
Gene
density

Introns

Other
noncoding
DNA

Most are 16 Mb

1,5007,500

Higher than in eukaryotes

None in
protein-coding
genes

Present in
some genes

Very little

Eukarya
Most are 104,000 Mb, but a
few are much larger

5,00040,000
Lower than in prokaryotes
(Within eukaryotes, lower
density is correlated with larger
genomes.)
Present in most genes of
multicellular eukaryotes, but
only in some genes of
unicellular eukaryotes
Can exist in large amounts;
generally more repetitive
noncoding DNA in
multicellular eukaryotes

Two Types of Transposable Elements


Transposon
DNA of
genome Transposon
is copied

New copy of
transposon

Insertion

Mobile copy of transposon

Transposons move by means of a DNA


intermediate

Require a transposase enzyme


Can be copy and pasted (leaving a copy behind)
Can be cut and pasted (leaving no copy behind)

Two Types of Transposable Elements


Retrotransposon

New copy of
retrotransposon

Synthesis of a
single-stranded
RNA intermediate
RNA
Reverse
transcriptase

Insertion

DNA
strand

Mobile copy of retrotransposon

Retrotransposons move by means of an RNA intermediate


Uses a reverse transcriptase that uses RNA as a
template for DNA synthesis
Always leaves a copy behind

Genetic Drift
5 plants
leave
offspring

CRCR

CRCW
CWCW

CRCW

C C
R

CRCR

CRCR
CRCR
CWCW

CRCW
C C

Generation 1
p (frequency of CR) 0.7
q (frequency of CW) 0.3

CRCR

CWCW
CRCR

CRCR

CRCR
CRCR

CRCW

CRCR

CRCR
R

CRCR
CRCR

CWCW

CRCR

CRCW

C C
R

C C
R

2 plants
leave
offspring

C C
R

Generation 2
p 0.5
q 0.5

CRCR
CRCR

Generation 3
p 1.0
q 0.0

Demographic Bottlenecks
Complete loss of
the gold allele
and an
overrepresentati
on of the blue
allele

Original
population

Bottlenecking
event

Surviving
population

Hardy-Weinberg Equation
If p and q represent the relative
frequencies of the only two
possible alleles in a population at
a particular locus, then
p + q = 1 & p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
p2 represents the frequencies one of the
homozygous genotypes
q2 represents the frequencies the other of
the homozygous genotypes
2pq represents the frequency of the
heterozygous genotype

Species Concepts
Biological Species Concept
Morphological Species
Concept
Ecological Species Concept
Phylogenetic Species
Concept

Types of Reproductive
Isolation
Prezygotic barriers

Habitat
isolation

Temporal
isolation

Behavioral
isolation

Individuals of
different
species

(a)

Mechanical
isolation

Postzygotic barriers

Gametic
isolation

MATING
ATTEMPT

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Reduced
hybrid
viability

Reduced
hybrid
fertility

Hybrid
breakdown

VIABLE,
FERTILE
OFFSPRING

FERTILIZATION

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

(b)

(k)

(l)

Speciation
Original population

Allopatric speciation
gene flow is interrupted
or reduced when a
population is divided
into geographically
isolated subpopulations

Sympatric speciation

speciation takes
place in
geographically
overlapping
populations

Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
DNA
Ancestral
prokaryote

Membrane-bound
nucleus

Photosynthetic
prokaryote
Mitochondrion

Aerobic heterotrophic
prokaryote
Mitochondrion

Ancestral
heterotrophic eukaryote

Plastid

Ancestral photosynthetic
eukaryote

Sedimentary strata
reveal the relative
ages of fossils
The absolute ages of
fossils can be
determined by
radiometric dating
A radioactive
parent isotope
decays to a
daughter isotope at
a constant rate
Each isotope has a
known half-life, the
time required for half
the parent isotope to
decay

Fraction of parent
isotope remaining

Radiometric Dating

Accumulating
daughter
isotope
2

Remaining
parent
isotope

4
1

2
3
Time (half-lives)

16

Adaptive Radiations
Mammals underwent an adaptive
radiation after the extinction of
terrestrial dinosaurs
The disappearance of dinosaurs (except
birds) allowed for the expansion of
mammals in diversity and size
Ancestral
mammal
ANCESTRAL
CYNODONT

Monotremes
(5 species)
Marsupials
(324 species)
Eutherians
(placental
mammals;
5,010 species)

250 200 150 100 50


0
Time (millions of years ago)

Mass Extinctions

the result of change to


the global environment

1,100
1,000

25

900
800

20

700
600

15

500
400

10

300
200

100
0
0
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic
Era
C
O S
D
C
P
T
J
C
P N Q
Period
542 488 444 416 359 299 251 200 145
65.5
0
Time (mya)

Number of families:

Total extinction rate


(families per million years):

The fossil record shows


that most species that
have ever lived are
now extinct
Extinction can be
caused by changes to
a species environment
At times, the rate of
extinction has
increased dramatically
and caused a mass
extinction

How To Read Phylogenetic Trees


Phylogenetic trees
show patterns of
descent, not
phenotypic
similarity
It should not be
assumed that a
taxon evolved
from the taxon
next to it
Tree branches can
be rotated around
a branch point
without changing
the evolutionary
relationships

Branch point:
where lineages diverge

Taxon A
3

Taxon B
4

Taxon C

Sister
taxa

Taxon D
ANCESTRAL
LINEAGE

Taxon E
Taxon F
Taxon G

This branch point


represents the
common ancestor of
taxa AG.

This branch point forms


a polytomy: an
unresolved pattern of
divergence.

Basal
taxon

Clades & Cladistics


(a) Monophyletic group (clade)

(b) Paraphyletic group

A
1

(c) Polyphyletic group

F
G

Group I

3
Group II

Group III

D
E

Cladistics groups organisms by common descent


A clade is a group of species that includes an ancestral
species and all its descendants
Clades can be nested in larger clades, but not all groupings of
organisms qualify as clades

Examples of Phylogenetic Groupings


A paraphyletic
grouping consists of an
ancestral species and
some, but not all, of
the descendants
A polyphyletic
grouping includes
distantly related
species but does not
include their most
recent common
ancestor
Polyphyletic groups are
distinguished from
paraphyletic groups by
the fact that they do not
include the most recent
common ancestor

Common
ancestor of
even-toed
ungulates

Paraphyletic group
Other even-toed
ungulates
Hippopotamuses

Cetaceans

Seals

Bears

Polyphyletic group

Other
carnivores

Homology is similarity due


to shared ancestry
Analogy is similarity due to
convergent evolution

What shared traits are


examples of each?

Phylogeny of Living
Chordates
Echinodermata

ANCESTRAL
DEUTEROSTOME

Chordates

Cephalochordata
Urochordata

Notochord

Vertebrates

Myxini

Common ancestor
of chordates

Petromyzontida

J aws, mineralized skeleton


Lobe-fins

Actinistia
Lungs or lung derivatives
Dipnoi
Lobed fns

Amniotic egg
Milk

Mammalia

Amniotes

Reptilia

Limbs with digits

Tetrapods

Amphibia

Osteichthyans

Actinopterygii

Gnathostomes

Chondrichthyes

Vertebrae

Amniotes: amniotic egg,


rib cage ventilation

Tetrapods: four limbs, neck,


fused pelvic girdle

Lobe-fins: muscular fins or limbs

Osteichthyans: bony skeleton

Gnathostomes: hinged jaws, four sets of Hox genes

Vertebrates: Hox genes duplication, backbone of vertebrae

Chordates: notochord; dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits; post-anal tail

Clade

Description

Cephalochordata
(lancelets)

Basal chordates; marine suspension feeders that


exhibit four key derived characters of chordates

Urochordata
(tunicates)

Marine suspension feeders; larvae display the


derived traits of chordates

Myxini (hagfshes)

J awless marine vertebrates with reduced vertebrae;


have head that includes a skull and brain, eyes, and
other sensory organs

Petromyzontida
(lampreys)
Chondrichthyes
(sharks, rays,
skates, ratfshes)
Actinopterygii
(ray-fnned fshes)

J awless aquatic vertebrates with reduced


vertebrae; typically feed by attaching to a live
fsh and ingesting its blood
Aquatic gnathostomes; have cartilaginous skeleton,
a derived trait formed by the reduction of an
ancestral mineralized skeleton
Aquatic gnathostomes; have bony skeleton and
maneuverable fns supported by rays

Actinistia
(coelacanths)

Ancient lineage of aquatic lobe-fns still surviving


in Indian Ocean

Dipnoi
(lungfshes)

Freshwater lobe-fns with both lungs and gills;


sister group of tetrapods

Amphibia
(salamanders,
frogs, caecilians)

Have four limbs descended from modifed fns; most


have moist skin that functions in gas exchange; many
live both in water (as larvae) and on land (as adults)

Reptilia (tuataras, lizards


and snakes, turtles,
crocodilians,
birds)

One of two groups of living amniotes; have amniotic


eggs and rib cage ventilation, key adaptations for life
on land

Mammalia
(monotremes,
marsupials,
eutherians)

Evolved from synapsid ancestors; include egg-laying


monotremes (echidnas, platypus); pouched marsupials
(such as kangaroos, opossums); and eutherians
(placental mammals, such as rodents, primates)

Cephalochordata
Urochordata
Myxini
Petromyzontida
Chondrichthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Amphibia
Reptilia
Mammalia

Chordates

Every animal from this point until the end of the lecture is a
chordate

Cephalochordata
Urochordata
Myxini
Petromyzontida
Chondrichthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Amphibia
Reptilia
Mammalia

Vertebrates

Every animal from this point until the end of the lecture is a
vertebrate (chordate that has a backbone or at least vertebrae)

Cephalochordata
Urochordata
Myxini
Petromyzontida
Chondrichthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Amphibia
Reptilia
Mammalia

Gnathostomes

Every animal from this point until the end of the lecture is a
gnathostome (vertebrate that has jaws)

Cephalochordata
Urochordata
Myxini
Petromyzontida
Chondrichthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Amphibia
Reptilia
Mammalia

Osteichtyans

Every animal from this point until the end of the lecture is a
osteichthyan (gnathostome that has a boney endoskeleton)

Cephalochordata
Urochordata
Myxini
Petromyzontida
Chondrichthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Amphibia
Reptilia
Mammalia

Lobed Finned

Every animal from this point until the end of the lecture is a
osteichthyan (gnathostome that has a boney endoskeleton)

Cephalochordata
Urochordata
Myxini
Petromyzontida
Chondrichthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
Dipnoi
Amphibia
Reptilia
Mammalia

Tetrapods

Every animal from this point until the end of the lecture is a
tetrapod (osteichthyan with four limbs)

Flowchart of Factors Limiting


Distribution

Why is species
X absent
from an area?

Yes
Does dispersal
limit its
distribution?

No

Area inaccessible
or insufcient time
Does behavior
limit its
distribution?

Yes

Habitat selection

No

Do biotic factors
(other species)
limit its
distribution?
No

Water, Oxygen, Salinity,


pH, Soil nutrients, etc.
Temperature, Light,
Soil structure, Fire,
Moisture, etc.

Chemical
factors

Physical
factors

Yes
Predation,
parasitism,
competition,
disease

Do abiotic factors
limit its
distribution?

Global Climate Patterns


Atmosphere

90N (North Pole)

Low angle of incoming sunlight

23.5N (Tropic of Cancer)


Sun overhead at equinoxes

0 (Equator)

23.5S (Tropic of Capricorn)


Low angle of incoming sunlight
90S (South Pole)

Latitudinal variation in sunlight intensity

Global climate patterns are determined largely by solar energy and


Earths movement in space
The warming effect of the sun causes temperature variations, which
drive evaporation and the circulation of air and water
This causes latitudinal variations in climate

Global Circulation of Surface Water


2 Precipitation
3 Rain shadow
1 Cool air fow

Leeward side
of mountains
Mountain
range

Ocean

Rising air releases moisture on the windward side of a peak and creates a
rain shadow as it absorbs moisture on the leeward side
Mountains affect the amount of sunlight reaching an area
In the Northern Hemisphere, south-facing slopes receive more sunlight than
north-facing slopes
Every 1,000 m increase in elevation produces a temperature drop of
approximately 6C

Number of survivors (log scale)

Survivorship Curves
1,000

100
II
10
III
1

50

100

Percentage of maximum life span

Type I: Low death rates during early and middle life and an increase in death
rates among older age groups
Type II: A constant death rate over the organisms life span
Type III: High death rates for the young and a lower death rate for survivors
Many species are intermediate to these curves

Exponential & Logistic


Growth
Exponential
growth

Population size (N)

2,000

dN
=1.0N
dt

1,500

K =1,500

Logistic growth
1,500 N
dN
=1.0N
1,500
dt

1,000

Population growth
begins slowing here.

500

10

Number of generations

15

Life History Traits


A life history
entails three
main variables
The age at which
reproduction
begins
How often the
organism
reproduces
How many
offspring are
produced per
reproductive
episode

Organisms
have finite
resources,
which may
lead to tradeoffs between
survival and
reproduction
Ex: European
kestrels

Parents surviving the following winter (%)

Life History Traits & Trade


Offs
100

Male
Female

80

60

40

20

Reduced
brood size

Normal
brood size

Enlarged
brood size

Interspecific Interactions
Interspecifc
Interaction

Description

Interspecifc
competition (/)

Two or more species compete for a resource


that is in short supply.

Predation
(+/)

One species, the predator, kills and eats the


other, the prey. Predation has led to diverse
adaptations, including mimicry.

Herbivory
(+/)

An herbivore eats part of a plant or alga.

Symbiosis

Individuals of two or more species live


in close contact with one another. Symbiosis includes parasitism, mutualism and
commensalism.

Parasitism
(+/)

The parasite derives its nourishment from a


second organism, its host, which is harmed.

Mutualism
(+/+)

Both species beneft from the interaction.

Commensalism
(+/0)

One species benefts from the interaction,


while the other is unaffected by it.

Facilitation (+/+
or 0/+)

Species have positive effects on the survival


and reproduction of other species without
the intimate contact of a symbiosis.

Ecological Niche
A species
fundamental niche is
the niche potentially
occupied by that
species
A species realized
niche is the niche
actually occupied by
that species
As a result of
competition, a species
fundamental niche may
differ from its realized
niche

Experiment
Chthamalus
Balanus

High tide
Chthamalus
realized niche
Balanus
realized niche

Ocean

Results

Low tide

High tide

Chthamalus
fundamental niche
Ocean

Low tide

Defensive Adaptations
(a) Mechanical
defense

(b) Chemical
defense

Porcupine

Skunk

(c) Aposematic coloration:


warning coloration

(d) Cryptic
coloration:
camoufage
Poison
dart frog

(e) Batesian mimicry:


A harmless species
mimics a harmful
one.

Canyon
tree frog

(f) Mllerian mimicry:


Two unpalatable
species mimic
each other.

Venomous green
parrot snake
Nonvenomous
hawkmoth larva

Yellow
jacket
Cuckoo bee

Ant Acacia Tree Mutualism

(a) Hollow thorns that house stinging ants of


the genus Pseudomyrmex