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# Chapter 1

Limit and
Continuity

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this topic, students should be able to:

## Limit? Ive never

heard of it

lim f ( x) L
x c

f(x) approaches L
as x approaches c

limit of f(x) as x
approaches c is
L
7

lim f x lim f x L
x c

x approaches c
from left

x c

x approaches c
from right

10

11

12

13

14

## In this method, limit is solved by

inserting an appropriate value of x from left (left side
limit) and right (right side limit) and calculate the
corresponding
. f ( x)
By doing so, we are expecting to reach a certain
value
LIMIT

15

EXAMPLE 1
Evaluate lim 2 x by using table.
x 1

Solution:
x approaching 1 from

left
x

0.9

0.99

0.999

0.9999

1.0001

1.001

1.01

1.1

f(x)

1.8

1.98

1.998

1.9998

2.0002

2.002

2.06
2

2.1

lim 2 x 2

x 1

lim 2 x 2
x 1

lim 2 x 2

x 1

17

## 1.2 Finding Limit : Numerical

Method

EXAMPLE 2

sin x
Evaluate lim
numerically where x is in radian.
x 0
x
Solution:
x approaching 0 from

left
x
f(x)

-0.1

-0.01

-0.01

0.000
1

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

19

## 1.2 Finding Limit : Numerical

Method

EXAMPLE 2

sin x
Evaluate lim
numerically where x is in radian.
x 0
x
Solution:
x approaching 0 from

left
x

-0.1

-0.01

-0.01

0.000
1

f(x)

0.9983
3

0.9999
8

0.999
99

0.999
99

sin x
lim
1
x 0
x

sin x
lim
1
x 0
x

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

0.9999
9

0.9999
9

0.999
98

0.99833

sin x
lim
1
x 0
x

20

## 1.2 Finding Limit : Numerical

Method
EXAMPLE 3

x2 1
Evaluate lim
by using table.
x 1 x 1
Solution:
x approaching -1 from

right
x

-0.9

-0.99

-0.999

-0.9999

-1

-1.0001

-1.001

-1.01

-1.1

f(x)

-1.9

-1.99

-1.999

-1.9999

-2.0001

-2.001

-2.01

-2.1

x2 1
lim
2
x 1 x 1

x2 1
lim
2
x 1 x 1

x2 1
lim
2
x 1 x 1

23

## 1.2 Finding Limit : Numerical

Method
EXAMPLE 4

3x 2 2 x 8
Evaluate lim
using numerical method.
x2
x2
Solution:
x approaching 2 from

left
x

1.9

1.99

1.999

2.001

2.01

2.1

f(x)

9.7

9.97

9.997

10.003

10.03

10.3

lim f ( x) 10

x2

lim f ( x) 10

x2

## 1.2 Finding Limit : Numerical

Method

EXAMPLE 5

1
Evaluate lim
numerically.
x 0 x
Solution:
x approaching 0 from

left
0.000
1

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10000
1

1000

100

10

-0.1

-0.01

0.01

f(x)

-10

-100

1
1000 10000

lim

x 0

1
lim
does not exist
x 0 x

lim

x 0

28

## when does a limit exist?

lim f x lim f x L
x c

x c

29

EXAMPLE 1
Find lim 2 x

## using graphical method.

x 1

Solution:

lim 2 x lim 2 x 2

x 1

x 1

lim 2 x 2
x 1

30

f(x)

EXAMPLE 2
Find lim( x 2) 2

graphically.

x 1

Solution:

lim(
x 2) lim(
x 2) 9

x 1

x 1

lim( x 2) 2 9
x 1

31

EXAMPLE 3
2
x
1
Find lim
x 1 x 1

graphically.

f(x)

Solution:

x2 1
x2 1
lim
lim
2
x 1 x 1
x 1 x 1
x2 1
lim
2
x 1 x 1

32

EXAMPLE 4

x 1,
3

Given f ( x ) ,
2
2 x,

Find lim f ( x)

x 1
x 1 .
x 1

graphically.

x 1

33

## 1.2 FINDING LIMIT USING GRAPHICAL METHOD

EXAMPLE 4 (cont.)

x 1,
3

f ( x) ,
2
2 x,

f(x)

x 1
x 1 .
x 1

lim f ( x) 2

x 1

3/2

lim f ( x) 1

x 1

34

## 1.2 FINDING LIMIT USING GRAPHICAL METHOD

EXAMPLE 5
The diagram below shows the graph of function, f .
Find:
(a) lim f ( x ) , lim f ( x ) , lim f ( x )
x 2

x 2

x2

f(x)
4
3
2
1

-1

35

## 1.2 FINDING LIMIT USING GRAPHICAL METHOD

EXAMPLE 5 (cont.)
(d)

## lim f ( x) , lim f ( x) , lim f ( x)

x4

x4

x4

f(x)
4
3
2
1

-1

x
1

38

EXAMPLE 5 (cont.)

(d)

x 1
f(x)

x 1

x 1

4
3
2
1

-1

x
1

indeterminate
form
4

lim k k
x c

lim x c
x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

f ( x)
f ( x) lim
x c
lim

x c g ( x)
lim g ( x)

lim g ( x ) 0

x c

## lim( f ( x)) lim f ( x)

n

x c

x c

x c

lim 6 6
x 2

lim 11 11
x 3

lim x 2
x2

lim x 7
x 7

lim( x 4) 2 4 6
x2

lim( x 4) 3 4 1
x 3

Product Rule
The limit of a product of two
functions is the product of their
limits.
Constant Multiple Rule
The limit of a constant, multiply
by a function is the constant
multiply by the limits of the
function
Quotient Rule
The limit of quotient of two
functions is the quotient of their
limits, provided the limit of the
denominator is not zero

lim( x 1)( x 2)
x 2

lim( x 1) lim( x 2)
x 2

x 2

3 4 12

lim 2(4 x 1)
x2

2 lim(4 x 1)
x2

2(7) 14

lim( x 1)
x 1
lim
x 3

x 3
lim( x 3)
x 3
x 3

31 1

3 3 3

## lim( f ( x)) lim f ( x)

n

x c

x c

lim n f ( x) n lim f ( x)
x c

lim(3 x) lim(3 x)
2

x 1

x 1

x c

(3) 2 9

lim 5 x 2 4 lim (5 x 2 4) 20 4 4

x 2

x 2

## 1.4 Finding Limit : Analytical

Method

EXAMPLE 1
Evaluate each of the following limits.

(a) lim( x 5)
x 1

3 x 4
(d) lim

x2
x

(b) lim (3 x 5)

(e) lim

(c) lim 2 x( x 4)

x2 x 6
(f) lim
x 2
x2

x 2

x 1

x4

x 2 11

1/ 3

12

## 1.4 Finding Limit : Analytical

Method

EXAMPLE 1 (cont.)
Solution:

(a) lim( x 5) 1 5 6
x 1

(b) lim (3 x 5) 3( 2) 5 1
x 2

## (c) lim 2 x( x 4) 2(1 4) 10

x 1

13

EXAMPLE 1 (cont.)
Solution:

3(2) 4 10
3 x 4
(d) lim

x 2
23
5
x 3
(e) lim
x4

x 2 11

1/ 3

(4) 2 11

1/ 3

( 27)1/ 3 3

x 2 x 6 (2) 2 2 6 0
(f) lim

x2
x2
22
0

indeterminate form

14

## There are cases that we cant solve using the

limit laws technique indeterminate form

x 2 x 6
0
e.g. lim

x2
x2
0

f ( x)

0
0

If
, it cannot be evaluated direct substitution.
Use algebraic Technique such as

15

## 1.4 Finding Limit : Analytical

Method

EXAMPLE 2
Evaluate each of the following limits.

x2 x 6
(a) lim
x2
x2

x 1
(d) lim
x 1
x 1

x2 1
(b) lim
x 1 x 1
x 2
(c) lim
x4 x 4

3 h 3
(e) lim
h 0
h

16

## 1.4 Finding Limit : Analytical

Method

EXAMPLE 3
Evaluate each of the following limits.

x 2 25
(a) lim
x 5 x 5
t 9 3
(b) lim
t 0
t
3x 2 1
(c) lim
x 1 x 2

(d) lim
x 3

(e) lim
p 2

x 6 3
x3
1
3 p3 1

(f) lim 2 x 2 x 7
x 1

17

## 1.4 Limit at Infinity

lim k k
x

1
lim n 0
x x

1
1
lim 5 lim 5 lim 5 0 5
x
x
x x
x

Rule

18

## Notes: To evaluate the limit of infinity of rational function, divide the

numerator and denominator by the largest power of the variable that
appear in the denominator
EXAMPLE : Find

12t 2 15t 12
lim
t
t2 1

12t 2 15t 12
2 2
2
12t 2 15t 12
t
lim
lim t 2 t
2
t
t
t
1
t 1

t2 t2
15 12 lim 12 15 12
12 2

t
t t 2

t
t
lim

t
1
1

1 2
lim 1 2
t
t
t

15
12
lim12 lim lim 2
t
t t
t t

1
lim1 lim 2
t
t t
12 0 0

12
1 0

## 1.4 Limit at Infinity

EXAMPLE
Evaluate each of the following limits.

x2 x 6
(a) lim
x
x2
x 1
(b) lim
x x 1
x3 1
(c) lim
x x 1

11x 2
(d) lim 3
x 2 x 1

17

## 1.4 Limit at Infinity

EXAMPLE 1
Evaluate each of the following limits.

(a) lim 3 2
x
x

5x2 8x 3
(c) lim
x
3x 2 2

(b) lim 1 x

11x 2
(d) lim 3
x 2 x 1

23

## 1.4 Limit at Infinity

EXAMPLE 2
Evaluate
(a)

2x2 x 1

lim
2
x
x 3

2x x 1

lim
x
x 3

(c)

(b)

2x 1
lim 2

x x 3

(d)

lim
x 3 x 5

29

EXERCISE
Evaluate each of the following.

2x 1
(a) lim 2

x x 3 x 5

(b) lim
x

4
x

(c) lim 1 3
x
x

3 x 2 2 x 7
(d) lim

x
7x 5

3
2

(e) lim x x
x

(f)

lim

x 4 2
x 2 1
30

1.5 Continuity
Continuous
Without interruption
Flows nicely

## We will discuss the continuity of a graph

(of a function)

Continuity of a graph/function:
CONTINUOUS:

NOT CONTINUOUS:

1.5 Continuity
A function f(x) is said to be continuous if its
graph can be drawn with a continuous
motion of the pen (without lifting the pen)v

1.5 Continuity
f(x)
30
20
10
-30 -20 -10

x
0

-10

10

20

30

-20

1.5 Continuity
f(x)
30
20
10
x
-30

-20

-10

0
-10

10

20

30

-20

1.5 CONTINUITY

f(x)
15
10
5

-12

-8

-4

x
4

12

-5
-10

1.5 CONTINUITY

f(x)

8
4

-6

-3

x
3

-4
-8

10

## THE CONTINUITY TEST

A functiony f (x)
is continuous
x c at
if it satisfies the following conditions

f (c)
lim f ( x)
xc

lim f ( x) f (c)
x c

Failure to
meet one of
these
conditions,
then the
function is
discontinuo
us at c

11

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 1
f(x)

12

EXAMPLE 2

f(x)

13

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 3
f(x)

14

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 4
f(x)

15

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 5
f(x)

16

1.5 Continuity
EXAMPLE

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 6
Determine whether the function f (x) is continuous at
x 1, x 2, x 3
using continuity
test.
f(x)
4
3
2
1

-1

x
1

17

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXERCISE
Determine whether the function f (x) is continuous at
x 2, x 4, x 8, x 10 using continuity test.
f(x)

6
4
2

-1

x
2

10

18