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Limit and continuity

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Limit and

Continuity

LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this topic, students should be able to:

heard of it

lim f ( x) L

x c

f(x) approaches L

as x approaches c

is read as the

limit of f(x) as x

approaches c is

L

7

lim f x lim f x L

x c

x approaches c

from left

x c

x approaches c

from right

10

11

12

13

14

inserting an appropriate value of x from left (left side

limit) and right (right side limit) and calculate the

corresponding

. f ( x)

By doing so, we are expecting to reach a certain

value

LIMIT

15

EXAMPLE 1

Evaluate lim 2 x by using table.

x 1

Solution:

x approaching 1 from

left

x

0.9

0.99

0.999

0.9999

1.0001

1.001

1.01

1.1

f(x)

1.8

1.98

1.998

1.9998

2.0002

2.002

2.06

2

2.1

lim 2 x 2

x 1

lim 2 x 2

x 1

lim 2 x 2

x 1

17

Method

EXAMPLE 2

sin x

Evaluate lim

numerically where x is in radian.

x 0

x

Solution:

x approaching 0 from

left

x

f(x)

-0.1

-0.01

-0.01

0.000

1

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

19

Method

EXAMPLE 2

sin x

Evaluate lim

numerically where x is in radian.

x 0

x

Solution:

x approaching 0 from

left

x

-0.1

-0.01

-0.01

0.000

1

f(x)

0.9983

3

0.9999

8

0.999

99

0.999

99

sin x

lim

1

x 0

x

sin x

lim

1

x 0

x

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

0.9999

9

0.9999

9

0.999

98

0.99833

sin x

lim

1

x 0

x

20

Method

EXAMPLE 3

x2 1

Evaluate lim

by using table.

x 1 x 1

Solution:

x approaching -1 from

right

x

-0.9

-0.99

-0.999

-0.9999

-1

-1.0001

-1.001

-1.01

-1.1

f(x)

-1.9

-1.99

-1.999

-1.9999

-2.0001

-2.001

-2.01

-2.1

x2 1

lim

2

x 1 x 1

x2 1

lim

2

x 1 x 1

x2 1

lim

2

x 1 x 1

23

Method

EXAMPLE 4

3x 2 2 x 8

Evaluate lim

using numerical method.

x2

x2

Solution:

x approaching 2 from

left

x

1.9

1.99

1.999

2.001

2.01

2.1

f(x)

9.7

9.97

9.997

10.003

10.03

10.3

lim f ( x) 10

x2

lim f ( x) 10

x2

Method

EXAMPLE 5

1

Evaluate lim

numerically.

x 0 x

Solution:

x approaching 0 from

left

0.000

1

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10000

1

1000

100

10

-0.1

-0.01

0.01

f(x)

-10

-100

1

1000 10000

lim

x 0

1

lim

does not exist

x 0 x

lim

x 0

28

lim f x lim f x L

x c

x c

29

EXAMPLE 1

Find lim 2 x

x 1

Solution:

lim 2 x lim 2 x 2

x 1

x 1

lim 2 x 2

x 1

30

f(x)

EXAMPLE 2

Find lim( x 2) 2

graphically.

x 1

Solution:

lim(

x 2) lim(

x 2) 9

x 1

x 1

lim( x 2) 2 9

x 1

31

EXAMPLE 3

2

x

1

Find lim

x 1 x 1

graphically.

f(x)

Solution:

x2 1

x2 1

lim

lim

2

x 1 x 1

x 1 x 1

x2 1

lim

2

x 1 x 1

32

EXAMPLE 4

x 1,

3

Given f ( x ) ,

2

2 x,

Find lim f ( x)

x 1

x 1 .

x 1

graphically.

x 1

33

EXAMPLE 4 (cont.)

x 1,

3

f ( x) ,

2

2 x,

f(x)

x 1

x 1 .

x 1

lim f ( x) 2

x 1

3/2

lim f ( x) 1

x 1

34

EXAMPLE 5

The diagram below shows the graph of function, f .

Find:

(a) lim f ( x ) , lim f ( x ) , lim f ( x )

x 2

x 2

x2

f(x)

4

3

2

1

-1

35

EXAMPLE 5 (cont.)

(d)

x4

x4

x4

f(x)

4

3

2

1

-1

x

1

38

EXAMPLE 5 (cont.)

(d)

x 1

f(x)

x 1

x 1

4

3

2

1

-1

x

1

indeterminate

form

4

lim k k

x c

lim x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

x c

f ( x)

f ( x) lim

x c

lim

x c g ( x)

lim g ( x)

lim g ( x ) 0

x c

n

x c

x c

x c

lim 6 6

x 2

lim 11 11

x 3

lim x 2

x2

lim x 7

x 7

lim( x 4) 2 4 6

x2

lim( x 4) 3 4 1

x 3

Product Rule

The limit of a product of two

functions is the product of their

limits.

Constant Multiple Rule

The limit of a constant, multiply

by a function is the constant

multiply by the limits of the

function

Quotient Rule

The limit of quotient of two

functions is the quotient of their

limits, provided the limit of the

denominator is not zero

lim( x 1)( x 2)

x 2

lim( x 1) lim( x 2)

x 2

x 2

3 4 12

lim 2(4 x 1)

x2

2 lim(4 x 1)

x2

2(7) 14

lim( x 1)

x 1

lim

x 3

x 3

lim( x 3)

x 3

x 3

31 1

3 3 3

n

x c

x c

lim n f ( x) n lim f ( x)

x c

lim(3 x) lim(3 x)

2

x 1

x 1

x c

(3) 2 9

lim 5 x 2 4 lim (5 x 2 4) 20 4 4

x 2

x 2

Method

EXAMPLE 1

Evaluate each of the following limits.

(a) lim( x 5)

x 1

3 x 4

(d) lim

x2

x

(b) lim (3 x 5)

(e) lim

(c) lim 2 x( x 4)

x2 x 6

(f) lim

x 2

x2

x 2

x 1

x4

x 2 11

1/ 3

12

Method

EXAMPLE 1 (cont.)

Solution:

(a) lim( x 5) 1 5 6

x 1

(b) lim (3 x 5) 3( 2) 5 1

x 2

x 1

13

EXAMPLE 1 (cont.)

Solution:

3(2) 4 10

3 x 4

(d) lim

x 2

23

5

x 3

(e) lim

x4

x 2 11

1/ 3

(4) 2 11

1/ 3

( 27)1/ 3 3

x 2 x 6 (2) 2 2 6 0

(f) lim

x2

x2

22

0

indeterminate form

14

limit laws technique indeterminate form

x 2 x 6

0

e.g. lim

x2

x2

0

f ( x)

0

0

If

, it cannot be evaluated direct substitution.

Use algebraic Technique such as

15

Method

EXAMPLE 2

Evaluate each of the following limits.

x2 x 6

(a) lim

x2

x2

x 1

(d) lim

x 1

x 1

x2 1

(b) lim

x 1 x 1

x 2

(c) lim

x4 x 4

3 h 3

(e) lim

h 0

h

16

Method

EXAMPLE 3

Evaluate each of the following limits.

x 2 25

(a) lim

x 5 x 5

t 9 3

(b) lim

t 0

t

3x 2 1

(c) lim

x 1 x 2

(d) lim

x 3

(e) lim

p 2

x 6 3

x3

1

3 p3 1

(f) lim 2 x 2 x 7

x 1

17

lim k k

x

1

lim n 0

x x

1

1

lim 5 lim 5 lim 5 0 5

x

x

x x

x

Rule

18

numerator and denominator by the largest power of the variable that

appear in the denominator

EXAMPLE : Find

12t 2 15t 12

lim

t

t2 1

12t 2 15t 12

2 2

2

12t 2 15t 12

t

lim

lim t 2 t

2

t

t

t

1

t 1

t2 t2

15 12 lim 12 15 12

12 2

t

t t 2

t

t

lim

t

1

1

1 2

lim 1 2

t

t

t

15

12

lim12 lim lim 2

t

t t

t t

1

lim1 lim 2

t

t t

12 0 0

12

1 0

EXAMPLE

Evaluate each of the following limits.

x2 x 6

(a) lim

x

x2

x 1

(b) lim

x x 1

x3 1

(c) lim

x x 1

11x 2

(d) lim 3

x 2 x 1

17

EXAMPLE 1

Evaluate each of the following limits.

(a) lim 3 2

x

x

5x2 8x 3

(c) lim

x

3x 2 2

(b) lim 1 x

11x 2

(d) lim 3

x 2 x 1

23

EXAMPLE 2

Evaluate

(a)

2x2 x 1

lim

2

x

x 3

2x x 1

lim

x

x 3

(c)

(b)

2x 1

lim 2

x x 3

(d)

lim

x 3 x 5

29

EXERCISE

Evaluate each of the following.

2x 1

(a) lim 2

x x 3 x 5

(b) lim

x

4

x

(c) lim 1 3

x

x

3 x 2 2 x 7

(d) lim

x

7x 5

3

2

(e) lim x x

x

(f)

lim

x 4 2

x 2 1

30

1.5 Continuity

Continuous

Without interruption

Flows nicely

(of a function)

Continuity of a graph/function:

CONTINUOUS:

NOT CONTINUOUS:

1.5 Continuity

A function f(x) is said to be continuous if its

graph can be drawn with a continuous

motion of the pen (without lifting the pen)v

1.5 Continuity

f(x)

30

20

10

-30 -20 -10

x

0

-10

10

20

30

-20

1.5 Continuity

f(x)

30

20

10

x

-30

-20

-10

0

-10

10

20

30

-20

1.5 CONTINUITY

f(x)

15

10

5

-12

-8

-4

x

4

12

-5

-10

1.5 CONTINUITY

f(x)

8

4

-6

-3

x

3

-4

-8

10

A functiony f (x)

is continuous

x c at

if it satisfies the following conditions

f (c)

lim f ( x)

xc

lim f ( x) f (c)

x c

Failure to

meet one of

these

conditions,

then the

function is

discontinuo

us at c

11

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 1

f(x)

12

EXAMPLE 2

f(x)

13

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 3

f(x)

14

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 4

f(x)

15

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 5

f(x)

16

1.5 Continuity

EXAMPLE

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXAMPLE 6

Determine whether the function f (x) is continuous at

x 1, x 2, x 3

using continuity

test.

f(x)

4

3

2

1

-1

x

1

17

1.5 CONTINUITY

EXERCISE

Determine whether the function f (x) is continuous at

x 2, x 4, x 8, x 10 using continuity test.

f(x)

6

4

2

-1

x

2

10

18

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