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MPFI

(Multi Point Fuel Injection)

Introduction
In petrol vehicles carburetor is used for supplying air
fuel mixture to the cylinder
In response to the recent demand for cleaner
exhaust emission improved drivability and mileage
carburetor is not sufficient
In place of the carburetor MPFI system is used in
vehicles
MPFI system is injects fuel into individual cylinders
based on commands from engine control module
The MPFI gives higher output, faster throttle
response under varying driving conditions

Components of MPFI

1.
2.
3.
4.

The system has four major components they are


Air intake system
Fuel delivery system
Electronic control system
Emission control system
Air intake system
It includes air filter, throttle body, intake manifold,
and finally drawn into the combustion chamber

Air intake system


Throttle body
It consist of throttle valve, T P sensor, which detect
the throttle valve opening
Idle air control valve which supplies bypass air
depending on the engine condition

Fuel delivery system


It includes fuel pump, fuel filter and injector
Fuel pump
ECM controls its operation and centrifugal pump is
used to pump the fuel
The fuel pump also has a check valve to keep some
pressure in fuel feed line even when fuel pump is
stopped

Pressure regulator system


It keep the fuel pressure applied to the
injector 2.9kg/cm^2

Injector
Each cylinder have one injector
It inject the fuel into the inlet manifold according to
the signal from ECM

Electronic control system


The electronic control system consist of various
sensors which detect the state of engine and driving
conditions

Control systems are,


Fuel injection control system
In which ECM controls the timing of fuel
injection according to the signals from
various sensors
Injection time is calculated on the basis
of engine speed
Idle speed control system
It keep the engine idle speed as specified
at all times

Fuel pump control system


ECM controls the ON\OFF operation of
the fuel pump
Ignition control system
This system controls ignition timing
The ECM judges the engine conditions
by using signals from various sensors
selects suitable ignition timing
Controls of this system includes
Ignition timing at the engine start
Ignition timing after engine start

Radiator fan control system


Radiator fan motor is turned ON and OFF by using
relays
Radiator fan motor turned ON at below 98degree
Celsius and OFF at below93degree Celsius

Engine Control Module


It consist of micro computer, analogue\digital
converter
It controls fuel injector, IAC valve, fuel pump relay
.etc

Working

Functional division of MPFI

On-board diagnostic system


ECM diagnosis troubles which may occur in the engine
when ignition switch is ON and the engine is running, it
indicates trouble to the driver by flashing malfunction
indication lamp
And it stores the data about the trouble in ECM back up
memory

Emission control system


It includes evaporative canister

Evaporative emission control system


This is used to prevent emission of fuel vapour

Sensors used in MPFI


Manifold absolute pressure sensor
This sensor senses pressure change in the intake
manifold
The signals from the MAP is used by the ECM to control
fuel injection pressure

Throttle position sensor


This is connected to throttle valve shaft on the throttle
body and detects throttle valve opening

Intake air temperature sensor


It located on the air cleaner outlet hose and constantly
measures the temperature of air entering to the intake
manifold
By sensing the temp. the ECM adjusts fuel injection
quantity

Engine coolant temperature sensor


It is incorporated with coolant and measures the
coolant temperature

Oxygen sensor
Oxygen sensor is installed on the exhaust manifold

to detect the concentration of oxygen in the exhaust


gases
It is necessary to keep the air fuel ratio within a
narrow range, and keep it in a stochiometric air fuel
ratio

Vehicle speed speed sensor


The vehicle speed sensor is located on the
transmission gear box or speedometer

Cam shaft position sensor


Using this signal ECM identifies cylinder whose
piston is in the compression stroke

Crank shaft position sensor


ECM uses this signal for knowing the engine
speed and cylinder identification

Advantages of MPFI
1) More uniform A/F mixture will be supplied to each
cylinder; hence the difference in power developed in
each cylinder is minimum. Vibration from the engine
equipped with this system is less, due to this the life
of engine components is improved.
(2) No need to crank the engine twice or thrice in
case of cold starting as happens in the carburetor
system.
(3) Immediate response, in case of sudden
acceleration / deceleration.

Advantages of MPFI
Since the engine is controlled by ECM*
(Engine Control Module), more accurate
amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as
a result complete combustion will take place.
This leads to effective utilization of fuel
supplied and hence low emission level.

(5) The mileage of the vehicle will be


improved.

Conclusion
Almost all vehicles in India are changing to
the MPFI because of law emissions,
improved mileage and drivability
Since the engine is controlled by micro
computer more accurate amount of A/F
mixture will be supplied and as a result
complete combustion will take place. This
leads to effective utilization of fuel supplied
and hence low emission level.
It reduces wastage of fuel by the use of
sensors and other control systems