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Seminar

On
Laser Communications

Content

Introduction
How does it Work?
One-way Laser communication system
Application
Advantages
Disadvantages
Conclusion
Reference

Introdnuctio

Laser communications systems


are wireless connections
through the atmosphere.
They work similarly to fiber
optic links, except the beam is
transmitted through free space.
While the transmitter and
receiver must require line-ofsight conditions, they have the
benefit of eliminating the need

Laser Transmitter and Receiver


Optical fiber link
Laser Transmitter

Direct Link

Receiver

One-way Laser communication system

Laser Transmitter

The Transmitter involves a


signal processing circuit,
and a laser.

A laser diode is used to


create the laser signal.

Laser
Diodes
include
Photodiodes for feedback
to
insure
consistent
output.

Receiver
The receiver involves:

Telescope(antenna)
Signal processor
Detector
PIN diodes
Avalanche Photo Diodes(APD)
Single or multiple detectors

Modulation

AM
Easy with gas lasers, hard with diodes

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)


Used by Ramsey in their kit

PFM (Pulsed FM)


Potentially the highest bandwidth (>100kHz)

Gain Systems

Transmitter

Maximum output power

Minimum divergence

Receiver

Maximum lens area

Clarity

Tight focus on detector

Filters

Sun shade over detector

Shade in front of lens

Detector spectral response

Colored filters

Absorb ~50% of available light

Difficult to find exact frequency

Mounting

Mounts and stands need only be as accurate as beam


divergence
Good laser diodes will be 1-2mR (milliRadian)
A 32 pitch screw at the end of a 2' mount will yield 1mR
per revolution. Since quarter turns (even eighth turns)
are possible, this is more than accurate enough
Higher thread pitches allow shorter mounts which may
be more stable (against wind, vibration, wires)
1mR is 1.5' of divergence every 1000', 3' at 2000 ', etc.

Pointing

GPS and Compass


Scopes and Binoculars
Strobe lights, large handheld floods,
headlights
HTs to yell when laser light is seen at
remote location

Applications

Transmit voice for miles line-of-sight

Use weak signal modes for ?cloud scatter?

Transmit video with cheap pens

Transmit high speed data without WEP

Blind flies for easy extermination

Advantages

Ease of deployment
Transmit voice for miles line-of-sight
Can be used to power devices
License-free long-range operation (in contrast with radio
communication)
High bit rates
Low bit error rates
Immunity to electromagnetic interference
Full duplex operation
Protocol transparency
Increased security when working with narrow beam(s)
[citation needed]

Disadvantages

For terrestrial applications, the principal limiting factors are:


Beam dispersion
Atmospheric absorption
Rain
Fog (10..~100 dB/km attenuation)
Snow
Scintillation
Interference from background light sources (including the
Sun)
Shadowing
Pointing stability in wind
Pollution / smog

Conclusion

Laser communications offers a viable


alternative to RF communications for inter
satellite links and other applications where
high-performance links are a necessity.

High data rate, small antenna size, narrow


beam divergence, and a narrow field of
view are characteristics of laser
communications that offer a number of
potential advantages forsystem design.

References

www.studymafia.org
www.google.com
www.wikipedia.com

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