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APPLICATION OF OPERATIONAL

TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER USING


IC LM13700
PSPICE SIMULATION OF BASIC FILTER CIRCUITS AND
THEIR ANALYSIS

MENTOR ALOK KUMAR SINGH


BY -

SURYA MOHAN GUPTA


DTU/2K13/EC/171
VITTHAL SHARMA
DTU/2K13/EC/1
UDIT KUMAR
DTU/2K13/EC/1

INTRODUCTION :
Theoperational transconductance amplifier(OTA) is
anamplifierwhose differential input voltage produces an outputcurrent.
Thus, it is a voltage controlled current source (VCCS). There is usually an
additional input for a current to control the
amplifier'stransconductance.
The OTA is similar to a standardoperational amplifierin that it has a
highimpedancedifferential input stage and that it may be used with
negative feedback.

Schematic symbol for the OTA. Like the standard operational


amplifier, it has both inverting () and noninverting (+) inputs;
power supply lines (V+ and V); and a single output. Unlike the
traditional op-amp, it has two additional biasing inputs, I abcand Ibias.

PSPICE SIMULATION :
ORCAD PSPICE is a software environment to analyze
electronics circuits through various analyses on the circuits.
The simulation profile types in spice capture :
1) Dc sweep
2) Ac analysis
3) Transient analyses
4) Bias point
DC SWEEP :
It allows to do various differnet sweep of the circuit by specifying
an start value to an end value. Like voltage , current sweep.
AC ANALYSIS :
It allows to plot magnitude versus frequency for differnet inputs
in the circuit.
TRANSIENT ANALYSIS :
It allows to plot response for time inverval assigned during the
simulation.
BIAS POINT :
Indicate the voltage and current at certain points within the

ORCAD CAPTURE CIS :


OrCAD Capture (henceforth referred to as Capture) is a
schematic design tool set for the Windows environment. With
Capture, you can draft schematics and produce connectivity and
simulation information for printed circuit boards and programmable
logic designs.

We have used CAPTURE CIS to build different circuits of filters


such as low pass , high pass and band pass and notch filter. We
also worked out second order biquadratic filters having different
tuning capability and working on different range of frequency.

Low pass filter:


1. The transfer function of the low pass filter is given by the
expression
`

TLP (s)=gm/sC+gm
2.The 3db cutoff frequency of the low pass filter is given by the
equation

f(3db)= gm/2*pi*C
3. The linear adjustment of f(3db) with gm is attainable with the
circuit while maintaining a gain other then unity.
4. OTA provide considerable flexibility in determining the tuning of
both poles and zeroes of the filter.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM- LOW PASS


FILTER

OUTPUT :
OTA LOW PASS FILTER :

OTA HIGH PASS FILTER


The circuit employs only one OTA and one capacitor.
1. The transfer function of the low pass filter is given by the
expression
`

TLP (s)=sC/(s+gm)
TLP(s)=Hos/(s+wo)
where HO=1.
2.The 3db cutoff frequency of the low pass filter is given by the
equation

f(3db)= gm/2*pi*C
Or
Wo=gm/C
3. The linear adjustment of f(3db) with gm is attainable with the
circuit while maintaining a gain other then unity.
4. OTA provide considerable flexibility in determining the tuning of

HIGH PASS FILTER OF 1ST ORDER

OUTPUT :

OTA HIGH PASS FILTER

ALL PASS FILTER- ORDER 1


The circuit consists of only one OTA and two
equal valued capacitor.
The transfer function of this all pass filter is
given by
TLP = (s-gm/C2)/(s-gm/C1)
With C1=C2=C, Wo=gm/C.
This circuit provides unity gain.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM - ALL PASS FILTER

OUTPUT :

OTA ALL PASS FILTER

OTA-C ALL PASS FILTER WITH 2 OTAs


AND ONE CAPACITOR
The transfer function of this circuit is :
TLP = (s-gm1/C1)/(s+gm2/C2)
with gm1=gm2=gm, and C1=C2=C,
Wo=gm/C
This circuits provides unity gain.
And finds wide application as electronically
tunable two quadrants phase shifters.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF OTA-C APF:

OUTPUT : APF

OTA BIQUADRATIC FILTER (2ND ORDER )


CIRCUIT TYPE WO ADJUSTABLE

THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE IS GIVEN BY THIS EXPRESSION :

LPF :

VI=VA AND VB=VC=0.

HPF :

VI=VC AND VA=VB=0.

BPF :

VI=VB AND VA=VC=0.

FILTER : VFACTOR
ANDDETERMINED
VB=0.
I=VA =V)
C ARE
THENOTCH
POLE Q(QUALITY
BY
CAPACITIOR RATIO = (C2/C1)1/2
WO= gm/(C1 C2 )1/2

OTA LOW PASS FILTER OF 2ND ORDER

OUTPUT: BIQUADRATIC LPF

OTA HIGH PASS FILTER OF 2ND ORDER

OUTPUT: BIQUADRATIC HPF

OTA BAND PASS FILTER OF 2ND


ORDER

OUTPUT: BIQUADRATIC HPF

OUTPUT:
COMBINED PLOT OF LPF, BPF, HPF OF BIQUADRATIC FILTER

OTA NOTCH FILTER OF 2ND


ORDER

OUTPUT: BIQUADRATIC NOTCH


FILTER

ELLIPTIC FILTER

BOTH POLES AND ZERO CAN BE ADJUSTED IN A CONSTANT


Q MANNER.
THIS CIRCUIT IS SIMILAR TO ABOVE BIQUADRATIC FILTER
EXCEPT C2= HAS BEEN SPLIT TO ALLOW ADJUSTING THE
POLE-ZERO RATIO.

TRANSFER FUNCTION IS GIVEN BY

THIS CIRCUIT HAS APPLICATION IN HIGHER ORDER


VOLTAGE CONTROLLED ELLIPTIC FILTER DESIGNS.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM : ELLIPTIC FILTER

OUTPUT : ELLIPTIC FILTER

OTA LOW PASS FILTER OF 1ND ORDER


ADJUSTABLE ZERO

THE CIRCUIT ACTS AS A LOW PASS FILTER WITH


HIGH FREQUENCY GAIN DETERMINEDBY THE
C1:C2 RATIO.
BOTH THE POLE AND ZERO IN THIS CIRCUIT ARE
ADJUSTABLE THROUGH THE PARAMETER GM, BUT
THE RATIO IS CONSTANT.
THIS PRESERVES THE SHAPE IN THE TRANSFER
CHARACTERISTICS AND THUS REPRESENTS A
SHIFT IN THE RESPONSE.

OTA LOW PASS FILTER OF 1ND ORDER


ADJUSTABLE ZERO
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

OUTPUT: LOW PASS FILTER


ADJUSTABLE ZERO CHARACTERISTICS

GENERAL BIQUADRATIC FILTER:


THIS IS A SECOND ORDER BIQUADRATIC FILTER STRUCURES.
IN THIS CIRCUIT, SIMULTANEOUS CONSTANT ADJUSTMENT OF
BOTH THE POLES AND ZEROS ARE ALSO PRESENTED . THESE
GENERAL BIQUADRATIC STRUCTURES HAVE IMMEDIATE
APPLICATIONS IN VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED BUTTERWORTH ,
CHEBYSHEV, AND ELLIPTIC FILTER DESIGNS.

ATLEAST 4 OTA ARE REQUIRED FOR SIMULTANEOUS


ADJUSTMENT OF A PAIR OF POLES AND A PAIR OF ZEROS, BUT
HERE ONE MORE THAN THE MINIMUM, i.e. 5 OTA ARE USED.
HENCE THIS FILTER HAS CAPABILITY OF TUNING BOTH
W(FREQUENCY) AND Q(QUALITY FACTOR) OF BOTH POLES AND
ZEROS SIMULTANEOUSLY.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
GENERAL BIQUADRATIC : LPF

OUTPUT :

GENERAL BIQUADRATIC FILTER :


OTA LOW PASS FILTER (2nd order):

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
GENERAL BIQUADRATIC : HPF

OUTPUT :

GENERAL BIQUADRATIC FILTER :


OTA LOW PASS FILTER (2nd order):

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM : BUTTERWORTH FILTER

OUTPUT : BUTTERWORTH
FILTER

REFERENCES:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

OPERATIONAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER AND ANALOG


INTEGRATED CIRCUITS BY
TAHIRA PARVEEN
Linear integrated circuits
By D ROY CHAUDHURY & SHAIL B JAIN
Microelectronics by SEDRA & SMITH
RESEARCH PAPER:
ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN USING OPERATIONAL RL GEIGER
AND E SANCHEZ TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER
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