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IC LM13700

PSPICE SIMULATION OF BASIC FILTER CIRCUITS AND

THEIR ANALYSIS

BY -

DTU/2K13/EC/171

VITTHAL SHARMA

DTU/2K13/EC/1

UDIT KUMAR

DTU/2K13/EC/1

INTRODUCTION :

Theoperational transconductance amplifier(OTA) is

anamplifierwhose differential input voltage produces an outputcurrent.

Thus, it is a voltage controlled current source (VCCS). There is usually an

additional input for a current to control the

amplifier'stransconductance.

The OTA is similar to a standardoperational amplifierin that it has a

highimpedancedifferential input stage and that it may be used with

negative feedback.

amplifier, it has both inverting () and noninverting (+) inputs;

power supply lines (V+ and V); and a single output. Unlike the

traditional op-amp, it has two additional biasing inputs, I abcand Ibias.

PSPICE SIMULATION :

ORCAD PSPICE is a software environment to analyze

electronics circuits through various analyses on the circuits.

The simulation profile types in spice capture :

1) Dc sweep

2) Ac analysis

3) Transient analyses

4) Bias point

DC SWEEP :

It allows to do various differnet sweep of the circuit by specifying

an start value to an end value. Like voltage , current sweep.

AC ANALYSIS :

It allows to plot magnitude versus frequency for differnet inputs

in the circuit.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS :

It allows to plot response for time inverval assigned during the

simulation.

BIAS POINT :

Indicate the voltage and current at certain points within the

OrCAD Capture (henceforth referred to as Capture) is a

schematic design tool set for the Windows environment. With

Capture, you can draft schematics and produce connectivity and

simulation information for printed circuit boards and programmable

logic designs.

such as low pass , high pass and band pass and notch filter. We

also worked out second order biquadratic filters having different

tuning capability and working on different range of frequency.

1. The transfer function of the low pass filter is given by the

expression

`

TLP (s)=gm/sC+gm

2.The 3db cutoff frequency of the low pass filter is given by the

equation

f(3db)= gm/2*pi*C

3. The linear adjustment of f(3db) with gm is attainable with the

circuit while maintaining a gain other then unity.

4. OTA provide considerable flexibility in determining the tuning of

both poles and zeroes of the filter.

FILTER

OUTPUT :

OTA LOW PASS FILTER :

The circuit employs only one OTA and one capacitor.

1. The transfer function of the low pass filter is given by the

expression

`

TLP (s)=sC/(s+gm)

TLP(s)=Hos/(s+wo)

where HO=1.

2.The 3db cutoff frequency of the low pass filter is given by the

equation

f(3db)= gm/2*pi*C

Or

Wo=gm/C

3. The linear adjustment of f(3db) with gm is attainable with the

circuit while maintaining a gain other then unity.

4. OTA provide considerable flexibility in determining the tuning of

OUTPUT :

The circuit consists of only one OTA and two

equal valued capacitor.

The transfer function of this all pass filter is

given by

TLP = (s-gm/C2)/(s-gm/C1)

With C1=C2=C, Wo=gm/C.

This circuit provides unity gain.

OUTPUT :

AND ONE CAPACITOR

The transfer function of this circuit is :

TLP = (s-gm1/C1)/(s+gm2/C2)

with gm1=gm2=gm, and C1=C2=C,

Wo=gm/C

This circuits provides unity gain.

And finds wide application as electronically

tunable two quadrants phase shifters.

OUTPUT : APF

CIRCUIT TYPE WO ADJUSTABLE

LPF :

HPF :

BPF :

FILTER : VFACTOR

ANDDETERMINED

VB=0.

I=VA =V)

C ARE

THENOTCH

POLE Q(QUALITY

BY

CAPACITIOR RATIO = (C2/C1)1/2

WO= gm/(C1 C2 )1/2

ORDER

OUTPUT:

COMBINED PLOT OF LPF, BPF, HPF OF BIQUADRATIC FILTER

ORDER

FILTER

ELLIPTIC FILTER

Q MANNER.

THIS CIRCUIT IS SIMILAR TO ABOVE BIQUADRATIC FILTER

EXCEPT C2= HAS BEEN SPLIT TO ALLOW ADJUSTING THE

POLE-ZERO RATIO.

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED ELLIPTIC FILTER DESIGNS.

ADJUSTABLE ZERO

HIGH FREQUENCY GAIN DETERMINEDBY THE

C1:C2 RATIO.

BOTH THE POLE AND ZERO IN THIS CIRCUIT ARE

ADJUSTABLE THROUGH THE PARAMETER GM, BUT

THE RATIO IS CONSTANT.

THIS PRESERVES THE SHAPE IN THE TRANSFER

CHARACTERISTICS AND THUS REPRESENTS A

SHIFT IN THE RESPONSE.

ADJUSTABLE ZERO

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

ADJUSTABLE ZERO CHARACTERISTICS

THIS IS A SECOND ORDER BIQUADRATIC FILTER STRUCURES.

IN THIS CIRCUIT, SIMULTANEOUS CONSTANT ADJUSTMENT OF

BOTH THE POLES AND ZEROS ARE ALSO PRESENTED . THESE

GENERAL BIQUADRATIC STRUCTURES HAVE IMMEDIATE

APPLICATIONS IN VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED BUTTERWORTH ,

CHEBYSHEV, AND ELLIPTIC FILTER DESIGNS.

ADJUSTMENT OF A PAIR OF POLES AND A PAIR OF ZEROS, BUT

HERE ONE MORE THAN THE MINIMUM, i.e. 5 OTA ARE USED.

HENCE THIS FILTER HAS CAPABILITY OF TUNING BOTH

W(FREQUENCY) AND Q(QUALITY FACTOR) OF BOTH POLES AND

ZEROS SIMULTANEOUSLY.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

GENERAL BIQUADRATIC : LPF

OUTPUT :

OTA LOW PASS FILTER (2nd order):

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

GENERAL BIQUADRATIC : HPF

OUTPUT :

OTA LOW PASS FILTER (2nd order):

OUTPUT : BUTTERWORTH

FILTER

REFERENCES:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS BY

TAHIRA PARVEEN

Linear integrated circuits

By D ROY CHAUDHURY & SHAIL B JAIN

Microelectronics by SEDRA & SMITH

RESEARCH PAPER:

ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN USING OPERATIONAL RL GEIGER

AND E SANCHEZ TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER

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