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The Elements

Of Music
GCSE Music

LO: Students will know what music notation is and will be


able to use it to write their own music
Treble Clef this tells you where
the notes are on the stave

Time Signature the top number


tells you how many beats in a bar
and the bottom number tells you
how long each beat is

Stave

Reading Music: Treble Clef

Try to make your own musical words notating them on the sheet music given.
Remember you can only use the letters A B C D E F G to make your words.
Try to play your melodies what do they sound like?
Which do you prefer and why?

Reading Music: Bass Clef

Try to make your own musical words notating them on the sheet music given.
Remember you can only use the letters A B C D E F G to make your words.
Try to play your melodies what do they sound like?
Which do you prefer and why?

Rhythm
&
Metre

LO: Students will know keywords within Rhythm and


Metre and understand their definitions

Task: Rhythm & Metre Mix and Match Sheet


Match the KEYWORDS to the
DEFINITIONS
For any answers you dont know, use your
books or Google to help you.

LO: Students will know how rhythms can be notated and


will understand note value
Note

Name

Number of Beats

Semibreve

Dotted Minim

Minim

Dotted Crotchet

Crotchet

Quaver

Semiquaver

LO: Students will know how rhythms can be notated and


will understand note value

1
Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

*
*
*

&

*
*

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

&

*
*
*

&

&

*
*

Crotchets

Quavers

Minims

Rhythm Box
1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &
Rhythm
1

Rhythm
2

Rhythm
3

LO: Students will know and understand the concept of


dotted note value

Dotted note value =


Note value + half of the note value (the dot!)

Dotted rhythms usually go in pairs


They follow the pattern LONG-SHORT
The first note is usually the longest note
They are used a lot in Blues music

LO: Students will know and understand the difference


between simple and compound time

Compound Time
Feeling of 2 beats in a bar split into 3
sub-notes

Simple Time
Feeling of 3 beats in a bar split into 2
sub-notes

LO: Students will know and understand how different


note values relate to one another

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Re-draw one semibreve as crotchets


Re-draw one crotchet as semiquavers
Re-draw one minim as quavers
Re-draw one dotted crotchet as quavers
Re-draw one quaver as semi-quavers
What is the value of a dotted quaver?*
Listen and have a go at drawing this rhythm:
*Dotted note value = note value + dot (half the note value)

Harmony
&
Tonality

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Task

Write down as many definitions to the


words below as you can:

Tonal, Major, Minor, Modal, Atonal,


Key Signature, Modulation

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Tonal in a key
Major happy sounding scale/key
Minor sad sounding scale/key
Modal a scale that is not major or minor (white notes)
Atonal no key
Key Signature - sharps or flats at the beginning of a stave
indicating the key
Modulation change of key
Listening Task: Can you
identify by ear the
difference between Major,
Minor and Atonal melodies?

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Scales WHAT IS A SCALE?!


Scale Degrees:

1st Tonic - Key Note


2nd Supertonic
3rd Mediant
4th Subdominant
5th Dominant
6th Submediant
7th Leading Note
8th Tonic ( or Octave)

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Scales
Major Scale (C major):

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Scales
Minor Scale (A minor):

S S+T

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Task
Work out the notes needed for the scales of G
major, A major and Bb major
Work out the notes needed for the scales of E
minor, F# minor and G minor

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Key Signatures - #s
Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle
TRICK (major)!
Raise last sharp
by one semitone =
Key signature
Trick (major minor) = count backwards 3 STs)

LO: Students will know what Tonality is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Key Signatures - s
Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles Father
TRICK (major)!
Penultimate flat =
Key signature
Trick (major minor) = count backwards 3 STs)

CIRCLE OF FIFTHS

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Task
Write definitions to the words
below:

Diatonic, Chromatic, Consonant,


Dissonant, Chord, Triad, Pedal,
Drone, Cadence, Tierce de Picardie

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it
Consonance vs. Dissonance
Play the note C at the same time as the
following notes on your keyboards, listen
carefully and then record whether they
sound consonant or dissonant together

1) D

2) E 3) F

4) G 5) A 6) B 7) C

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it
Diatonic vs. Chromatic
Listen to the following 5 melodies. They are
all in C major. Try to work out if all of the
notes are diatonic or if one of them is
chromatic .

Bonus points if you can tell me WHICH


NOTE was chromatic (if relevant)

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it
Chord more than one note being played at
the same time.
Triad a chord with 3 notes. Intervals of a
3rd.

Primary Chords I, IV, V (major )


Secondary Chords ii, iii, vi, vii (minor )
TONIC (I), SUBDOMINANT (IV),
DOMINANT (V)

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it
Notes of
whole chord

CEG DFA EGB FAC GBD ACE BDF

5th note

3rd note

Notes of
Scale

Roman
Numeral

ii

iii

IV

vi

vii

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

Chords in C Major

3
1

ii

iii

IV

vi

vii

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it
Complete the following table for G major and then draw the chords!

Notes of
whole chord
5th note
3rd note
Notes of
Scale

Roman
Numeral

ii

iii

IV

vi

vii

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it
Complete the following table for A minor and then draw the chords!

Notes of
whole chord
5th note
3rd note
Notes of
Scale

Roman
Numeral

ii

iii

IV

vi

vii

LO: Students will know what Harmony is and will


understand the keywords associated with it

CADENCES: These are the musical equivalent


of punctuation in English.
Perfect (Full Stop): V I

Strong and final

Imperfect (Comma): ? V
Sounds unfinished

Plagal (Full Stop): IV I

Amen

Interrupted (!!!): V vi
Surprise!

LO: Students will know how to revise Rhythm & Metre


and Harmony & Tonality
TASK:

Create a revision quiz/crossword/word search for somebody


else in the class to complete!
It needs to include keywords for Rhythm and Metre and
Harmony and Tonality.
Make sure you understand all of the answers as you will be
marking the completion of your revision task.

Texture
&
Melody

LO: Students will know what texture is in music and will


identify different types of texture by ear
Monophonic
Homophonic
Find the
Can you find
Polyphonic
definitions for
listening examples
Contrapuntal
the words in this
to use for your
Imitation
list
revision?
Canon (round)
Unison
Antiphonal (call and response)
Octaves
Layering

LO: Students will know how to use texture keywords to


create an original composition using music technology
COMPOSITION TASK:
Use your Texture keywords from last lesson!
Choose one to explore in a composition using Cubase.
Create a melody and then manipulate (change) it in a way that
illustrates your Texture keyword!
Extension: make use of 2 or more keywords!

LO: Students will know how to use keywords to identify


melodies
3 Types of question in the exam:
1. Identify intervals
2. Fill in missing pitches in a melody
3. Describe melodies

LO: Students will know how to use keywords to identify


melodic contour
Melodic Contour SHAPE!
1. Conjunct
2. Disjunct
3. Ascending
4. Descending
5. Triadic
6. Scalic

Define these key words!


Extension: can you find
(or make?) examples of
what they sound like?

LO: Students will know how to use keywords to describe


melodic development
Melodic Development CHANGE!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ostinato
Sequence
Inversion
Retrograde
Imitation

Define these key words!


Extension: can you find
(or make?) examples of
what they sound like?

LO: Students will know what ornaments are and will


understand how they are performed

Find out what the following ornaments are:


What they look like
How they are played
1. Trill
2. Appoggiatura
What they sound like
3. Acciaccatura
4. Mordent
5. Inverted mordent
6. Turn
7. Inverted turn

LO: Students will know what ornaments are and will


understand how they are performed
Trill

Appoggiatura

Inverted Mordent

Turn

Acciaccatura

Mordent

Inverted Turn

Listening Examples

Timbre
&
Dynamics

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different instrumental families
RESEARCH TASK:
1) Family what it is, basic info
2) Instruments in the family what they are, some info
about each and a picture
3) Playing Techniques used for each instrument (or within
the family)
4) Musical example of each instrument to play to the
class!
Strings
Woodwind
Percussion Brass
Voice
Keyboard
Vienna Symphonic
Library

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different instrumental families: WOODWIND
Instruments that you blow
Recorder
Flute
Oboe
Clarinet
Bassoon

Made of wood
Recorder
Flute
Oboe
Clarinet
Bassoon

high pitch

low pitch

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different instrumental families: STRINGS
Made of wood
Has strings
Bow or pluck to play
Violin
Viola
Cello
D. Bass

High pitch
Low pitch

Violin

Viola

Cello

Double Bass

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different instrumental families: BRASS

French Horn

Trumpet

Instruments that you blow


Made of metal
Trumpet
French Horn
Trombone
Tuba

High pitch
Low pitch

Trombone

Tuba

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different instrumental families: PERCUSSION
Instruments that you hit
Made of:
METAL (glockenspiel, cymbals, triangle)
WOOD (xylophone)
SKIN (timpani, snare, bass, tambourine)
Some percussion instruments can change
pitch (xylophone, glockenspiel, timpani)
Some percussion instruments dont change
pitch (snare, bass, triangle, cymbals)

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different instrumental families: KEYBOARD

HARPSICHORD

PIANO

ORGAN

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different instrumental families: VOICE
Soprano A high female voice
Alto A low female voice
Tenor A high male voice
Bass A low male voice
Arrangements for these four voices are labelled SATB.
Other types of voice:
Mezzo-soprano A female voice between soprano and alto
Countertenor A very high male voice
Baritone A male voice between tenor and bass
Treble A high young boy voice

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different music technology instruments
RESEARCH TASK:
Instruments
1) Drum Machine
2) Mixing Desk
3) Sampler
4) Synthesizer
5) Sequencer

RESEARCH TASK:
Effects/Techniques
1) Reverb
2) Delay
3) Distortion
4) Chorus
5) Panning
6) Quantising
Extension: Find Musical
Examples

LO: Students will know and understand the timbres of


different music technology effects
Reverb
Delay
Distortion
Chorus
Panning

Examples of
music technology
effects!

LO: Students will know and understand what dynamics


are and how they can be used in music

DYNAMICS
=
VOLUME

Structure
&
Form

LO: Students will know how structure can be used in


Classical music
Structure

Definition

Musical Example

Binary Form
Ternary Form
Rondo Form
Theme and Variations
Ground Bass

Task:
Complete the table. Concentrate on definitions first.
Strophic
Extension: find the
musical examples to
use when revising!

LO: Students will know how structure can be used in


Classical music
Structure

Definition

Musical Example

Binary Form

AB (AABB)

Mozart Piano
Sonata in D major,
K. 284, mvt. III

Ternary Form

ABA

Twinkle Twinkle
Little Star

Rondo Form

ABACADA

Mozart Horn
Concerto No.4 in Eb
Major, mvt. III

Theme and
Variations

Theme-Variation1Variation2-Variation3

Bach Goldberg
Variations

Ground Bass

Repeated bass + melody on


top

Pachelbel Canon in
D

LO: Students will know how structure can be used in


Classical music
Structure

Definition

Musical Example

Arch Form
Minuet and Trio
Scherzo and trio
Sonata Form
Through Composed
Da Capo
Aria
Task:
Complete
the table. Concentrate on definitions first.

Extension: find the


musical examples to
use when revising!

LO: Students will know how structure can be used in


Classical music
Structure

Definition

Musical Example

Arch Form

ABCBA

Barber Adagio for


Strings

Minuet and Trio

Minuet-Trio-Minuet

Mozart Eine Kleine


Nachtmusik, mvt. III

Scherzo and trio

Scherzo-TrioScherzo

Chopin 4 Scherzos
for Piano

Sonata Form

ExpositionDevelopmentRecapitulation

Haydn Piano Sonata


No. 4 in G major, mvt.
I

Through Composed

Verse1-Verse2Verse3 (Different
Music)

Schubert Der
Erlkonig

LO: Students will know how structure can be used in


Classical music; using composition to aid learning
All Will compose a piece of music which uses a simple
structure (ABA/ABA1)
Most Will compose a piece of music which uses an
extended structure (ABACA/ABCBA)
Some Will compose a piece of music which uses a complex
structure (Theme and Variations)

LO: Students will know how structure can be used in


Popular music
There are 4 main types of structure that are used in
Popular Music. You need to find out what they are.
Structure

Definition

Musical Example

Song Structure
32 Bar Song Form
Call and Response
12 Bar Blues

EXTENSION:
Open YouTube.
Choose a song and
analyse the
STRUCTURE

LO: Students will know how structure can be used in


Popular music
Structure

Definition

Musical Example

Song Structure

Intro-Verse1-ChorusVerse2-Bridge-ChorusChorus-Outro

Adele Someone Like


You

32 Bar Song Form

AABA (8 bar phrases)

Crazy Patsy Cline

Call and Response

Call-Response-CallResponse

John Lee Hooker


Boom, Boom

12 Bar Blues

Chord Pattern for 12


John Lee Hooker
bars I-I-I-I-IV-IV-I- Boom, Boom
I-V-IV-I-I

LO: Students will understand what 32 Bar Song Form is