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ACIDS & bases

The Arrhenius Theory of acids and bases


The theory
Acids are substances which produce hydrogen
ions in solution.
Bases are substances which produce hydroxide
ions in solution.

The Bronsted-Lowry Theory of


acids and bases
The theory

An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor.

A base is a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor.

The Lewis Theory of acids and bases


This theory extends well beyond the things you
normally think of as acids and bases.
The theory
An acid is an electron pair acceptor.
A base is an electron pair donor.

The ph scale

Types of acids and bases

Strong acid: an acid that is completely ionized in aqueous solution

HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HCLO4, H2SO4

Stong base: a base that is completely ionized in aqueous solution

LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2

WEAK ACIDS AND BASES


An acid or base that is incompletely ionized in aqueous
solution
Carboxylic acids (acetic acid)

conjugate acid-base pair


O
CH3 COH
Acid

+ H2 O
Base

O
+
CH3 CO
+
H3 O
Conjugate base
Conjugate acid
of acetic acid
of water

conjugate acid-base pair

HANDERSON-HASSELBALCH

Handerson-Hasselbalch equation:

When the concentration of weak acid and its


conjugate base are equal, the pH of solution
equals the pKa of the weak acid.

When pH<pKa, the weak acid predominates.

When pH>pKa, the conjugate base predominates.

ACID-BASE BUFFERS

a solution whose pH resists change upon addition of either more acid or more base

Examples:

CH3COOH and CH3COON

H2CO3

NaH2PO4

Graph of buffer solution:

tittration

Atitrationis a technique where a solution of known concentration is


used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. Typically,
the titrant (the know solution) is added from a buret to a known quantity
of the analyte (the unknown solution) until the reaction is complete.

CONCLUSION

This scrapbook has allowed us to study the fundamental chapters of Biochemistry.

In the introduction of cells, we have:

defined the term biochemistry.

To differentiate, label, and state the fucntions of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and also
arrange the biomolecular hierarchy.

In the topic involving biomolecules and thermodynamics we have:

studied the definition and functional groups of biomolecules

Show metabolism process.

Explain the processes of thermodynamics

We also touched the topics on water, acids and bases.

The explaination of structure and properties of water and polarity.

Define acids, bases, pH, dissociation of acids, buffers,titration and the equaton proposed
by handerson-hasselbach.