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DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING

ON

POLYESTER

Among all kinds of manmade fiber

Polyester is the mostly used fiber all over


the world.
It was first manufactured in 1941 as a fiber

with the name TERYLENE


Its chemical name is polyethylene

terephthalate which is in short PET

In 1970s and 1980s Polyethylene Oxybenzoate

(PEB) was manufactured in Japan under the trade


name A-Tell .
During 1920s and 1930s when developing synthetic
fiber at Du Pont Company in America, Polyester was
first introduced as a group of polymer at Carothers
Lab.
A group of British scientist first manufactured
usable Polyester fiber called Terylene in 1941.
In 1952, Polyester came in market under the brand
name Dacorn by E.I. Du Pont Nemours Co.
In 1958 a polyester fiber was developed by Estman
Chemical Products, Inc.

Polyester fiber experienced a constant growth

until the 1970s. Later the sells of polyester


drastically declined due to negative public
image that emerged in the late 60s as a result
of the infamous polyester double knit fabric.
Today polyester is still regarded as a cheap
and uncomfortable apparel fiber.
Now-a-days polyester is slowly beginning to
change with the emergence of polyester
luxury fibers such as polyester micro fibers.

Polyester is a long chain polymer which is

composed of at least 85% by weight of an


ester of a substituted aromatic Carboxylic
acid, including but not restricted to
substituted terepthalic acid units, and Para
hydrioxy benzoate units. The Para hydroxy
benzoyate unites are ethelene groups in PET
polymer.

Polyester polymer forming reaction.

Manufact
-uring
process
of
A general
polester
lay out of
polyester
manufacturing
fig-1

Polyester chips forming and chips melting process.

Fiber
producing

A general lay

out of polyester
fiber
manufacturing
fig-2

Polymerization :To form polyester, dimethyl terephthalate is

first reacted with ethylene glycol in the


presence of a catalyst at a temperature of
302-410F (150-210C).
2 The resulting chemical, a monomer (single,
non-repeating molecule) alcohol, is combined
with terephthalic acid and raised to a
temperature of 472F (280C). Newly-formed
polyester, which is clear and molten, is
extruded through a slot to form long ribbons.

Drying
3 After the polyester emerges from

polymerization, the long molten ribbons are


allowed to cool until they become brittle. The
material is cut into tiny chips and completely
dried to prevent irregularities in consistency.

Melt spinning
4 Polymer chips are melted at 500-518F (260-

270C) to form a syrup-like solution. The solution is


put in a metal container called a spinneret and
forced through its tiny holes, which are usually
round, but may be pentagonal or any other shape
to produce special fibers. The number of holes in
the spinneret determines the size of the yarn, as
the emerging fibers are brought together to form a
single strand.
5 At the spinning stage, other chemicals may be
added to the solution to make the resulting
material flame retardant, antistatic, or easier to dye

Properties of polyester fiber

RESULTS

Tensile strength, N/mm


.
Elongation at break, %
.

73

Bending strength, N/mm2

Density, g/cm3

Moisture absorption(23 degree C, 50%


relative humidity)%

Glass transition temperature(Tg) degree C.

85
1.31

300

0.35
70
250

Chemical
effects
Effects of Bleaches

Reaction with Alkali

Remarks
Polyester has a good resistance to
household bleaches.
In room temperature it has a good
resistance to weak alkalies and has
a fare resistance for strong alkalies.

Reaction to acid

Depending on type it has an


excellent to good resistance to
acids.

Resistance to Mildew

Polyester fiber is absolutely


resistance to Mildew.

Resistance to Perspiration

Polyester has no significant loss of


strength from continue contact with
either Acid or Alkali.

Affinity to dye

Polyesters can be dyed in a very

Plastic bottles made from PET are excellent

barrier materials and are widely used for soft


drinks.
Sailcloth is typically made from PET fibers also
known as polyester or under the brand name
Dacron.
Non-oriented PET sheet can be thermoformed

to make packaging trays and blisters .


Polyester fabric is now using in a very large
scale.