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FIRST AID

IN THE SCHOOL SETTING

DEFINITION OF FIRST AID


Immediate care to sick or injured
individual given to prevent further
damage
First aid is often life-saving in nature
School staff is responsible until the
parent/guardian or paramedics arrive

Behavior Basics in First Aid


Stay calm, even if you are faking it
Prioritize injuries
Call authorities if needed
Crowd control
Only move victim when injuries have
been evaluated and it is safe to do so
Make decisions! Do things!
Assume you are in charge until another
more qualified person takes over

Reporting
For all major events, i.e. accidents,
illness, seizures, stings and allergic
students, notify school administration.
The parent/guardian must be notified
The teacher needs to complete an
accident report in the office.

8 First Aid Essentials


TWEEZERS
Tweezers are an
essential part of any
first aid kit,
particularly if you
enjoy hiking or other
outdoor
activities.
The safest way to remove
a splinter
or
a tick is with a clean pair of tweezers.
Disinfect the tweezers well before and
after each use.

ANESTHETIC SPRAY OR LOTION


For painful stings or itchy ant bites,
consider carrying an anesthetic spray or
lotion. These provide quick relief from mild
pain and itching.

HAND SANITIZER
AND GLOVES
If you or a friend
gets injured on the
go, the last thing
you want to do is
tend
the wound with dirty hands. Alcohol-based
gel or wipes can sanitize your hands when
soap and water arent readily available.
Sanitize before, slip on a pair of latex or
non-latex exam gloves, and sanitize again
after treating the wound.

PAIN
RELIEVERS
No first aid kit
would be
complete without
medication to
relieve pain
and
Aspirin,
acetaminophen,
and ibuprofen are
bring down
a
popular
over-the-counter
pain relievers.
fever. should not be given to anyone
Aspirin
under age 18 because of the danger of
Reyes syndrome.

GAUZE AND
TAPE

For cuts and


scrapes, you can
use gauze pads
to apply pressure
to small wounds
the bleeding subsides. When
untilused with
tape, gauze can also serve as a bandage
to cover and protect wounds. Adhesive
bandages of different sizes can also help
protect minor cuts and scrapes.

Wipes or
Solution for
Cleaning a
Wound
Before you
bandage, youll
want wipes
to clean
scrapes or wounds. Antiseptic
or
sprays are handy for cleaning injuries
when theres no clean water nearby.
Sterile water or saline, such as contact
lens saline solution, is good to have for
flushing out eye injuries and can be used

ANTIBIOTIC CREAM
An antibiotic cream or ointment has
several key uses. It can help protect
minor wounds from infection. It can keep
the area moist, which may promote
healing. And it can prevent the wound

ORAL
ANTIHISTAMINES
ANTIHISTAMINE
Be ready to counter
an allergic reaction to
insect bites or stings
with oral
Avoid antihistamine creams because
antihistamines.
they can worsen the reaction in some
people. People with severe allergies
should carry injectable epinephrine. It
can save a life in the case of anaphylaxis
-- a severe allergic reaction to triggers

Asthma
Asthma is a chronic condition that
involves inflammation and
narrowing of the bronchial tubes, or
airways, resulting in breathing
difficulty.
When inflamed the airways become highly sensitive
and react adversely to certain triggers that induce the
onset of an asthmatic attack.
Asthma is the most chronic childhood disease affecting
1 in 15 children. Its incidence, among adults too, has
increased dramatically in the recent years.

Asthma
known asthmatic having an attack
So in review. Have the student
Use the rescue inhaler
Cough to loosen the mucus in the airways
Relax breathing/keep everyone calm around
the student
If symptom does not improve quickly seek
medical attention

Call doctor if breathing does not improve


after treatment

Asthma
attack with no known history
Cough to lessen the mucus in the
airways
Relax breathing/keep everyone calm
around the student
If symptom does not improve quickly,
seek medical attention.

Minor Injuries
For minor cuts and scrapes the student
can administer his/her first aid with your
supervision
Wash hands and
always wear
gloves
If wound is dirty,
gently clean with
warm water and
soap followed with
antiseptic

Minor Injuries - continuation


Cover with band
aid or larger
adhesive dressing

Topical antibiotic
ointment can be
used to prevent
infection

Serious Wounds or Cuts


Apply direct
pressure by
pressing the wound
with your thumb
preferably over a
clean pad
Raise and support the
injured part so that it is above the heart
If wound continues to bleed, add more
dressing without removing original pad

Symptoms for shock


Anxiousness
Dizziness, light headedness
Weak, thready pulse
Stupor
Nausea
Vomiting
Sweating and pallor

Caring for shock

Lie student down


Elevate legs
Continue pressure if bleeding
Call medical attention
Notify parent and office

Nosebleeds
Sit Student down (do not lie down)
Pinch nostrils, lean forward and breathe
through the mouth
Pressure should be applied for at least
10 minutes
No nose blowing

Head Injury
Remember that heads are very vascular
therefore head cuts tend to be very bloody
Observe for levels of consciousness
(oriented to person, place and things)
Should observe for minimum of 30
minutes
Always notify a parent; recommend
medical care if change in status

Head Injury- continuation


If sever injury, keep student lying down
and quite with head and shoulders
slightly elevated
Suspect associated neck injury and
immobilize
Refer for medical care; may need to call
the doctor

head injuries
Concussion

Compression

Unconsciousness for a
short period, followed by
an increase in levels of
response and recovery.

Could have a history of


recent head injury with
apparent recovery, but
then deteriorates

Short term memory loss


(particularly of the
incident). Confusion,
irritability.

Levels of response
become worse as
condition develops

Concussion
Mild, general headache.
Pale, clammy skin.
Shallow / normal
breathing.

Compression
Intense headache.
Flushed, dry skin
Deep, noisy, slow
breathing.
(Pressure on the
respiratory control area of
the brain)

Concussion

Compression

Rapid, weak pulse.


(Blood diverts away from
the extremities)

Slow, strong pulse.


(Caused by raised blood
pressure)

Normal pupils, reacting to


light.

One or both pupils dilate


as pressure increases on
the brain.

Possible nausea or
vomiting on recovery.

Condition becomes worse.


Fits may occur. No
recovery.

Head ache

Most headaches are minor and can be treated


with pain reliever
Ask about hunger (breakfast, etc)
When did it start and where is painful
Headaches are of concern if they strike suddenly
and severely accompanied by fever, stiff neck,
mental confusion, double vision, numbness or
difficulty speaking
Notify parent if pain persists or the child looks
sick

Stomach ache
Ask about where pain is and if they feel
like vomiting?
How long have they had stomachache,
do they need to use bathroom
Did they have breakfast
Let student sit quietly and notify parent
if no improvement

Sore Throat
Anything else hurt; headache,
stomachache, feels feverish, etc
Does student look sick? If so send home
even in absence of symptoms

Bites
Animal bites are most likely caused by
domestic animals (cats and dogs)
Cat bites have higher risk of infection
If bite breaks skin, treat as minor wound;
wash thoroughly with soap and water
Apply antibiotic ointment and cover
Notify parent

Human Bites
More dangerous than animal bites with
greater risk of infection
Stop bleeding by applying pressure
Wash around thoroughly
Apply antibiotic ointment and cover
Notify parent and refer to doctor for
evaluation.

Insect bites and stings


Bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, fire
ants, mosquitoes and fleas are most
troublesome insects.
Swelling is caused by venom injected
into skin at time of vite
Try to remove stinger by scraping or
brushing off with a firm edge

Insect bites and stings - continuation


To reduce swelling and pain apply cold
pack
Be sure all cold packs are covered and
not placed directly on skin

Bee Sting Allergy


Watch for signs of allergy (welts, cough,
tightness in throat, runny nose)
For students who have a history of bee
sting allergy (health concerns list) or tell
you they have, administer bee sting kit
medication if available
If not call doctor and parent

Splinters and Blisters


Wash area with soap and water
Protruding, minor splinters may be
removed, easily accessible
Wash again, apply band aid
If embedded, clean area, cover with
band aid and refer to medical care
For blister, do not open

Dental Injury
Refer for immediate dental care
For toothache refer student to dentist
Over-the-counter pain relievers may
help until child can get to dentist

Skin Rashes
Most commonly seen rashes in schools
are due to either infection or other
systemic illness
Call the nurse about any suspicious
looking rash
Commonly seen rashes in schools
Contact dermatitis, impetigo, scabies,
eczema, ringworm, herpes simplex (cold
sore)

Seizures
Maintain a clear airway by turning
student on one side with head low to
encourage gravity drainage of secretions
When a seizure occurs, the main goal is
to protect the person from injury. Try to
prevent a fall by laying the person on the
ground in a safe area. The area should be
cleared of furniture or other sharp
objects.

Cushion the person's head.


Loosen tight clothing, especially
around the neck.
Do not try to place object in mouth

Seizures - continuation
Observe and be able to describe the
duration and focal elements of the seizures
Call doctor if seizure lasts longer than 5
minutes
Always notify a parent if seizure occurs at
school
Student will usually be sleepy a lethargic
after seizure (post-ictal state)

Fractures
If bleeding at the site, stop bleeding by
using direct pressure directly on the
wound with sterile or clean bandage.
Immobilize the area;
Apply cold wrapping ice or cold pack in
cloth. Observe for signs of shock
Notify parents immediately

Choking
Classic signs cannot talk, cough or
breath
Unable to communicate and is anxious
Send someone to call the doctor
Perform Heimlich maneuver

Eye
Foreign body
Flush eye with cool water for 5 minutes
If unable to flush out object and or pain
persists notify parent and advise immediate
medical care

Penetrating Injury
Do NOT wash eye or attempt to remove
embedded object. Cover with sterile
compress

Eye - continuation
Keep student quiet-move via stretcher
Call parent to seek immediate medical care

Blows
Ask about blurred vision or pain
Apply cold /cool compress

Fainting / Dizziness
Fainting lay person down with feet
elevated. Keep airway open.
Dizziness have person assume sitting
position with head low and take deep
slow breaths or lie down
Have student rest until recovered. Call
parent, send home accompanied.

The end

Submitted by:
Isolde g. ermita BSA IV

Submitted to:

Submitted by: