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Chapter 16.

Island Arc Magmatism

Arcuate volcanic island chains along


subduction zones
Distinctly different from mainly basaltic
provinces thus far
Composition more diverse and silicic
Basalt generally subordinate
More explosive
Strato-volcanoes most common volcanic
landform

Igneous activity related to convergent plate


situations- subduction of one plate beneath
another
The initial petrologic model:
Subducted oceanic crust is partially melted
Partial melts- more silicic than source
Melts rise through the overriding plate
volcanoes just behind leading plate edge
Unlimited supply of oceanic crust to melt
This simple elegant model fails to explain many
aspects of subduction magmatism

The Subduction Factory

From Tatsumi, Y. (2005)


The subduction factory:
How it operates in the
evolving Earth. GSA
Today, 15, 4-10.

Ocean-ocean Island Arc (IA)


Ocean-continent Continental Arc or
Active Continental Margin (ACM)

Figure 16.1. Principal subduction zones associated with orogenic volcanism and plutonism. Triangles are on the overriding
plate. PBS = Papuan-Bismarck-Solomon-New Hebrides arc. After Wilson (1989) Igneous Petrogenesis, Allen Unwin/Kluwer.

Subduction Products

Characteristic igneous associations


Distinctive patterns of metamorphism
Orogeny and mountain belts

Complexly
Interrelated

Structure of an Island Arc

Figure 16.2. Schematic cross section through a typical island arc after Gill (1981), Orogenic Andesites
and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag. HFU= heat flow unit (4.2 x 10-6 joules/cm2/sec)

Volcanic Rocks of Island Arcs

Complex tectonic situation and broad spectrum of


volcanic products
High proportion of basaltic andesite and andesite
Most andesites occur in subduction zone settings
Basalts are still very
common and important!

Major Elements and Magma Series


Tholeiitic (MORB, OIT)
Alkaline (OIA)
Calc-Alkaline (~ restricted to SZ)
Characteristic
Plate Margin
Series
Convergent Divergent
Alkaline
yes
Tholeiitic
yes
yes
Calc-alkaline
yes

Within Plate
Oceanic Continental
yes
yes
yes
yes

Major Elements and


Magma Series
a. Alkali vs. silica
b. AFM
c. FeO*/MgO vs. silica
diagrams for 1946 analyses from
~ 30 island and continental arcs
with emphasis on the more
primitive volcanics
Figure 16.3. Data compiled by Terry
Plank (Plank and Langmuir, 1988)
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 90, 349-370.

Figure 16.4The three andesite series


of Gill (1981). A fourth very high K
shoshonite series is rare. Contours
represent the concentration of 2500
analyses of andesites stored in the
large data file RKOC76 (Carnegie
Institute of Washington).

Figure 16.6. a. K2O-SiO2 diagram distinguishing high-K, medium-K and low-K series. Large squares = high-K, stars = med.-K,
diamonds = low-K series from Table 16-2. Smaller symbols are identified in the caption. Differentiation within a series (presumably
dominated by fractional crystallization) is indicated by the arrow. Different primary magmas (to the left) are distinguished by
vertical variations in K2O at low SiO2. After Gill, 1981, Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag.

Figure 16.6. b. AFM diagram distinguishing tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series. Arrows
represent differentiation trends within a series.

Figure 16.6. c. FeO*/MgO vs. SiO2 diagram distinguishing tholeiitic and calc-alkaline series. The gray arrow
near the bottom is the progressive fractional melting trend under hydrous conditions of Grove et al. (2003).

6 sub-series if combine tholeiite and C-A (some are rare)


May choose 3 most common:

Low-K tholeiitic
Med-K C-A
Hi-K mixed

Figure 16.5. Combined K2O - FeO*/MgO diagram in which the Low-K to High-K series are combined with the tholeiitic vs. calcalkaline types, resulting in six andesite series, after Gill (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag. The
points represent the analyses in the appendix of Gill (1981).

Tholeiitic vs. Calc-alkaline differentiation

Figure 16.7. From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Calc-alkaline differentiation

Early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxide


Probably related to the high water content of calcalkaline magmas in arcs, dissolves high fO2
High PH2O also depresses plagioclase liquidus more
An-rich
As hydrous magma rises, P plagioclase liquidus
moves to higher T crystallization of considerable Anrich-SiO2-poor plagioclase
The crystallization of anorthitic plagioclase and lowsilica, high-Fe hornblende may be an alternative
mechanism for the observed calc-alkaline differentiation
trend

Other Trends
Spatial

K-h: low-K tholeiite near trench C-A


alkaline as depth to seismic zone increases
Some along-arc as well
Antilles more alkaline N S
Aleutians is segmented with C-A prevalent
in segments and tholeiite prevalent at ends

Temporal

Early tholeiitic later C-A and often latest


alkaline is common

REEs

Trace Elements

Slope within series is similar,


but height varies with FX due
to removal of Ol, Plag, and
Pyx
(+) slope of low-K DM
Some even more depleted
than MORB!
Others have more normal
slopes
heterogeneous mantle
sources
HREE flat, so no deep garnet

Figure 16.10. REE diagrams for some representative Low-K (tholeiitic),


Medium-K (calc-alkaline), and High-K basaltic andesites and andesites. An
N-MORB is included for reference (from Sun and McDonough, 1989).
After Gill (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer-Verlag.

MORB-normalized Spider diagrams


Intraplate OIB has typical hump

Figure 14.3. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and


Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall. Data from Sun and
McDonough (1989) In A. D. Saunders and M. J. Norry (eds.),
Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol. Soc. London Spec.
Publ., 42. pp. 313-345.

MORB-normalized Spider diagrams


IA: decoupled HFS - LIL (LIL are hydrophilic)
What is it about subduction zone setting that
causes fluid-assisted enrichment?

Figure 14.3. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and


Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall. Data from Sun and
McDonough (1989) In A. D. Saunders and M. J. Norry (eds.),
Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol. Soc. London Spec.
Publ., 42. pp. 313-345.

Figure 16-11a. MORB-normalized spider diagrams for


selected island arc basalts. Using the normalization and
ordering scheme of Pearce (1983) with LIL on the left and
HFS on the right and compatibility increasing outward from
Ba-Th. Data from BVTP. Composite OIB from Fig 14-3 in
yellow.

Isotopes
New Britain, Marianas, Aleutians, and South Sandwich volcanics
plot within a surprisingly limited range of DM

Figure 16.12. Nd-Sr


isotopic variation in some
island arc volcanics.
MORB and mantle array
from Figures 13-11 and
10-15. After Wilson
(1989), Arculus and
Powell (1986), Gill
(1981), and McCulloch et
al. (1994). Atlantic
sediment data from
White et al. (1985).

Pb is quite scarce in the mantle

Low-Pb mantle-derived melts susceptible to Pb contamination

U, Pb, and Th are concentrated in continental crust (high radiogenic


daughter Pb isotopes)

204

Oceanic crust also has elevated U and Th content (compared to the


mantle)

Sediments derived from oceanic and continental crust

Pb is a sensitive measure of crustal (including sediment) components in


mantle isotopic systems

93.7% of natural U is 238U, so 206Pb/204Pb will be most sensitive to a


crustal-enriched component

Pb non-radiogenic: 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb increase as


U and Th decay

9-20
9-21
9-22

U 234U 206Pb
235
U 207Pb
232
Th 208Pb
238

H
I
M
U

Figure 16.13. Variation in 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb for oceanic island arc volcanics. Included are the isotopic reservoirs and the
Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) proposed in Chapter 14. The geochron represents the mutual evolution of
207
Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb in a single-stage homogeneous reservoir. Data sources listed in Wilson (1989).

10

Be created by cosmic rays + oxygen and nitrogen in upper atmos.


Earth by precipitation
Readily clay-rich oceanic sediments
Half-life of only 1.5 Ma

Long enough to be subducted

After about 10 Ma 10Be is no longer detectable

Not a part of main mantle systems

Be/9Be averages about 5000 x 10-11 in the uppermost


oceanic sediments
10

In mantle-derived MORB and OIB magmas, & continental

crust, 10Be is below detection limits (<1 x 106 atom/g) and


10
Be/9Be is <5 x 10-14

Boron is a stable element


Very brief residence time deep in subduction zones
B in recent sediments is high (50-150 ppm), but has a greater
affinity for altered oceanic crust (10-300 ppm)
In MORB and OIB it rarely exceeds 2-3 ppm

10

Be/Betotal vs. B/Betotal diagram (Betotal 9Be because 10Be so rare)

Figure 16.14. 10Be/Be(total)


vs. B/Be for six arcs. After
Morris (1989) Carnegie Inst.
of Washington Yearb., 88,
111-123.

Petrogenesis of Island Arc Magmas


Why is subduction zone magmatism a paradox?

Main variables that can affect the isotherms in subduction


zone systems:
1) Rate of subduction
2) Age of subduction zone
3) Age of subducting slab
4) Extent to which subducting slab induces flow in the
mantle wedge
5) Effects of frictional shear heating along W-B zone
Other factors, such as:
Dip of slab
Endothermic metamorphic reactions
Metamorphic fluid flow
are now thought to play only a minor role

Typical thermal model for a subduction zone


Isotherms will be higher (i.e. the system will be hotter) if
a) Convergence rate is slower
b) Subducted slab is young and near the ridge (warmer)
c) Arc is young (< 50-100 Ma according to Peacock, 1991)

yellow curves
= mantle flow

Figure 16.15. Cross section of a


subduction zone showing
isotherms (red-after Furukawa,
1993, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 83098319) and mantle flow lines
(yellow- after Tatsumi and
Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford).

The principal source components IA magmas

1. Crustal portion of the subducted slab


1a Altered oceanic crust (hydrated by circulating seawater,
and metamorphosed in large part to greenschist facies)
1b Subducted oceanic and forearc sediments
1c Seawater trapped in pore spaces

Figure 16.15. Cross section of a


subduction zone showing
isotherms (red-after Furukawa,
1993, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 83098319) and mantle flow lines
(yellow- after Tatsumi and
Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford).

The principal source components IA magmas


2. Mantle wedge between slab and arc crust
3. Arc crust
4. Lithospheric mantle of subducting plate
5. Asthenosphere beneath slab

Figure 16.15. Cross section of a


subduction zone showing
isotherms (red-after Furukawa,
1993, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 83098319) and mantle flow lines
(yellow- after Tatsumi and
Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell. Oxford).

Left with the subducted crust and mantle wedge


Trace element and isotopic data both contribute
to arc magmatism.
How, and to what extent?
Dry peridotite solidus too high
LIL/HFS ratios of arc magmas water plays a
significant role in arc magmatism

Sequence of pressures and temperatures a rock subjected to


during burial, subduction, metamorphism, uplift, etc. is called
a pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path

P-T-t paths for subducted crust


Based on subduction rate of 3 cm/yr
(length of each curve = ~15 Ma)
Subducted Crust
Yellow paths =
various arc ages
Red paths =
different ages of
subducted slab
Figure 16.16. Subducted crust
pressure-temperature-time (P-Tt) paths for various situations of
arc age (yellow curves) and age
of subducted lithosphere (red
curves, for a mature ca. 50 Ma
old arc) assuming a subduction
rate of 3 cm/yr (Peacock, 1991,
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,
335, 341-353).

Add solidi for dry and water-saturated melting of basalt


and dehydration curves of likely hydrous phases
Subducted Crust

Figure 16.16. Subducted crust


pressure-temperature-time (P-Tt) paths for various situations of
arc age (yellow curves) and age
of subducted lithosphere (red
curves, for a mature ca. 50 Ma
old arc) assuming a subduction
rate of 3 cm/yr (Peacock, 1991).
Included are some pertinent
reaction curves, including the
wet and dry basalt solidi (Figure
7-20), the dehydration of
hornblende (Lambert and
Wyllie, 1968, 1970, 1972),
chlorite + quartz (Delaney and
Helgeson, 1978). Winter (2001).
An Introduction to Igneous and
Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.

Mature arcs (lithosphere > 25 Ma): Dehydration D releases water in


No slab melting!
Slab melting M in
arcs subducting
young lithosphere.
Dehydration of chlorite
or amphibole releases
water above the wet
solidus (Mg-rich)
andesites directly.

Subducted Crust

Newer models allow for temperature and stress dependence of mantle


wedge viscosity. Indicates much higher temperatures in the
shallowest part of the subducted slab.

Figure 16.17. P-T-t paths at a depth of 7 km into the


slab (subscript = 1) and at the slab/mantle-wedge
interface (subscript = 2) predicted by several
published dynamic models of fairly rapid subduction
(9-10 cm/yr). ME= Molnar and Englands (1992)
analytical solution with no wedge convection. PW =
Peacock and Wang (1999) isoviscous numeric model.
vK = van Keken et al. (2002a) isoviscous remodel of
PW with improved resolution. vKT = van Keken et al.
(2002a) model with non-Newtonian temperature- and
stress-dependent wedge viscosity. After van Keken et
al. (2002a) AGU with permission.

Subducted Crust
Slab melting in
mature arcs no
longer precluded
by models.
Debate renewed.

LIL/HFS trace element data underscore the


importance of slab-derived water and a
MORB-like mantle wedge source
Flat HREE pattern argues against a garnetbearing (eclogite) source
Modern opinion has swung toward the nonmelted slab for most cases

Mantle Wedge P-T-t Paths

Amphibole-bearing hydrated peridotite should melt at ~ 120 km


Phlogopite-bearing hydrated peridotite should melt at ~ 200 km
second arc behind first?

Figure 16.19. Calculated P-T-t paths for


peridotite in the mantle wedge as it follows paths
similar to the flow lines in Fig 16.15. Included
are dehydration curves for serpentine, talc,
pargasite, and phlogopite + diopside +
orthopyroxene. Also the P-T-t path range for the
subducted crust in a mature arc, and the wet and
dry solidi for peridotite. Subducted crust
dehydrates, and water is transferred to the wedge
(labeled arrows). Areas in which the dehydration
curves are crossed by the P-T-t paths below the
wet solidus for peridotite are stippled and
labeled D for dehydration. Areas in which the
dehydration curves are crossed above the wet
solidus are hatched and labeled M for melting.
Note that although the slab crust usually
dehydrates, the wedge peridotite melts as
pargasite dehydrates (Millhollen et al., 1974)
above the wet solidus. An alternative model
involves dehydration of serpentine chlorite
nearer the wedge tip (lower-case d) with H2O
rising into hotter portions of the wedge (gray
arrow) until H2O-exess solidus is crossed (lowercase m). A second melting may also occur as
phlogopite dehydrates in the presence of two
pyroxenes (Sudo, 1988). After Peacock (1991),
Tatsumi and Eggins (1995). Winter (2001). An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic
Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Crust and
Mantle
Wedge

Island Arc Petrogenesis

Figure 16.18. A proposed


model for subduction zone
magmatism with particular
reference to island arcs.
Dehydration of slab crust
causes hydration of the
mantle (violet), which
undergoes partial melting as
amphibole (A) and
phlogopite (B) dehydrate.
From Tatsumi (1989), J.
Geophys. Res., 94, 4697-4707
and Tatsumi and Eggins
(1995). Subduction Zone
Magmatism. Blackwell.
Oxford.

A multi-stage, multi-source process

Mantle wedge HFS and other depleted and


compatible element characteristics
Slab dehydration (and perhaps melting) LIL, 10Be,
B, etc. enrichments + enriched Nd, Sr, and Pb
isotopic signatures
These components, plus other dissolved silicate
materials, are transferred to the wedge in a fluid
phase (or melt in some cases?)

Phlogopite is stable beyond amphibole breakdown


Wedge P-T-t paths reach phlogopite dehydration at ~ 200 km depth

Fractional crystallization takes place at a number of levels

From Peacock (2003)


Geophysical
Monograph 138 Am.
Geophys. Union