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Organizational Culture defined :

Organizational culture is the collective behavior of humans who are


part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to
their actions.
Culture includes the behavior, values, beliefs, visions, norms,
working language, systems and habits etc.
It is also the pattern of such collective behaviors and assumptions
that are taught to new organizational members as a way of
perceiving, and even thinking and feeling.
Organizational culture refers to the patterns of beliefs, values and
learned ways of coping with experience that have developed during
the course often organizations history, and which tend to be
manifested in its material arrangements and in the behaviors of its
members (Schein, 1992; Thornhill et al., 1999).
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Cultural Perspectives;
Integration
Differentiation
Fragmentation

Strategies for Cultural Change


Top-Down Approach
Bottom-Up Approach
1. Start to ensure commitment to the change by involving people in defining the
problems
2. Work jointly to develop a vision for the future of the organization
3. Work towards common agreement of the vision, and skills and actions to carry
it forward
4. Spread the changes out to other areas of the organization
5. Confirm changes by ensuring that policies procedures and structures support
them
6. Evaluate outcomes of changes an amend vision and actions as necessary

Strategies for Cultural Change


Top-Down Approach
Bottom-Up Approach

DuPont vs ICI : Case Study

Slide
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Hofstede Research:
Some
Issues
Hofstede's methodology:

Study based on IBM: 64 national subsidiaries, 116,000


workers (not just managers), three world regions from 1967
to 1973

IBM values may overwhelm national values

Yet, if IBM culture so overwhelming, differences across


countries may be attributable to national culture...

Limited dimensions
Researcher bias? Western stereotypes and culturally
biased conclusions?

BUT..Many recent studies validate Hofstedes dimensions

How Culture is Learned?

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Culture is Learned through;


Religion
Religion influence a society's behaviour in strong way and helps answer the question
why people behave rather than how they behave.
Education
Education refers to the transmission of skills, ideas and attitudes as well as
training in particular disciplines. Education can transmit cultural ideas or be used for
change, for example the local university can build up an economy's performance.
Social Organization
Refers to the way people relate to each other, for example, extended families,
units, kinship. In some countries kinship may be a tribe and so segmentation may
have to be based on this.
Other Sources Media, Internet and literary sources etc
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