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PRESENTATION ON

AUTOMATION

AUTOMATION
What is AUTOMATION ?
As the name suggest Automation means to
perform automatic operations by means of different
kinds of machines.
Automation is the use of control systems and
information technologies to reduce the need for
human work in the production of goods and services.
In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step
beyond mechanization.
It is used to reduce human interference and an efforts.

AUTOMATION
Tools of Automation
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
Human Machine Interface (HMI) or Touch Screen (TS)
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)

AUTOMATION
ADVANTAGES : ~
Replacing human operators in tasks that involve
hard physical or monotonous work.
Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous
environments.
Performing tasks that are beyond human
capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
Economy improvement: Automation may improve
in economy of enterprises, society or most of
humanity.

AUTOMATION
DISADVANTAGES : ~
Unemployment rate increases due to machines
replacing humans and putting those humans out of
their jobs.
Technical Limitation
Security Threats
High initial cost.

PLC
What is PLC ?
PLC - programmable logic controller
A Programmable Logic Controller, or PLC for short,
is simply a special computer device used for
industrial control systems. They are used in many
industries such as oil refineries, manufacturing lines,
conveyor systems and so on.
PLC implements logic control functions by means of
a program.

PLC
How does a PLC differ from a computer ?
A computer is optimized for calculation and
display tasks.
A computer is programmed by specialists
A PLC is designed for (logic) control and
regulation tasks.
A PLC is programmed by non-specialists
A PLC is
environment.

well

adapted

to

industrial

PLC
Components of PLC : ~

PLC
Components of PLC : ~
1. Inputs Circuits
2. Outputs Circuits
3. CPU (Central Processing Unit )
4. Memory for program and data storage
5. Programming device
6. Communication Device
7. Power Supply

PLC
1. PLC inputs : ~
ANALOG inputs

DIGITAL inputs

Pressure Transducer

Push buttons

Flow meter

Sensors

Thermocouples

Selector switches

PLC
PLC outputs : ~
ANALOG outputs

DIGITAL outputs

Mass flow controller

LEDs

Pressure regulator

Small motors

Position controller

Relays

PLC
Memory for program and data storage : ~
Memories used: RAM Random access memory
Volatile
Made up of metal oxide semiconductor
lose it's information if power is removed.

ROM Read only memory


Non-volatile
don't need an external power source to
keep information

PLC
Power Supply : ~
A power supply of 120v ac is typically used to drive
the PLC (some units operate on 240v ac).
The power supply converts the 120v ac into dc
voltages of +5v.
These low voltages are used to operate equipment
that many have much higher voltage and power
ratings than the PLC itself.

PLC
Programming In PLC :~
Languages used in PLC for the purpose of programming are
1. Ladder language
2. Functional Block Diagram (FBD)
3. Instructional List (IL)
4. Drive Functional Block (DFB)
5. Structural test language

PLC
Ladder language used in PLC programming
There are two PLC in which ladder programming
is used : ZELIO PLC : - It uses Zelio soft 2 software for
the programming.
DELTA PLC : - It uses WPL soft software for
their programming.

PLC
ZELIO PLC

The softwares used for different types of Zelio PLCs are


as follows: Zelio 1- non expandable- zelio soft 1
Zelio 2- non expandable- zelio soft 2
Zelio 3- expandable- zelio soft 2

PLC
Parameters used in Zelio and delta PLC in
ladder programming
Parameters

ZELIO plc

Inputs

In

Outputs

Qn

DELTA plc
Xn
Yn

NC of input
NO of input
Timer

Tt1, t1

command has to be provided


(e.g.- TMR T0 k150)

PLC
Zelio soft 2 ladder programming
The various parameters used in zelio soft 2 while
operating ladder program and their relationship
amongst them are as follows: INPUT CONTACT
OUTPUT CONTACT
INTERLOCKING
MEMORY COIL
LATCHING
TIMER
COUNTER

PLC
INPUT AND OUTPUT CONTACT
Inputs in Zelio soft 2 is represented by I1, I2, I3,I5,I6.
Inputs are further classified as: NORMALLY CLOSED
NORMALLY OPEN

PLC
Examples for Normally open contact

PLC
Example of Normally closed contact

PLC
INTERLOCKING
Interlocking means to interlock something by placing
NC of coil or input in front. The concept of interlocking
reduces the complexity in PLC programming

Interlocking in ladder programming means whenever


we want to off some output by input or any type coil,
then we have to place NC of that input or a coil in front
of output which we want to off.

PLC
Example of Interlocking

PLC
MEMORY COIL

Memory coil in ladder programming is used for


reversing the contacts whenever coil is get
energized.

In ladder programming memory coil is represented


by M1 and its contact is represented by m 1.
When memory coil M1 gets the signal it gets
energized and then it reverses the terminal of its
contact m1 which reverses the operation.

PLC
Example of Memory coil

PLC
When memory coil gets energized

PLC
LATCHING
Latching is the process in which once output or a coil
is energized it remains energized forever. Latching is
done by the contact of output or coil which we want
to switch ON permanently.

PLC
When contact I1 is turned ON

PLC
TIMER
Timer is basically used add some delay in the
programming circuit by adding a particular time to
each circuit.
Types of timers : ON delay timer
OFF delay timer

PLC
Example of Timer

PLC
COUNTER

Counter is same as timer. Counter works on the


method of counting the number of pulse.
Types of counter : -

UP counter- UP counter counts in increment order.


Ex . 1, 2, 4.n.
DOWN counter- DOWN counter counts in
decrement order. Ex. 5,4,3,2,1

PLC
DELTA PLC
It is high-speed, stable and highly reliable PLC's are
applied in various automation machines.
it is totally similar to zelio plc programming but the
specifications of DELTA plc are different from zelio plc
as shown above.
In DELTA plc memory space has been allotted
according to the types of plc.

PLC
Timers in Delta PLC
Timers in DELTA plc are used to add some delay in the
circuit, timers can be of two types as follows: ON delay timer.
OFF delay timer.
Commands for applying timer are as
follows: TMR<space>t0<space>k100

PLC
Example of delta PLC

PLC
WIRING OF PLC
The operating voltage of plc is 220v (Ac) / 24v
(dc)/10v (dc). The operating voltage of plc is 220v
(Ac) / 24v (dc)/10v (dc).
Components used in wiring of plc are: SMPS- Switch Mode Power Supply
OUTPUT- Y0 ,C0
SOURCE/SINK (S/S)- S0,S1.........

PLC
COMPONENTS
SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY: SMPS is used to provide power supply to plc; SMPS
can be of different power supply mode. Ex - 220v (Ac) / 24v (dc)/10v
(dc).

OUTPUT: Output Y0 actually connected to C0 the pair of Y0


C0 is responsible for working of plc.
C0

Y0
C1
Y1

PLC
Example of wiring of PLC

PLC
Applications of PLC
Gate Control : -

PLC can sense a vehicle at the entrance or exit, and open


and close the gate automatically.

The current vehicle count is easily determined by


programming a simple counter.

Gate control system can also be used for domestic purpose.

PLC
Applications of PLC
Conveyor System: -

PLC can be used to start/stop latching logic for motor


control

Counters can be used for monitoring product amounts

Conveyor system using plc can be used in car washing


system

VFD
VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (VFD)
VFD or Variable Frequency Drives are used
to run the motors of single phase or three
phase supply.
VFD is used to accelerate and deaccelerate
the speed of motor with in a particular time.
Drives commands: Start/Stop
Speed reference
Acceleration/ deacceleration

VFD
Parameters of VFD
P = 200 = 0 (digital keypad)
= 3 (potentiometer on drive)
P = 201 = 0 (digital keypad)
= 1 (external terminal) / keypad stop/enable
= 2 (external terminal)/keypad stop/disable
START/STOP command
= 0 (on board)
= 1 (ext M0=forward, M1= reverse)
= 3(M0=forward, M1= reverse, M2=stop)
P = 109 = acceleration time
P = 110 = deacceleration time

VFD
Advantages of VFD
Dynamic braking : -Dynamic braking stops the
system more quickly than coasting
Highly efficient
Low power consumption
Small space consumption
Low cost
Easy to use
Highly specific

SCADA
SCADA System

SCADA is Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


real time industrial process control systems used to
centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial

equipment such as motors, valves, pumps, relays, etc


A SCADA system gathers information (such as where a
leak on a pipeline has occurred), transfers the information
back to a central site, then alerts the home station that a
leak has occurred, carrying out necessary analysis and
control, such as determining if the leak is critical, and
displaying the information in a logical and organized
fashion.

SCADA
Why SCADA?
Saves Time and Money

Less traveling for workers (e.g. helicopter


ride)

Reduces man-power needs

Increases production efficiency of a


company

Cost effective for power systems

Saves energy

Reliable

Supervisory control over a particular system

HMI
HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI)

A human machine interface (HMI) is an interface


which permits interaction between a human being
and a machine.

. Human machine interfaces vary widely, from


control panels for nuclear power plants to the
screen and input buttons on a cell phone.

Two components are needed in a human machine


interface. The first is an input. A human user needs
some way to tell the machine what to do, to make
requests of the machine, or to adjust the machine.
Examples of input devices include keyboards,
toggles, switches, touch screens,