Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

HEAT VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC)

  • 1. DEFINITION

CONTENT

  • 2. BASIC OPERATING CYCLE

  • 3. CLASSIFICATION OF AC SYSTEM

  • 4. COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF AHU

  • 5. DEHUMIDIFIER AND HUMIDIFICATION

  • 6. CHARACTERSTICS OF AIR HANDLING SYSTEM

  • 7. PRESSEURE CASCADES

  • 8. DUCTING

  • 9. HVAC VALIDATION

DEFINITION

An Air Handling Unit (AHU), or Air Handler, is a central air conditioner station that handles the air that, usually, will be supplied into the buildings by the ventilation ductwork. Handling the air means that the air will be delivered into the building spaces with thermo-hygrometric and IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) treatment. The accuracy of the treatment will depend from the specificity of each project (offices, schools, swimming- pools, laboratories, factories with industrial processes, etc). This means, the Air Handling Unit treat the air by filtering, cooling and/or heating, humidifying and/or dehumidifying.

There are several types of Air Handling Units: Compact, Modular, Residential, DX integrated, Low Profile (ceiling), Packaged, Rooftop mounted (typically on the roofs of buildings, with special weather protection), etc.

1 TR is amount of heat to be extracted from the atmosphere for melting 1 metric ton of ice in 24 hrs.

1 TR = 12000 BTU/Hr. or 3025 kcal/Hr.

BASIC OPERATING CYCLE

BASIC OPERATING CYCLE

WORKING PRINCIPLE

WORKING PRINCIPLE

CLASSIFICATION OF AC SYSTEM

TYPES OF AIR HANDLING UNITS (AHU)

  • a) SINGLE SKINNED AHU

  • b) DOUBLE SKINNED AHU

II) DEPENDING ON SPACE AVAILABILITY FOR AHU , THE AHUs ARE CLASSIFIED AS UNDER:-

  • a) HORIZONTAL TYPE FLOOR MOUNTED UNIT

  • b) VERTICAL TYPE FLOOR MOUNTED UNIT

  • c) CEILING SUSPENDED UNIT.

III) TYPE OF AHU DEPENDING UPON LOCATION OF FAN:-

  • a) DRAW THROUGH TYPE:- FAN IS LOCATED AFTER COOLING COIL

  • b) BLOW THROUGH TYPE:- FAN IS LOCATED BEFORE COOLING COIL

MOST COMMON CONFIGURATIONS

Inline - Supply 100% Outdoor

MOST COMMON CONFIGURATIONS  Inline - Supply 100% Outdoor  Inline - Supply Mixed Air 

Inline - Supply Mixed Air

MOST COMMON CONFIGURATIONS  Inline - Supply 100% Outdoor  Inline - Supply Mixed Air 

Inline - Double Flux (with Mixing Air)

MOST COMMON CONFIGURATIONS  Inline - Supply 100% Outdoor  Inline - Supply Mixed Air 

Double-Deck - 100% Outdoor Air

>Double-Deck - Mixed Air

MOST COMMON CONFIGURATIONS  Inline - Supply 100% Outdoor  Inline - Supply Mixed Air 

>Side by Side - 100% Outdoor Air

MOST COMMON CONFIGURATIONS  Inline - Supply 100% Outdoor  Inline - Supply Mixed Air 

>Side by Side - Mixed Air

COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF AHU

Overview components

Flow rate controller Silencer Fan Filter Weather louvre or Filter Control damper + Humidifier Prefilter Terminal
Flow rate controller
Silencer
Fan
Filter
Weather louvre or Filter
Control damper
+
Humidifier
Prefilter
Terminal filter
Cooling coil
with droplet
separator
Production Room
Heating
coil

COMPONENTS OF AHU

Fans (Plug Fans, Double Inlet, Single Inlet, Axial, Centrifugal flows etc)

Filters (Plate Filters, Bag Filters, Compact Filters, HEPA Filters, ULPA Filters, Carbon Filters)

Cooling/Heating Coils (water/steam/Direct Expansion DX/electric/gas fired)

Heat recovery systems (cross flow plate heat exchangers, heat wheel/rotating heat exchangers, run around coils and heat pipes, etc)

Humidifiers (Adiabatic/Evaporative Pad, non-pressurized Steam, pressurized steam) Dehumidifiers (DX coil, desiccant rotor) AHU Chilled water Manifold Sound attenuators Mist/Droplet eliminators Dampers & Plenum

FUNCTIONS OF AHU

Cooling unit /dehumidifier : To cool the air to the required temperature or

to

remove

moisture from the air

Heating unit To heat the air to the proper temperature Humidifier :To bring the air to the proper humidity, if too low Filters : To eliminate particles of pre-determined dimensions and/or micro- organisms Ducts : To transport the air

Silencer : To reduce noise caused by air circulation

Weather louvre or Filter : To prevent insects, leaves, dirt and rain from

entering

Flow rate controller : Automated adjustment of volume of air (night and

day, pressure

control)

Control damper : Fixed adjustment of volume of air

FILTER CLASSES

Dust filters Standard Aerosol Coarse Fine HEPA ULPA Dp > 10 µ m 10 µ m
Dust filters
Standard
Aerosol
Coarse
Fine
HEPA
ULPA
Dp > 10
µ m
10
µ m > Dp > 1
µ m
Dp < 1
µ m
G1 - G4
G1 - G4
F5 - F9
F5 - F9

EN 779 Standard

H 11 - 13
H 11 - 13
U 14- 17
U 14- 17

EN 1822 Standard

FILTERS

Primary panel filter
Primary panel filter

Secondary filter

HEPA or tertiaary filter

FILTERS Primary panel filter Secondary filter HEPA or tertiaary filter

DEHUMIDIFIER AND HUMIDIFICATION

Adsorber wheel Humid room air Air heater
Adsorber wheel
Humid room air
Air heater

Humid room air

Regeneration air

Dehumidification is the removal of water vapor from air, definition, and sorption dehumidification equipment Dehumidifiers remove excess humidity by drawing moist room air over cold refrigerated coils. The moisture in the air condenses into droplets as it passes over the cold surfaces in the dehumidifier and into a container

CHARACTERSTICS OF AIR HANDLING SYSTEM

Turbulent

dilution of dirty air

CHARACTERSTICS OF AIR HANDLING SYSTEM Turbulent dilution of dirty air Air flow patterns Uni-directional / laminar

Air flow patterns

Uni-directional / laminar

displacement of dirty air

0,30 m/s
0,30 m/s

CHARACTERSTICS OF AIR HANDLING SYSTEM

Air flow patterns

Prefilter

AHU
AHU
Main filter 2 1 Turbulent Uni-directional
Main filter
2
1
Turbulent
Uni-directional
3 Turbulent
3
Turbulent

CHARACTERSTICS OF AIR HANDLING SYSTEM

Positioning of filters

AHU mounted final filter

Filter in terminal position

Production Room HEPA Filter
Production Room
HEPA Filter
HEPA Filter + Production Room
HEPA Filter
+
Production Room

PRESSEURE CASCADES

Regulation of Room Pressure – Pressure Differentials Concept

PRESSEURE CASCADES Regulation of Room Pressure – Pressure Differentials Concept Room pressure indication panel Room pressure

Room pressure indication panel

Room pressure gauges
Room pressure
gauges

PRESSEURE CASCADES

Pressure cascade injectable Protection from micro- organisms and particles

Pressure cascade solids Protection from cross-contaminatio

 

R o om

1

 

R o om

2

 

R o om

3

 
30 Pa
30 Pa
 
60 Pa
60 Pa
A LF
A
LF
45 Pa
45 Pa
 
D
D
D
 
D
 

Air

Lo c k

 

A ir

Lo ck

 
45 Pa
45 Pa
 
B
B
   
C
C
 
R o om 1 R o om 2 R o om 3 30 Pa 60 Pa
R o om 1 R o om 2 R o om 3 30 Pa 60 Pa
 
15 Pa
15 Pa
   
 
R o om 1 R o om 2 R o om 3 30 Pa 60 Pa
R o om 1 R o om 2 R o om 3 30 Pa 60 Pa
 
 
30 Pa
30 Pa
D
D
 

Air

 

P a ssa ge

 

Lo ck

     
0 Pa
0 Pa

N ote :

D irection of door opening

relative to room pressure

R o o m 1 R o o m 2 R o om 3 15 Pa
R
o o m
1
R
o o m
2
R o om
3
15
Pa
15
Pa
15
Pa
A ir
L o c
k
A ir
L o c
k
A ir
L o c
k
30
Pa
E
0
Pa
P a s sa g e
15
Pa

N ote : Direction of door opening

relative to room pressure

DUCTING

A Duct can be described as a device used to provide an isolation path to carry a medium from one place to other place without bringing the product in contact with the atmosphere before the delivery point.

DUCTING A Duct can be described as a device used to provide an isolation path to

DUCTING

DUCTING Don’t Do’s No Bracing and width of the duct is more than Bracing should be
Don’t

Don’t

Don’t Do’s

Do’s

 
Don’t Do’s
Don’t Do’s No Bracing and width of the duct is more than Bracing should be done
Don’t Do’s No Bracing and width of the duct is more than Bracing should be done

No Bracing and width of the duct is more than

 

Bracing should be done all around the duct from

Bracing should be done all around the duct from MS Bracing

MS Bracing

750mm.

outside when width of the duct is more than 750mm

to provide strength to the duct.

Don’t Do’s No Bracing and width of the duct is more than Bracing should be done
Don’t Do’s No Bracing and width of the duct is more than Bracing should be done
 

8 Feet

4 Feet 4 Feet
4 Feet 4 Feet
4 Feet 4 Feet

4 Feet

4 Feet

4 Feet 4 Feet
 
T B A
T
B
A
T B A

W id th

o f

th e

D

u

c t

(

m m

)

A

( m m

)

B

(m m )

T

( m m

)

 

F rom

70 0

to

1 200

2

5

25

3

A b ove

1 200

4

0

40

3

Breathing of the Duct

Breathing of the Duct

- Results in Noise

No Breathing Noise

 
Breathing of the Duct - Results in Noise No Breathing Noise
DUCTING Don’t Do’s No Bracing and width of the duct is more than Bracing should be
DUCTING Don’t Do’s No Bracing and width of the duct is more than Bracing should be

DUCTING

DUCTING

TYPES OF PRESSURES IN A DUCT

• Total Pressure • Static Pressure • Velocity Pressure

TYPES OF PRESSURES IN A DUCT • Total Pressure • Static Pressure • Velocity Pressure TOTAL

TOTAL PRESSURE = STATIC PRESSURE + VELOCITY PRESSURE.

TYPES OF PRESSURES IN A DUCT • Total Pressure • Static Pressure • Velocity Pressure TOTAL
TYPES OF PRESSURES IN A DUCT • Total Pressure • Static Pressure • Velocity Pressure TOTAL

ASPECT RATIO OF DUCTING

Aspect Ratio = Long Side/Short Side = Width of the duct / Height of the duct

Best Aspect Ratio is 1 : 1

ASPECT RATIO OF DUCTING  Aspect Ratio = Long Side/Short Side = Width of the duct

Maximum permissible aspect ratio is 4 : 1 Effects of Aspect Ratio

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS DUCTS

COMPONENTS OF DUCTING

HVAC VALIDATION

DOP/PAO (Poly Alpha Oli film)/Filter integrity test Air balancing Pressure balancing Particle count Air flow pattern Recovery test Fumigation Documents handover

Instrument used for air balancing : Supply diffusers. Instrument used velocity measurement: Digital anemometer Instrument used for pressure balancing: magnehulic gauge. Instrument used for particle count: particle counter Instrument used for Air flow pattern: Fogger m/c , Video Instrument used for PAO test : Aerosol photometer.

AHU’S ANUALLY SPARES APPR. COST

   
SLNO COMPONENTS REQD. QTY. UOM UNIT COST (LAKHS) COST/ YEAR 1 TUBULER HEATERS 20 Set 10000.00
SLNO COMPONENTS REQD. QTY. UOM UNIT COST (LAKHS) COST/ YEAR 1 TUBULER HEATERS 20 Set 10000.00

SLNO

COMPONENTS

REQD. QTY.

UOM

UNIT COST

TOTAL (LAKHS) COST COST/ YEAR

 

1

TUBULER HEATERS

20

Set

10000.00

2.00

2.00

2

THERMOSTAT

10

NO.

2000.00

0.20

0.10

3

COOLING COIL

4

NO.

30000.00

1.20

4

HOT WATER COIL

2

NO.

15000.00

0.30

5

PRESSURE GUAGES

6

NO.

1500.00

0.09

6

MAGNELIC GUAGES

4

NO.

6000.00

0.24

7

TEMP. GUAGES

6

NO.

1500.00

0.09

8

AHU HARDWARE

1

Set

20000.00

0.20

0.20

9

CONTACTORS

6

NO.

1500.00

0.09

10

OVER LOAD RELAY

6

NO.

1000.00

0.06

11

PUSH BOTTONS

15

NO.

50.00

0.01

12

MOTOR

4

NO.

25000.00

1.00

13

MPCB

6

NO.

3500.00

0.21

14

COIL CLEANING CHEMICAL

200

Ltr.

150.00

0.30

0.30