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DIGITAL

ELECTRONICS
Advantage, Scope & Future Possibiltities

Made By :
Naval Kush (Elex. & Comm. Engg.)
IVS IT, Mathura

What is Digital Electronics ? ? ?


Digital Electronics is that
branch of electronics
which deals with the
digital signals to perform
various tasks and meet
various requirements !
It is based upon the
digital design
methodologies and
consists of digital circuits,
ICs and logic gates.
It uses only binary digits,
i.e. either 0 or 1 !

Why was digital electronics needed??


Most analog systems
were less accurate, and
were slow in computation
and performance.
Digital system have the
ability to work faster
than analog equivalents,
and can operate on very
high frequencies
too ! ! ! ! !
It was much economical
than analog
methodologies as the
performance was faster !

Digital Systems : The 21st Era


Basically, the 21st era systems uses Silicon wafers, ICs,
CMOS etc. in the VLSI technology to build up the large
scale electronic devices & machines.
The most commonly used devices are the Data servers,
GPS systems, Security systems, market products like Bar
Code Readers etc. !
All these devices are precise and reliable except the user
makes his own mistake, i.e. in these devices, system
errors are least possible.
The Cost : Performance ratio is high, hence these are
economically beneficial too !

What are Integrated Circuits (ICs) ???


ICs are the micro circuits
which are fabricated on a
very small silicon wafers
(chip) at which various
components like BJT,
CMOS etc. are mounted
up to make a wholesome
functional unit.
These days, various types
of circuit integrations are
possible at large extent,
i.e. small scale, large
scale, and very large scale
integration (VLSI).

What are Logic Gates ?????


Logic gates are the basic
blocks of the digital
circuits.
There are basic gates of
three types viz. AND, OR
& NOT.
Two universal gates are
made of these 3 basic
gates, which are NAND
gate & NOR gate.
These gates are the basic
functional blocks of digital
circuits which work upon
making combinations of
0s and 1s !
These are the sub-

CMOS The basic building block of ICs today!!!


The C-MOS
(Complementary Metal
Oxide Semi-conductor) is
the basic building block of
ICs today.
It is a combination of a pchannel MOSFET and a nchannel MOSFET as
described in the figure.
These days, it is being
used widely because it
has the least power
dissipation in all the
components available for
fabrication today !

Why CMOS dissipates less power??


In CMOS structure, when nMOS is on, the p-MOS is off,
and when p-MOS is on, the
n-MOS is off !
Thus, the structure of CMOS
does the work of two
transistors, consuming the
less power of only one
transistor (MOSFET).
This shows the reason why
CMOS is being used at a
large scale today.
It is used to make the logic
gates.

Example of Advantage of Digital


Systems over Analog Systems :
The most common present
time example is the
speedometers used in
vehicles.

In analog meters, there is


an error chance of
misreading the speed,
while in the digital sevensegment display of a
digital speedometer, there
is no chances left for a
misreading error, hence
increasing the accuracy !
Even in the digital meters,
there is a HOLD button to
hold the display value on
screen.

(Analog Vs Digital) Electronics !!

Analog Elex.
It has usually larger
circuits & occupies more
area.
Analog measuring
instruments are less
accurate, chances of
misreading are more.
The instruments are
delicate and harms are
more in case of drops
and falls.

Digital Elex.

It has smaller integrated


circuits & occupies lesser
area.
Digital measuring
instruments are more
accurate, and there is no
case of misreading it.
The instruments are more
strong, and there are
lesser harms on drops and
falls.

Data Transmission using Digital Systems


The digital system send the data in the
form of packets of digital codes, thus we
can encode and decode them in various
formats and codes.
Data encryption is also possible in the
digital systems, hence the data
transmission is more secure, and can be
manipulated in many formats !
Digital systems are much advantageous in
communications

Future Scopes & Possibilities Of


Digital Electronics :
The digital electronics uses
VLSI technology, which has
considerably decreased the
size and area of the circuit
boards, and has enhanced
the accuracy and
performance of the systems.
Moreover, digital systems
have the advantage of data
encryption for the
communication purposes !
The data transmission is safe
and secure.
All these factors clearly show
that the digital electronics
stream has wide future scope
in the modern era !